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the Conference for 1820 contains the following notice of Dr. Emory, which will interest our readers :


6 Thursday, 27.—This afternoon, the American Representative spoke, (Rev. J. Emory;) a thin, spare man, about thirty-five years of age; modest, grave, and pious, in his appearance and spirit; very intelligent, and interesting as a speaker, without the least parade or display. He began by speaking of the love of the American Methodists to us. We, the parents. They, the children. Fifty-one years ago it was inquired in the British Conference, Who will go to America, which is crying, Come over, and help us ? Now there are in the United States 900 Travelling Preachers, 3,000 Local Preachers, a vast number of Exhorters and Leaders, and 250,000 members. He gave interesting details of the piety, zeal, and labours of Asbury, M-Kendree, and others. Spoke of the vast Missionary field opening among the Indian nations; and closed his speech in a delightful style, by representing the British Methodists as carrying on their operations with success through Europe, Africa, Asia, the West Indies, touching on the Southern continent of America; and their children, the American Methodists,

stretching out their line to meet them, through the Indian nations and the States of America, in such a direction that ere long, having encircled the globe, he hoped they would meet and shake bands in the other hemisphere. It is impossible to describe the interest excited. Finally, the Conference agreed to the proposition of the Americans, viz.,--not only an annual exchange of friendly addresses,

but also, once in four years, an interchange of personal representatives.”—P. 357.


It is not an uncommon thing for the sons of Wesleyan ministers in England to join the Established Church; indeed, the subserviency of the leading men of the Connexion to the Establishment, their use of the liturgy, and their Toryism, are constantly giving young minds a bias in favour of the Church of England. It is said, indeed, that the sons of two of the most eminent men in the Connexion are not only Episcopalians, but high-toned Puseyites. The writer of the memoir before us, Mr. Entwisle's youngest son, was urged by “highly respected friends” who thought him unable to undergo the toils of the Itinerancy, to go into the Established Church. He wrote to his father on the subject, and received the following reply

“ Now with regard to the Church. If you be fully satisfied in your own mind, and it be your choice, I should not like to oppose you in it. But two things are objections in my mind. 1. Some clergymen with whom I am intimate, are very friendly to me personally, and are glad to enjoy my society, and yet really dare not come to hear me. They are in this respect in bondage. 2. A few preachers' sons who have got into orders, appear to be complete clerical coxcombs. There is one at

,) who even travelled one year, that holds in perfect contempt, as illiterate and ignorant, the Methodist Preachers. He lately expressed his astonishment to a gentle

that he should connect himself with the Methodists, and said much about the preachers as illiterate. "Why,' said the gentleman, "you know, Mr. J., that many of the preachers have not had your advantages ;-—they never were at Kingswood School. If I thought my Joseph were capable of ever drinking into such a spirit, I had rather he swept the streets for a living, than that he should be a clergyman. I do not, however, suppose, that will ever be the case with you."-P. 366.

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The following mention of an interview with Dr. Tholuck, under date May 9, 1825, is worth citing:

“ Dr. Tholuck appears to be a holy man; his heart is given to God. He gave us an account of a great work of God in Berlin, Pomerania, and Weimar, which originated in the reading of Mr. Wesley's Sermons, copies of which were presented to two Prussian clergymen at our Conference in London, in 1816. These sermons have been read with avidity, and many have been brought to God in consequence. The work appears to be carried on much in the same way as among the Methodists. The Professor has a commission to procure all our standard works. I hope these will be presented to him by the Book Committee.”—P. 401.

The “Wesleyan Theological Institution,” for the training of young ministers, was founded in 1834. Mr. Entwisle had long made the subject of the better education of candidates for the Wesleyan ministry a subject of careful thought; and was not fully prepared, at first, to approve of the proposed Institution, thinking that some more simple and economical means of accomplishing the object might be devised. But the Committee appointed by the Conference expressed an earnest wish that he should undertake the pastoral care and superintendence of the Institution; and, after mature deliberation, he accepted the post. His appointment was universally regarded, even by the opponents of the Institution, as furnishing every guarantee that human arrangements could supply, that no loss of spiritual religion would be sustained by the candidates during their stay at the Seminary. The results of his labours there, in modifying his own views, may be seen from the following extracts, which, long as they are, will be of special interest here, where the subject of the education of the ministry is daily attracting more and more attention :

“ Having, formerly entertained the opinion that the plan of placing the junior ministers in circuits under the care of experienced and judicious superintendents, competent to direct their studies and to form their ministerial character, might be preferable to that of collecting a number of young men into a collegiate institution, he was naturally led by the circumstances in which he was placed, and by the violent agitation which prevailed, to reconsider the whole subject, while the position he occupied gave him an opportunity of comparing the new plan with the old, the operation of which he had witnessed for near fifty years. A few extracts from his journal and correspondence will put the reader in possession of his views :

January 3, 1835.- I never entered on a new year in similar circumstances: not employed in the work of a circuit, but placed in this Institution for spiritual purposes. I do most firmly believe the arrangement is providential. “My soul prospers. There is much of God in our domestic worship. The family is well ordered: all is regular. The young men are evidently improving in knowledge and in piety; and I trust they will go from hence better fitted for usefulness than they would have been without such a training. I feel deeply my responsibility: much is expected: I am conscious that I am



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not sufficient of myself. Yet I am not discouraged; my safficiency is of God.
He employs me, and He will help me.'

“ In a letter to his son, written a few days after, having described his gene-
ral plan of procedure, he says, ' Our family is a family of love : all seem to be
comfortable; and our domestic worship is delightful. God is with us. Mr.
Hannah's lectures, which I attend as often as I can, are most instructive and
interesting : they are so, beyond anything I ever heard. They are simple
and plain, yet display profound Biblical knowledge, and are attended with
much Divine unction. If those who are afraid lest the institution should hurt
the young men, could see and hear all that passes, they would have different

“There are some bad spirits at work. “The floods lift up their voice," but the Lord sitteth above the water-floods, and remains King forever. My mind is quite tranquil. I believe I am here by Divine appointment. I am endeavoring incessantly to do good. The young men are deeply pious and very tractable. My own soul prospers. I think I never enjoyed so much of God. I live now. I feel dead to the world. I cease from man. I find in my God and Saviour perfect satisfaction. To Him be glory.'

“ He dwelt among the students as a father among his children, cherishing the most affectionate paternal solicitude for their well-being, and receiving from them the most gratifying proof of filial confidence, respect, and love. He regularly met them in class : at first, all together; then, as their number increased, in two, and finally in three separate classes. In these weekly meetings he was close, searching, and affectionate in his inquiries and counsels : and, ever advancing before them in Christian holiness, he furnished a demon-stration of its attainableness; and by an exhibition of its loveliness, supplied a powerful motive to its pursuit. And not in these meetings only,--specially instituted for purposes of Christian fellowship,-but also at all other favourable opportunities, from the fulness of his heart, he spoke to them on the subject of personal religion; at the breakfast, dinner, and tea-table, -in the garden, and by the way-side, he watched for opportunities to speak a word in season, with a view to promote among them deep experience of the things of God.”—Pp. 489–495.

Mr. Entwisle held the office of Governor of the Theological Institution for four years, and then, finding repose necessary, from the weight of years and infirmities, he retired into comparative obscurity, fixing his abode in the quiet village of Tadcaster. He continued to do good in every way, as strength would allow, until 1841, when, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, he fell asleep in Jesus.

We give our cordial thanks to Mr. Entwisle, Jun., for this acceptable memoir of his venerable father, and hope that the work will find many readers on both sides of the Atlantic.




1. An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, prepared for the undergraduate course in

the Wesleyan University. By AUGUSTUS W. SMITH, LL. D., Professor of Math

ematics and Astronomy. Harper & Brothers.
2. Elements of Natural Philosophy. By. W. H. C. BARTLETT, LL. D., Professor of

Natural and Experimental Philosophy in the United States Military Academy,
West Point. Lecture 1-Mechanics. New-York: Barnes & Co.

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MECHANICS, the science of force and motion, has its application wherever
these elements are involved in either art or nature: in the delicate machinery
of the watch, and in the immense engines applied to the navigation of the
ocean by steam; in the fluttering of an insect's wings, and in the mighty move-
ments of the planetary worlds. A science which connects itself with so many
objects of value and interest to mankind, is justly entitled to the high rank
which it holds in public estimation, and whoever gives new developments to
its principles, or better systematizes them, or simplifies their application, or
renders the knowledge of them more easily accessible or more accurate, is to
be regarded as a public benefactor.

The French have for years had very excellent elementary treatises on me-
chanics, and we have had a translation of one of them, that of Boucharlat, by
Professor Courtenay, of the University of Virginia. The defect of these
treatises, if so it may be called, is a want of instances of the application of
the theory of the science so beautifully evolved, to the cases which actually
present themselves for its application.

The works whose titles are placed at the head of this article, unite the elegant theoretic methods of the French with well-selected specimens of the practical utility of mechanics as a science; some of them handled in an original manner, and some taken from late English works. In the treatise of Professor Smith there is nothing new till we come to the chapter on “ Couples," for which the author professes himself to be indebted to Poinsot, The elegance of the analytic method, aided by the calculus, begins to show itself very conspicuously, at p. 36, in the “Conditions of Equilibrium.” Under the head of virtual velocities, we observe a radical difference of definition in the two treatises. What is termed the virtual velocity by Smith, is the projection of the virtual velocity according to Bartlett. At p. 60 of the former is seen the great advantage of the calculus, in determining the centre of gravity of bodies having geometric forms; and this subject is very happily managed. In the seventh chapter we have the application of the principle of virtual velocities to the mechanical powers, a beautiful and simple mode of deducing the principal theories which relate to these powers. At p. 145, the loss of living force incident to the impact of inelastic bodies is well shown, and an important practical consequence stated; namely, the inexpediency of all abrupt changes of motion in machinery. The method of determining what is termed the modules of elasticity” in various substances, explained at p. 151, is a happy instance of the combination of experiment with mathematical for


mulæ. The chapter on the “ Rotation of Rigid Bodies," at p. 190, is exceedingly well done, and presents a beautiful application of the calculus. We are particularly pleased with that part of this chapter which relates to the centre of oscillation. From p. 200 the residue of the dynamics of solids presents us with the admirable formulas of force and motion in general, and of central forces in particular, with which the readers of La Place, Pontecoulant, Poisson, &c., are familiar,-formulas which, by the aid of co-ordinate axes or lines of reference, and the considerations of the forces and movements in nature in their ultimate elements, possess a comprehensiveness that is astounding. We have never contemplated anything which caused so profound an impression of the power of the human intellect, to take in and grasp the works of the Almighty presented to its apprehension, as is to be seen in the brief analytical expressions which the calculus furnishes for the relations of all the powers of nature and their effects. The uninitiated will be incredulous when we state that the three little equations,

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involve all the movements, grand and minute, in the universe.

Professor Smith, in his preface, lays " no claim to originality,” but it is no small merit to have made so admirable a compilation. The work is certainly one of the best text-books on the subject extant in our language. The work of Professor Bartlett, to which in its turn we propose now to give more particular attention, has different aims, and treats the subject in a very original way; making the novel attempt to manage the most abstruse problems of mechanics without the aid of the calculus :-an attempt, the expediency or necessity of which will be questioned by some, inasmuch as the calculus is now very generally taught in our colleges, and pursued by the majority of private learners who acquire the other branches of mathematics, a knowledge of which is implied in the work before us. If it be asked how the author accomplishes the object in question, we answer that he does often in effect use the methods of the calculus or of infinitesimals, the use of which he indeed traces as he goes along. Once admitting the propriety of this grand innovation, the reader will have little other complaint to make of the work. Such clearness and brevity of statement, such skilful evasion of the dry, difficult, and tedious modes of arriving at results ordinarily thought necessary, by some ingenious short cut, through which the student clearly sees his way to the object, though he might know more about its relations if he went round about, we never recollect to have seen.

Another novelty is the starting principle of the book, which is employed all through it for the purpose of estimating and comparing results; viz., the “ quantity of work.” The work which “consists” in overcoming a resistance of one pound through one foot, is taken as the unit of work. This at once suggests the meaning of the term employed without further explanation, for which we must refer to p. 49 of the book. Smeaton calls it mechanical power ; Carnot, moment of activity; Monge and Hachette, dynamic effect; Coulomb and Napier, quantity of action,—which is the term most commonly employed. At

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