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(26.) Two years ago we called the attention of our readers to Dr. Latham's great work on the English language. We have now to chronicle the appearance of a treatise on this side the water similarly comprehensive in its aims, entitled, “ The English Language in its Elements and Forms, with a History of its Original Developments, by WILLIAM C. FOWLER, late Professor in Amherst College, Mass.:” (New-York: Harper & Brothers: 8vo., pp. 675.) The work treats, first, of the Origin and History of the Language; secondly, of its Phonology; thirdly, of its Orthography; fourth, of its Etymological forms; fifth, of its Logical forms; sixth, of Syntax; seventh, of Rhetorical forms; and, lastly, of Poetical forms. It thus attempts a complete survey of the field; and, as such, it deserves great credit. No other book of the kind is extant among us; Latham's (to which Professor Fowler is largely indebted) has not been reprinted; and if it were, it is not so well adapted to use in this country as the present work. It will pass into use in all our colleges and higher schools, without doubt.

We cannot but regret that Professor Fowler has seen fit to print his book in Websterian orthography instead of English. It is a very serious drawback, in our judgment, upon the value of the work as a text-book. We trust, also, that his next edition will have an Index.

(27.) We have received the twelfth (and last) number of a “ Treatise on Marine and Naval Architecture, by John W. GRIFFITHS :" (New-York: Appleton & Co., 1850.) Of the subject itself we know nothing, but we are assured by those who ought to know, that this is one of the best treatises, both on the theory and practice of ship-building, that has yet appeared. It is finely printed ; and the engravings, of which there are more than fifty, are remarkably well done.

(28.) Of the following pamphlets, sermons, &c., we can give nothing more than the titles :

Church Development on Apostolic Principles: an Essay addressed to the Friends of Biblical Christianity, by S. S. SCHMUCKER, D. D., Professor of Christian Theology in the Theological Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa.

The Transfiguration : an Exegetical Homily, by Rev. C. PORTERFIELD KRAUTH, A. M., Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Winchester, Va.

Unitarianism: a Dialogue, summarily Exhibiting, from their approved Authors, the Doctrines advanced by a Sect called “ Chri-stians," in which their Arguments are Stated and Confuted, by Rev. C. L. Bown, a Member of the East Genesee Conference of the M. E. Church.

The Passage into the Ministry: an Address delivered in St. Peter's Church, New-York, to the Graduating Class of the General Theological Seminary, at the Commencement, June 27, 1850, by GEORGE BURGESS, D. D., Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Maine.

The Age and Theology-an Address delivered before the Society for Religious Inquiry of the University of Vermont, at Burlington, August 5, 1850,

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by HENRY WILKES, D. D., Pastor of the First Congregational Church, Montreal.

The Methodist Almanac for the Year of our Lord 1851: and the Seventyfifth of American Independence. Astronomical Calculations by Davm Young. Comprising also a Summary View of Methodism throughout the World, with other Ecclesiastical and National Statistics, &c.

Obituary Addresses delivered on the Occasion of the Death of Zachary Taylor, President of the United States, in the Senate and House of Representatives, July 10, 1850; with the Funeral Sermon, by the Rev. SMITH PYNE, D. D., Rector of St. John's Church, Washington, preached in the Presidential Mansion, July 13, 1850.

Noah's Ark: a Sermon, by the Rev. GEORGE LEALE, Wesleyan Missionary. Translated from the French, by the Rev. Thomas Thompson, M. Ang Wesleyan Minister.

Twenty-fifth Annual Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Oneida Conference Seminary, Cazenovia, N. Y., 1850.

Introductory Lecture to the Winter Course of Instruction in the Philadelphia College of Medicine, delivered on Monday, at 5 o'clock, P. M., October 14, 1850, by JAMES M'CLINTOCK, M. D., Professor of Surgery and Anatomy.

An Address delivered before the Literary Societies of Centre College, Ky., June 25, 1850, by EDWARD P. HUMPHREY.

A number of Critical Notices are omitted for want of room.





We place upon record, for our own use, and but about the middle of the fifth age the and that of our readers hereafter, the Letter Anglos and Saxons having been invited into Apostolical of Pope Pius IX., establishing

the Island, the affairs not only of the nation,

but of religion also, suffered great and grievthe Episcopal Hierarchy in England:

ous injury. But we know that our holy prePOPE PIUS IX.,

decessor, Gregory the Great, sent first Augustine, the monk, with his companions, who

subsequently, with several others, were ele“ The power of ruling the Universal vated to the dignity of bishops, and a great Church committed by our Lord Jesus Christ company of priests and monks, having been to the Roman Pontiff, in the person of St. sent to join them, the Anglo-Saxons were Peter, prince of the apostles, hath pre- brought to embrace the Christian religion ; served, through every age, in the apostolic and by their exertions it was brought to pass, See, that remarkable solicitude by which it that in Britain, which had now come to be consulteth for the advantage of the Catholic called England, the Catholic religion was religion in all parts of the world, and stu- everywhere restored and extended. But to diously provideth for its extension. And pass on to more recent events, the history this correspondeth with the design of its of the Anglican schism of the sixteenth age Divine Founder, who, when he ordained a presents no feature more remarkable than Head to the Church, looked forward, by his the care unremittedly exercised by our preexcelling wisdom, to the consummation of decessors, the Roman Pontiffs, to lend sucthe world. Among other nations, the fa- cour in its hour of extremest peril to the mous realm of ENGLAND hath experienced Catholic religion in that realm, and by every the effects of this solicitude on the part of means to afford it support and assistance. the Supreme Pontiff. Its histories testify Among other instances of this care are the *that in the earliest ages of the Church, the enactments and provisions made by the chief Christian religion was brought into Britain, Pontiffs, or; under their direction and apand subsequently flourished greatly there; proval, for the unfailing supply of men to en her. holy faith. Perhaps even more conspicuous Having, therefore, before our eyes so have been the exertions made by our prede- illustrious an example of our predecessors, cessors for the purpose of restoring to the and wishing to emulate it in accordance with English Catholic prelates invested with the the duty of the Supreme Apostolate, and also episcopal character, when the fierce and giving way to our own feelings of affection cruel storms of persecution had deprived toward that beloved part of our Lord's vinethem of the presence and pastoral care of yard, we have purposed, from the very first their own bishops. The Letters Apostolical commencement of our Pontificate, to proseof Pope Gregory XV., dated March 23, 1623, cute a work so well commenced, and to deset forth, that the chief Pontiff, as soon as vote our closer attention to the promotion of he was able, had consecrated William Bishop, the Church's advantage in that kingdom. bishop of Chalcedon, and had appointed him, Wherefore, having taken into earnest confurnished with an ample supply of Faculties, sideration the present state of Catholic affairs and the authority of Ordinary, to govern the in England, and reflecting on the very large Catholics of England and of Scotland. Sub- and everywhere increasing number of Cathosequently, on the death of the said William lics there, considering also that the impediBishop, Pope Urban VIII., by Letters Apos- ments which principally stood in the way of tolical, dated Feb. 4, 1625, to the like effect, the spread of Catholicity were daily being and directed to Richard Smith, reconstituted removed, we judged that the time had arhim bishop of Chalcedon, and conferred on rived when the form of ecclesiastical governhim the same faculties and powers as had ment in England might be bronght back to been granted to William Bishop. When the that model, on which it exists freely among. king, James II., ascended the English throne, other nations, where there is no special reathere seemed a prospect of happier times for son for their being governed by the extraorthe Catholic religion. Innocent XI. imme- dinary administration of vicars-apostolic. diately availed himself of this opportunity to We were of opinion that times and circumordain, in the year 1685, John Leyburn, stances had brought it about, that it was unhishop of Adrumetum, vicar-apostolic of all necessary for the English Catholics to be any England. Subsequently, by other Letters longer guided by vicars-apostolic; nay, more, Apostolical, issued Jan. 30, 1688, he asso- that the revolution that had taken place in ciated with Leyburn as vicars apostolic, things there was such as to demand the form three other bishops, with titles taken from of ordinary episcopal government. In addichurches in partibus infidelium : and accord- tion to this, the vicars-apostolic of England ingly, with the assistance of Ferdinand, arch- themselves had, with united voice, besought bishop of Amasia, Apostolic Nuncio in Eng- this of us; many also, both of the clergy and land, the same Pontiff divided England into laity, highly esteemed for their virtue and four districts, namely, the London, the Eas- rank, had made the same petition, and this tern, the Midland, and the Northern, each was also the eamest wish of a very large of which a vicar-apostolic commenced to number of the rest of the Catholics of Enggovern, furnished with all suitable faculties, land. While we pondered on these things, and with the proper powers of a local Ordi. we did not omit to implore the aid of Alnary. Benedict XIV., by his Constitution, mighty God that, in deliberating on a matter dated May 30, 1753, and the other Pontiffs, of such weight, we might be enabled, both to our predecessors, and our Congregation of discern, and rightly to accomplish, what might Propaganda, both by their own authority or be most conducive to the good of the Church. by their most wise and prudent directions, We also invoked the assistance of Mary the afforded them all guidance and help in the Virgin, mother of God, and those saints who discharge of their



take charge of the interests of Catholicity in the Central, the Welsh, the Lancaster, that country; and also for the education of the York, and the Northern Districts. These Catholic young men of good abilities on the facts that we have cursorily touched upon, Continent, and their careful instruction in to omit all mention of others, are sufficient all branches of theological leaming; so that proof that our predecessors have studiously when promoted to holy orders, they might endeavoured and laboured, that as far as return to their native land, and labour dili. their influence could effect it, the Church in gently to benefit their countrymen by the England might be re-edified and recovered ministry of the word and of the sacraments; from the great calamity that had befalland by the defence and propagation of the

important functions. This illustrated England by their virtues, that they partition of all England into four apostolic would vouchsafe to support us by their patronvicariates lasted till the time of Gregory age with God in the happy accomplishment XVI., who, by Letters Apostolical, dated of this affair. In addition, we committed July 3, 1840, having taken into consideration the whole matter to our venerable brethren the increase which the Catholic religion had the cardinals of the holy Roman Church of received in that kingdom, made a new eccle- our Congregation for the propagation of the siastical division of the counties, doubling faith, to be carefully and gravely considered. the number of the apostolic vicariates, and Their opinion was entirely agreeable to our committing the government of the whole own desires, and we freely approved of it, of England in spirituals to the vicars-apos- and judged that it be carried into execution. tolic of the London, the Western, the East. The whole matter, therefore, having been

carefully and deliberately consulted upon, of the former of these we assign as a diocese our own motion, on certain knowledge, and the counties of Nottingham, Derby, and Lei. of the plenitude of our apostolic power, we cester, together with those of Lincoln and constitute and decree, that in the kingdom Rutland, which we hereby separate from the of England, according to the common rules Eastern District. To the latter we assign of the Church, there he restored the Hie- the counties of Oxford, Warwick, Worcester, rarchy of Ordinary Bishops, who shall be and Oxford. named from Sees, which we constitute in Lastly, in the Eastern District, there these our letters, in the several districts of will be a single bishop's See, which will take the Apostolic Vicariates.

its name from the city of Northampton, and "To begin with the London District, there will have its diocese comprehended within will be in it two sees; that of Westminster, the same limits as hare hitherto bounded which we elevate to the degree of the Metro- the district, with the exception of the coun. politan or archiepiscopal dignity, and that of ties of Lincoln and Rutland, which we have Southwark, which, as also the others, (to be already assigned to the aforesaid diocese of named next, we assign as suffragan to West- Nottingham, minster. The diocese of Westminster will “ Thus, then, in the most flourishing king. take that part of the above-named district dom of England there will be established one which extends to the north of the River ecclesiastical province, consisting of one 'Thames, and includes the counties of Mid- archbishop, or metropolitan head, and twelve dlesex, Essex, and Hertford ; that of South- bishops, his suffragans, by whose exertions wark will contain the remaining part to the and pastoral care we trust that to Catholicity south of the river, namely, the counties of in that country there will be a fruitful and Berks, Southampton, Surrey, Sussex, and daily increasing extension. Wherefore, we Kent, with the Islands of Wight, Jersey, now reserve to ourselves and our successors, Guernsey, and the others adjacent.

the Pontiffs of Rome, the power of again “In the Northern Districts there will be dividing the said province into others, and only one Episcopal See, which will receive of increasing the number of dioceses as ocits name from the city of Hexham. This casion shall require; and in general, that, as diocese will be bounded by the same limits it shall seem fitting in the Lord, we may as the district hath hitherto been.

freely. decree new limits to them. “The York District will also form one "In the mean while we command the diocese ; and the bishop will have his See aforesaid archbishop and bishops that they at the city of Beverly.

transmit at due time, to our Congregation of “In the Lancaster District, there will be Propaganda, accounts of the state of their two bishops, of whom the one will take his churches, and that they never omit to keep title from the See of Liverpool, and will the said Congregation fully informed respect. have as his diocese the Isle of Man, the hun. ing all matters which they know will conclreds of Lonsdale, Amounderness, and West duce to the welfare of their spiritual flocks. Derby. The other will receive the name of For we shall continue to avail ourselves of his See from the city of Salford, and will the instrumentality of the said Congregations have for his diocese the hundreds of Salford, in all things appertaining to the Anglican Blackburn, and Leyland. The county of churches. But in the sacred government of Chester,although hitherto belonging to that dis- clergy and laity, and in all other things aptrict, we shall now annex to another diocese. pertaining unto the pastoral office, the arch

"In the District of Wales there will be bishop and bishops of England will hencefor. two bishoprics, namely, that of Shrewsbury, ward enjoy all the rights and faculties which and that of Menevia (or St. David's) united the other Catholic archbishops and bishops with Newport. The diocese of Shrewsbury of other nations, according to the common to contain northward, the counties of Angle- ordinances of the sacred canons and apos. sey, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth, tolic constitutions, use, and may use; and and Montgomery; to which we annex the are equally bound by the obligations which county of Chester from the Lancashire dis- bind the other archbishops and bishops, actrict, and the county of Salop from the Cen- cording to the same common discipline of tral District. We assign to the bishop of St. the Catholic Church. And whatever regriDavid's and Newport as his diocese, north

her in the ancient system of the ward, the counties of Brecknock, Glamorgan, Anglican Church, or in the subsequent misPembroke, and Radnor, and the English sionary state, may have been in force either counties of Monmouth and Hereford.

by special constitutions, or privileges, or pe“In the Western, we establish two Epis. culiar customs, will now henceforth carry no copal Sees, that of Clifion, and that of Ply- right nor obligation: and in order that no mouth. To the former of these we assign doubt may remain on this point, we, by the the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, and plenitude of our apostolic authority, repeal Wilts; to the latter, those of Devon, Dorset, and abrogate all power whatsoever of im. and Cornwall.

posing obligation or conferring right in those “ The Central District, from which we peculiar constitutions and privileges of what. have already separated off the county of ever kind they may be, and in all customs Salop, will have two Episcopal Sees; that by whomsoever, or at whatever most ancient of Nottingham, and that of Birmingham. To or immemorial time, brought in. Hence it will, for the future, be solely competent for “In conclusion, lifting up our eyes unto the archbishop and bishops of England to dis. the hills from whence cometh our help, to tinguish what things belong to the execution God Almighty, and all-merciful, with all of the common ecclesiastical law, and what, prayer and supplication, we humbly beseech according to the common discipline of the him, that he would confirm, by the power of Church, are intrusted to the authority of the his Divine assistance, all that we have now bishops. We certainly will not be wanting decreed for the good of the Church, and that to assist them with our apostolic authority, he would bestow the strength of his grace on and most willingly will we second all their those to whom the carrying out of our deapplications in those things which shall seem crees chiefly belongs, that they may feed the to conduce to the glory of God's name and Lord's flock which is among them, and that the salvation of souls. Our principal object, they may ever increase in diligent exertion indeed, in decreeing by these our Leiters to advance the greater glory of his name. Apostolical the restoration of the Ordinary And in order to obtain the more abundant Hierarchy of bishops and the observation of succours of heavenly grace for this purpose, the Church's common law, has been to pay we again invoke as our intercessors with regard to the well-being and growth of the God, the most holy mother of God, the blessCatholic religion throughout the realm of ed apostles Peter and Paul, with the other England; but at the same time it was our heavenly patrons of England, and especially purpose to gratify the wishes of both our St. Gregory the Great, that since it is now venerable brethren who govern the affairs of granted to our so unequal deserts again to religion by a vicarious authority from the restore the episcopal Sees in England, which apostolic See, and also of very many of our he first effected to the very great advantage well-beloved children of the Catholic clergy of the Church, this restoration also which and laity, from whom we had received the we make of the Episcopal dioceses in that most urgent entreaties to the like effect. kingdom may happily turn to the benefit of The same prayer had repeatedly been made the Catholic religion. And we decree that by their ancestors to our predecessors, who, these our Letters Apostolical shall never at indeed, had first commenced to send vicars- any time be objected against or impugned on apostolic into England at a time when it was pretence either of omission, or of addition, impossible for any Catholic prelate to remain or defect of either of our intention or any there in possession of a Church by right in other whatsoever; but shall always be valid Ordinary; and hence their design in succes- and in force, and shall take effect in all parsively augmenting the number of vicariates ticulars, and be inviolably observed. All and vicarial districts was not certainly that general or special enactments notwithstandCatholicity in England should always be ing, whether Apostolic, or issued in Synodal, under an extraordinary form of government, Provincial, and Universal Councils; notbut rather looking forward to its extension withstanding, also, all rights and privileges in process of time, they were paving the way of the ancient Sees of England, and of the for the ultimate restoration of the Ordinary missions, and of the apostolic vicariates subHierarchy there.

sequently there established, and of all church“And therefore we, to whom, by God's es whatsoever, and pious places, whether goodness, it bath been granted to complete established by oath or by apostolic confirmathis great work, do now hereby declare, that 'tion, or by any other security whatsoever; it is very far from our intention or design notwithstanding, lastly, all other things to that the prelates of England, now possessing the contrary whatsoever. For all these the title and rights of bishops in Ordinary, things, in as far as they contravene the should, in any other respect, be deprived of foregoing enactments, although a special any advantages which they have enjoyed 'mention of them may be necessary for their heretofore under the character of vicars- repeal, or some other form, however partiapostolic; for it would not be reasonable cular, necessary to be observed, we expressthat the enactments we now make at the ly annul and repeal. Moreover, we decree, instance of the English Catholics, for the that if, in any other manner, any other atgood of religion in their country, should turn tempt shall be made by any person, or by to the detriment of the said vicars-apostolic. any authority, knowingly or ignorantly, to Moreover, we are most firmly assured that set aside these enactments, such attempt the same, our beloved children in Christ, shall be null and void. And it is our will who have never ceased to contribute by their and pleasure that copies of these our Letters alms and liberality, under such various cir. being printed, and subscribed by the hanı cumstances to the support of Catholic reli- of a notary public, and sealed with the seal gion and of the vicars-apostolic, will hence- of a person high in ecclesiastical dignity, forward manifest even greater liberality to- shall have the same authenticity as would ward bishops who are now bound by a stronger belong to the expression of our will by the tie to the Anglican Churches, so that these production of this original copy. same may never be in want of the temporal “Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under means necessary for the expenses of the de- the Seal of the Fisherman, this 29th day of cent splendour of the churches, and of Divine September, 1850, in the fifth year of our service, and of the support of the clergy, and Pontificate relief of the poor.


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