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p. 169 we have a most beautiful exhibition of the application of the principle of virtual velocities to machines. The mode of treating the subject of projectiles, commencing at p. 173 and again resumed at p. 220, taking into account the resistance of the air, is really quite superb. It was no more than fair, however, to expect something particularly good here in a work emanating from the Military Academy. The brevity and simplicity of this portion is not its least merit. A very elaborate chapter is that on the funicular machine, and the catenary curve. One of the very best chapters in the book is the sixteenth, on friction. This chapter contains some most valuable tables. In chapter seventeen is one of the most complete discussions of the wedge anywhere to be found, friction being taken into account, and the mode of including the effects of it in mechanical investigations most happily exemplified. Much space is given to investigation of the laws of rolling friction, in wheels, trunnions, balls, &c., with numerous tables and exemplifications. Of a similar nature, equally important and equally apt to be neglected, is the subject of stiffness of cordage, treated in the eighteenth chapter. Many pages are given on the application of all these secondary elements in calculating the action of machinery.
Ir the second part, which treats of the “ Mechanics of Fluids," we regret to see the chapter upon the equilibruim of floating bodies so brief. Here was a fine opportunity for considering some of the important problems which arise in shipbuilding, and to which we fear science, in our country at least, has not yet been sufficiently applied. Of what is given under the head of specific gravity, including the description of instruments for determining it, and tables, we must speak in high praise. Of the barometer, we have never seen a better exposition; we allude especially to the demonstrations of the rules for measuring heights with this instrument.
A book so easy to read and understand, so complete, and containing such a large amount of valuable matter, much of it not easily accessible elsewhere, cannot fail to find many students. Its “getting up” is beautiful. No pains or expense seem to have been spared. The letter-press is clear, open, and large, and the diagrams, which are exceedingly well drawn, are repeated whenever the turning over of a leaf would conceal them.
Both the above works will meet an earnest welcome in our institutions of learning.
ART. XI-SHORT REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS.
(1.) We welcome the appearance of “ The Class-Leader's Manual, by Rev. CHARLES C. KEYS.” (New-York: Lane & Scott. 18mo. pp. 223.) The class-leader is one of the most important office-bearers in our Church : the religious life of the members, as well as the financial operations of our system, depend, to a great extent, upon the leaders; who, as a body of sub-pastors, go far to make up for the inaptness of our itinerant system to regular pastoral care. Yet, important as the office is, we have not, until now,
approaching to a full exposition of its scope and functions. The want is admirably supplied in the work before us. In an introductory chapter, we have a clear statement of the history and Scriptural basis of class-meetings; which is followed by four chapters, treating of the nature of the leader's office, its difficulties, its requisites, and its encouragements. We trust that this little work will find its way into the hands of every leader in our Church.
(2.) LEXICOGRAPHY has made vast strides of late years. The scope and limits of the science have been defined with considerable accuracy; and, as a consequence, its methods have been brought nearer to perfection. The new form of the science is chiefly due to the labours of GESENIUS, in Hebrew, and of Passow, in Greek Lexicography; the latter, especially, bringing into new prominence the historical treatment of words as the best guide to their exegesis. What Gesenius and Passow have done for Hebrew and Greek is now accomplished for the Latin, in " A Copious and Critical Latin-English Lexicon, founded on the Larger Latin-German Lexicon of Dr. WILLIAM FREUND, by E. A. Andrews, LL. D.” (New-York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. pp. 1663.) The basis of the work is Dr. Freund's larger Wörterbuch, in four volumes; and in this respect it differs from Riddle's Freund, recently published in England, which is founded on the smaller School-Lexicon of the same author. It is not our purpose now to enter into a minute examination of this noble work, the crowning glory of Messrs. HARPERS’ great enterprises in the way of Lexicography, as an extended article on the subject is now in preparation for our pages. It is enough for us to say at present, therefore, that no school-lexicon of the Latin language has ever appeared which can compare, in point of accuracy, extent, and coinpleteness, with the work before us. It will make its own way, and displace all other Latin Lexicons, just as surely as Liddell has displaced the Greek.
We have the highest respect for the labours of Professor Andrews in the preparation of this great work. But it would have been better taste, we think, to have called the book "Andrews' Freund" than "Andrews' » Lexicon.
(3.) Our favourable judgment of the Rev. Charles Adams' “Minister of Christ for the Times," has been confirmed by the public favour which that excellent work has received. A valuable counterpart to it is now furnished in the “ Portraiture of the New Testament Church-Members, by CHARLES ADAMS." (New-York : Lane & Scott, 1851. 18mo. pp. 368.) The work is divided into twenty chapters, and contemplates the member of the New-Testament Church in as many different aspects. Notwithstanding the multiplicity of distinctions which such a plan requires, the work is done with such nice and careful discrimination, that far less repetition occurs than might be expected; nor are the different classes of character blended or confounded. For this reason, the work will serve an excellent purpose as a manual for self-examination. Did our space allow, we should gladly give extracts; but we trust that our readers will procure and read the work for themselves. Let but our ministers carefully examine it, and we are sure they will be unwilling that the members of the Church should fail to study this - Portraiture" of the high ideal to which they should all aim.
(4.) “Memoirs of Mrs. Hawkes, including extracts from Sermons and Conversations of the Rev. Richard Cecil, by CATHARINE CECIL." (New-York: Robert Carter & Brothers: 12mo., pp. 371.) A record of a long life of affliction and pain, alleviated, however, nay, even gladdened, by the presence of One who can give peace, even amid tossings, disappointments, and bereavements. The extracts from Mr. Cecil's conversations and sermons (taken down by Mrs. Hawkes) are, like everything that fell from that blėssed man of God, full of evangelical truth and wisdom. Such books are indeed a “consolation for the afflicted."
(5.) A Primary Astronomy for Schools and Families, by HIRAM MATTISON." (New-York: Huntington & Savage. 12mo. pp. 168.) We have before spoken of the excellence of Mr. Mattison's elementary works in Astronomy, and we find this primary book, designed for younger pupils, to be worthy of the same praise. It is in the form of question and answer ;-well-arranged, well-expressed, and illustrated by nearly two hundred engravings.
(6.) A BOOK for the times will be found in “ The Principles of Geology Explained, and viewed in their Relations to Natural and Revealed Religion, by Rev. DAVID KING, LL. D.” (New-York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 18mo., pp. 220.) Instead of ignoring, or attempting to explain away, the ascertained facts of Geology, Dr. King gives, in the first part of his work, a brief but lucid explanation of the principles of the science, allowing everything which the geologists may justly claim to have established. He then proceeds, in the second part, to show that these principles are not inconsistent with the Scriptural narrative, but do, in fact, corroborate it. He has done the work well; though it may be thought, perhaps, by some, that he has gone too far in allowing that the deluge prevailed over part of the earth only. In the third part, the very principles of the geologists themselves are made to illustrate, powerfully and beautifully, the being and perfections of God. The work is enriched with notes and an appendix by Dr. Scruller, of Dublin.
(7.) LORD HOLLAND was one of the few Englishmen of his time who could get rid of insular prejudice so far as to recognise the greatness of Napoleon. And his reputation as a man of candour and sincerity, with great opportunities for observation, has long been widely diffused in this country as well as in Europe. We picked up, therefore, with much expectation, his “ Foreign Reminiscences.” (New-York: Harper & Brothers. 12mo. Pp. 230.) But the book does not equal our expectations. It is pleasant enough-few will begin without finishing it; but it adds little to our stock of knowledge beyond a few
additional proofs, if any could be wanting, of the atrocious profligacy of the Spanish Court, and, indeed, of almost all the European courts. Some new light is thrown on the character of Talleyrand; and one or two felicitous bonsmots, which we do not remember to have seen before, are here given as his. We regret to come to the conclusion—but this book forces us to it—that Lord Holland's own moral sense was not so pure and lofty as we had supposed.
(8.) Few books have done more good in the world than Wilberforce's “ Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes of Society, contrasted with Real Christianity.” Messrs. Carter & Brothers have just brought out a new and beautiful edition of it, printed in large type on fine paper.
(9.) No better text-book in Psychology, for the use of College classes, is at present accessible than “ Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, by THOMAS REID, D. D., abridged by James Walker, D. D., Professor in Harvard College." (Cambridge: John Bartlett, 1850. 12mo. pp. 462.) Dr. Walker has enriched this edition by numerous notes and illustrations from Sir William Hamilton and others, and has condensed the work, without omitting anything important, into a shape in which it will be manageable by college classes. The study of original works like this is a much better discipline for young minds than that of such compendiums and compilations as are generally found in use.
(10.) We can hardly speak so strongly in favour of “ The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers of Man, by DUGALD STEWART.” (Cambridge: J. Bartlette 12mo. pp. 428.) But in the dearth of suitable text-books on the subject, we are really in doubt, after all, whether this work, edited as it is by Professor Walker, is not, on the whole, the best to be had.
(11.) We have seen no single mathematical text-book more complete and thorough than “A Treatise on Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical, with its applications to Navigation and Surveying, &c. By Rev. C. W. HACKLEY, S. T. D., Professor of Mathematics in Columbia College.” (New-York: G. P. Putnam. 8vo., pp. 371, 238.) The work is divided into six parts—treating severally of Plane Trigonometry, Spherical Trigonometry and Practical Astronomy, Navigation, Surveying, Nautical Astronomy, and Geodesy; a most ample survey of the whole field of Trigonometry and its applications. To each part an appendix is added, containing a vast variety of general formulas, succinct methods of solution, &c., adapted to each topic.
The elementary part of the work is remarkably easy for learners, while, at the same time, there is furnished in the appendices, and in the exercises scat
tered from the beginning, (in small type,) a very comprehensive view of trigo nometry, containing every formula that can be required for the higher analysis; more, indeed, than are requisite for the study of La Place and La Grange. At the close of the Spherical Trigonometry is a full exposition of the theory of the Transit Instrument and its use. In fact, there can be found, in different parts of the volume, descriptions of every species of astronomical instrument, whether used in fixed observatories or in the field, by land or at sea. These accounts are chiefly given in the astronomical part of the Geodesy, and in appendices V. and VI. Part III., on Navigation, besides presenting a very complete treatise on the subject in a small space, explains also the theory of great-circle sailing, now much in use on ocean steamers, but not usually given in works on the subject. Sumner's method is also exhibited. The subject of Surveying is reduced to its elements, and treated in a very small compass, but thoroughly. In the Nautical Astronomy, nearly all the resources of the new Greenwich Nautical Almanac are brought out; and the appendix to this part states the various methods of determining latitudes by circum-meridian altitudes, by the method of Littrow, and by the altitude of the pole-star out of the meridian. The Geodesy is that of the Coast Survey of the United States, digested from materials obtained from the bureau at Washington. The subject is very carefully treated, and, for the first time, made easily intelligible to mere students of trigonometry. The tables are the fullest ever given in an elementary work, covering 230 pages.
We have thus indicated a few of the peculiar features of this comprehensive text-book. All teachers of the science should examine it for themselves.
(12.) Some time since we noticed (very briefly) Bonar's “Examination of the work of Rev. D. Brown on the Second Coming of our Lord.” A second edition of Mr. Brown's work has recently appeared, under the title “ Christ's Second Coming: will it be pre-millennial? By Rev. David BROWN, A. M.," which, we are glad to see, has been republished by Messrs. Carter & Brothers. (New-York, 1851, 12mo., pp. 499.) The doctrine of Pre-millennialism is concisely, and we think very justly, summed up by Mr. Brown in the proposition, “ that the fleshly and sublunary state is not to terminate with the second coming of Christ, but to be then set up in a new form; when the Redeemer, with his glorified saints, will reign, in person, on the throne of David at Jerusalem for a thousand years, over a world of men yet in the flesh, eating and drinking, planting and building, marrying and giving in marriage, under this mysterious sway." It is this position, which, with various modifications, has appeared at different times in the Christian Church, from its earliest history, under the various names of Chiliasm, Millenarianism, Pre-millennialism, &c., that the work is intended to confute. The work is divided into three parts: the Second Advent, the Millennium, and Objections to the Ordinary Church theory of these great subjects. Each of these topics is taken up carefully and thoroughly: in fact, the reader will nowhere find a more complete exposition of the arguments for and against the Pre-millennial system than the book affords. Believing, with Mr. Brown, that the system is both unscriptural