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this regular operation; and the more we know of natural philosophy, the fewer
are even the apparent exceptions. But as these laws have always been the
same, it follows, that from the beginning the Creator determined to work under
these general rules. Yet their working brings special answers to prayers and
events coincident with human volitions, and this coincidence cannot be acci-
dental. It was in view, then, of these prayers and spiritual conditions, that
these general laws of operation must have been selected, involving a necessary
course of natural events to run parallel with the course of foreseen actions.
But a rule of operation once adopted in God's purpose is as inevitable as if
impressed upon matter. It matters not whether the Creator, so to speak, lays
down the invariable lines of his purpose, as a track upon which he will gradu-
ally impel the car of events, or whether he so construct that car that, when
started, it must take that and no other course. All actual human volitions are
equally presupposed in either case, and are equally essential to the completeness
of the plan. If, therefore, certainty implies necessity, all human actions are as
, much necessitated under the writer's theory as under the other; if certainty
does not imply necessity, then the whole objection to the other scheme falls to
the ground.

I hold to the immediate agency of Him who upholdeth all things by the word of his power. But the writer's argument is useless to his cause, if it were true, - and as in reality involving the sacrifice of a distinction essential to Methodist theology.

ART. XIII-RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.

AMERICAN

- METHODIST EPISCOPAL CAURCH, SOUTH. in two or three weeks. More must be done --We extract, from a letter of Bishop Capers

for them. to the Southern Christian Advocate, the fol.

2. The Tennessee Conference stations lowing statistics of six of the Conferences

one hundred and thirty-one preachers; of of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, whom, however, the rare number of seventeen for 1850–51:

are supernumeraries. There are ninety cir1. The Holston Conference stations

cuits and stations (or charges) in this coneighty preachers, of whom fifty-four are ference, besides the editorships in Nashelders, and is constituted of sixty-nine cir- ville, the agency, and the college and schools. cuits, stations, and missions, in eight dis- There are ten presiding elders' districts. tricts. To occupy this field in its present

Nine preachers were admitted on trial, and subdivisions, twenty preachers might be six located, at our last session. The readded to the eighty without crowding. Eight turns of numbers in society were, of whites or ten more are much wanted. At the late 35,980, coloured 7,343; exhibiting an inconference there were seven admitted on crease of 668 whites, with a decrease of 581 trial, and five located. The numbers in 80

coloured members. ciety are, of whites 35,882, coloured 3,542, 3. The Memphis Conference stations one .and 140 Indians ; giving an increase of hundred and seven preachers, exclusive of 825 whites and 17 coloured, with a decrease the schools; and has seventy-five circuits, of 10 Indians. Measures were taken to stations, and missions. We admitted fifteen commence a school among the Indians, and preachers on trial, and located five. Num. to furnish them, old and young, with cate.

bers in society, 29,518 whites, 7,055 colour. chetical instruction. They have heretofore ed. Increase, 796 whites, 101 coloured. been served with preaching only; and this 4. The Mississippi Conference stations in the usual way through an interpreter, once sixty-eight preachers, and has sixty-five

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circuits, stations, and missions. There were the year are very fully given, and are exeight preachers admitted on trial in this con- ceedingly satisfactory. The increase in the ference, and six located. Numbers in so- number of Sunday scholars during the year ciety, 13,269 whites, and 7,801 coloured. An has been nearly fifty thousand. One of the increase of 127 whites, with a decrease of most striking features of the Sunday-school 854 coloured.

enterprise is the trifling expense (compared 5. The Louisiana Conference stations with the results obtained) at which the work forty-six preachers, and has forty-two cir. is carried on. “ The whole expense of the cuits, stations, and missions. Six preachers eight thousand and twenty-one Sundaywere admitted on trial, and five located. schools of the Methodist Episcopal Church, The numbers in society were, 4,845 whites, embracing 514,429 officers, teachers, and and 4,405 coloured. Increase, 505 whites, scholars, for the current year was $59,595. and 30 coloured.

This is an average expense of less than 6. The Alabama Conference stations one eight dollars for every school, of less than hundred and eighteen preachers, and has a six dollars for every conversion, and of less hundred and six circuits, stations, and mis- than ten cents for every scholar enrolled." sions, in ten presiding elders' districts.

The report on the Department of PublicaThirteen preachers were admitted on trial, tion shows great activity, and affords another and five located. Numbers in society, 33,163 illustration of the industry of the Editor, whites, and 15,484 coloured. Showing a Rev. D. P. Kidder. Eighty-two new vol. decrease of 27 whites, and an increase of umes have been issued during the year. 138 coloured.

The circulation of the Sunday School AdThe whole number of preachers in the vocate amounts to eighty thousand copies. regular work in these six conferences is five From the Cash Report, we perceive that the hundred and fifty. The membership, 152,657 New-Jersey Conference has raised more whites, and 45,630 coloured. The bishop

money for the Sunday-School Union than remarks that he grieves "for the smallness

any other, although, in point of numbers of this last number scarcely less than for and wealth, she is far inferior to several want of preachers; and the more, as it is others. The Appendix contains an account seen, on comparing it with the returns last

of the Origin of the Sunday-School System, year, that there is a decrease of 1,149. The

in which more facts are stated on that sub. increase of whites in the present aggregates ject than we have seen brought together beis 2,894 ; no great number.” The smallness

fore. This document settles two points beof the increase, however, is attributed to an

yond the possibility of cavil, viz., (1.) That unprecedented drain by emigration to the

the system of gratuitous instruction in SunWest, especially to Texas and Arkansas.

day schools, was first introduced and pracThe Annual Report of the Sunday-School tised by John Wesley : (2.) That the present Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Sunday-School system was first introduced for 1851, is perhaps the most interesting and and practised in America by the Methodist important report of that valuable institution Episcopal Church. In fact, the substance ever issued. Prefixed to the regular report of the system was officially incorporated in of the Board of Managers, is a pretty full the Discipline of that Church as early as account of the Anniversary of the Union, 1790, only nine years after the first schools and also of a number of Conference Anni- were established by Mr. Raikes in England. versaries. It is to be hoped that next year We trust that this report will be widely dif. we shall have such a reported anniversary fused, and carefully read by our ministers from every Conference. The Statistics for and people.

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The contents of the Theologische Studien Tetraglot Pentateuch, in Hebrew, Samar. und Kritiken, for January 1851, are as fol. itan, Chaldee, and Syriac. This is the title lows:-Art. I. On the Authority of majori- of a work now far advanced in the printing, ties in the Church, by Dr. Ullman: Art. II. and about to be published by Mr. Robert The Ethics of Classical Antiquity, com- Young, an enterprising bookseller in Edin. pared with those of Christianity, by Dr. burgh. We know so much of the great dif. Schaubach. (The point of comparison ficulty of gaining an adequate circulation for chosen is the Christian law, love your ene- really leamed works on Biblical criticism, mies, which is shown to have been entirely that we gladly use all our influence to further foreign to the whole life of classical anti- the efforts of our fellow-labourers in this quity): Art. III. John Denk; a contribution department of literature. This undertaking to the history of the sects in the time of the is to contain the following texts of the PenReformation: Art. IV. The Fragments of tateuch :-the Hebrew, the Chaldæa-SamarPherecydes in the Church-Fathers, by Prof. itan Version, the Chaldee Version of OnJacobi: Art. V. Examination of Rom. viü, kelos, the Peschito Syriac. These are all 18–23, by Pastor Rupprecht: Art, VI. Sur. arranged on the interlinear system, so that a vey of works contributing to a knowledge of comparison of these valuable critical helps, the Christian life of the Middle Ages, by with the Hebrew text, is obtained at a glance. Prof. Schmidt: Art. VII. Observations on We need not point out in this brief notice the present State of the Church, by Dr. the great use which may be made of such a Kienlen.

work as this, but hope to return to the subThe Journal of Sacred Literature, for Jan. ject when the first volume, to contain Geneuary, contains articles on Nineveh; the sis, is completed. Our present object is to Jansenists, and their Remnant in Holland; call the attention of our readers to the fact the Claims of the Septuagint to Biblical

that such a valuable critical help is now unand Canonical Authority; The Theory of dertaken, and that the names of subscribers Human Progression, or the Natural Proba- are solicited by the publisher. The proof bility of a reign of Justice; Letter and sheets are revised by the Rev. John DunSpirit in the Old Testament Scriptures; can, LL.D., Professor of Hebrew and OriThe Life and Times of Calvin, a review of ental languages, New College, Edinburgh." Henry's and Dyer's works; First Lessons -Kitto's Journal: in Biblical Criticism, the Canon of Scrip

Our readers may remember Dr. Whate. ture; On the Interpretation of 1 Cor. vii, ly's admirable brochure entitled “Historic 25-40; Our Lord's Discourses and Sayings, Doubts Respecting Napoleon Bonaparte,” in a Review of Dr. Brown's Exposition ;

which it was clearly shown, by a strict ap. Bloomfield's additional annotations on the plication of the principles of infidel criticism, New Testament, a pretty caustic review;

that no such person as Napoleon ever existwith Correspondence and Miscellanies.

ed. Since that pamphlet appeared, Strauss We are glad to see that Dr. Kitto, the vete.

and his followers have put the objections to ran editor of the Journal, has received a

the sacred word on somewhat different pension of £100 a year from the Civil List.

ground. The mythical theory is the favour. The eighteenth volume of Clark's Foreign ite weapon of the latest form of scepticism, Theological Library, includes Hävernick's

and we hear from them of the Hebrew myHistorico-critical Introduction to the Penta- thology and the Christian mythology just as teuch, translated by Alexander Thomson, much as of the Greek or Roman mythology. A. M., Professor of Biblical Literature in

An ingenious pamphlet has been issued in Glasgow.

London subjecting the history of the French The third volume of Dr. Davidson's In- Revolution to the mythical process, under troduction to the New Testament is an- the title of “ Historic Certainties respecting nounced for speedy publication in London. the Early History of America developed in a

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Critical Examination of the Book of the Niatirb. In other respects, this second subChronicles of the Land of Ecnarf, by the jugation of Noel-opan is a mere repetition Rev. Aristarchus Newlight." We take the of the former :-just as Rebecca's adventure following extracts from the Athenæum:- with Abimelech is a counterpart of Sarah's, " "The course of the argument is often in.

in the harem of Pharaoh. A great battle, genious. A brief and accurate outline of

ending in grievous slaughter of the Ecnarfthe history of Europe (though the scenes

ites; the flight of Noel-opan to Sirap; the and events are referred to America, proper eagerness of the populace to thrust him names are used with no other disguise than out,' his banishment to an island, and finally that of spelling backward, thus, France, the tranquil re-establishment of Sivol II. on Ecnarf,-Britain, Niatirb) is given in the

the throne of Ecnarf. Ovum non ovo simiform of a chronicle on which the critic lius, Homer's unhappy warriors are most goes to work, with his rules in his hand, and unceremoniously resuscitated, when some soon demolishes the whole fabric, leaving a hero's glory demands that he should ' fight curious skeleton of falsehood as the sole his battles o'er again,' and 'thrice slay the residuum of Fact. At the first mention of slain.' But Noel-opan's return from Able the name Noel-opan, (Napoleon,) we are

and second banishment, will only be received treated to the following amusing note :

by those who expect the grand Avatar of *** This, I have no doubt, was not his real Prince Arthur, 'rex quondam, rexque futuname, but the nickname under which he was rus,' or those similar mythic figments which known in Niatirb. Noel-opan is neither more

may be found in most popular creeds. nor less than the “Godless Revolution."

Qui Bavium non odit amet tua carmina, Mævi. *73, as Gesenius justly observes, is radically equivalent to verneinen vernichten, to deny or

Let the reader observe how many marks of annihilate. As a particle it answers to the

the genuine myth here combine :-). The Greek negative, vn (in víTLOS, Vnueprís, miraculous complexion of the events. Noel&c.) - the Latin ne or non--the English

opan returns with 600 men! IMMEDIATELY no-the German nein--the Arabic na. El, all Ecnarf submits, and Sivol flies without (3x), as everyone knows, is the name of God; striking a blow. Noel-opan is defeated in Noel therefore is the same as ūdeoc, godless.

one batile ; and IMMEDIATELY the Ecnarfites

thrust him out. Sivol returns as rapidly as 78, Opan, actually occurs as the name of a wheel in Ezekiel, in Exod. xiv. 25, and

he fled; and Noel-opan chooses to surrender

to his greatest enemy, the king of Niatirb. many other places. In its contracted form,

It is really like the changes of a Christmas 5x, it denotes a period or revolution of time. It is impossible to resist these little obvious,

pantomime. 2. The expectation that a but on that account more striking, evidences

great person, whose actions have deeply im.

pressed the public mind, should return, is a of the antiquity of the document. The framers of the story of Napoleon were, I

common phenomenon. And such expecta

tions (as in the case of the Jewish Messiah) fancy, aware of the true etymology of Noelopan. Hence they represent a great literary

often produce a belief in their own fulfil

ment. 3. The honour of Niatirb required bugbear (Lord Byron) as signing his name

this appendix. 4. The story is worked up “Noel-Byron,"—just as Shelley is said to

from the materials of older legends. 5. It is have written abeos after his name in the al

inconsistent with the previous narrative. bum at Chamouni.'»

(a). In that Noel-opan was thrust out as a The following refutation of the History of murderer and a tyrant: In this, he is reNapoleon's return from Elba, and of the

ceived with open arms. (6). In that, Ecnarf Hundred days is equal to almost anything had just lost three great armies successively. in Strauss :

In this, after less than a year's space, Noel“It is a pure myth from beginning to end : opan is able to raise, in that same country, probably the work of some later legendary, another army, large enough to fight a despewho was desirous of giving the Niatirbites rate battle with the fresh troops of Niatirb, the whole glory of finally crushing Noel. Aissurp, and Muigleb. Unless, indeed, we opan. They had, as we have seen, no share

suppose that Noel-opan encountered the in the great combination of princes which combined host with his · 600 men who drew led to his retirement. It was, therefore, the sword.' (c). In that, Noel-opan's setrequisite that he should be brought upon the tlement in Able is made freely by the assemarena once more to receive the finishing bled princes for the purpose of removing all stroke from the misericordia of the king of danger of his further interference. In this,

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the place and circumstances seem so badly for the timely mission of such rare graces, chosen that he is able to recover his throne and heap on him the work which he was so in a few months. (d). In that, the king of eager to do, and others so much needed to Niatirt is his most hated enemy, while get done? Did they found an order to bear other princes seem disposed to deal mildly his name and propagate his activity? He with him, and are 'merciful kings ;' espe. coveted their support; and so clung to their cially the king of Saturia, with whom he is alliance, that seldom has a strong enthusiasm connected by marriage. In this, he chooses been combined with such moderation. But to surrender to the king of Niatirb, who, in their most favourable mood, they did but instead of keeping him (as he easily might) stare and stand aloof. It was vain to look in Niatirb, sends him to a distant island, to the clergy for their help; he was driven for the sake of being obliged to maintain a to a lay organization and even a lay minis

fleet of ships to guard him. (e). In that, try; the Wesleyan chapel became the rival Noel-opan always flies when he is left with instead of the auxiliary of the Parish church; only a small force. In this, he trusts him- and the most loyal of all popular religious self to the people who had just driven him bodies was absolutely repulsed from conaway with 600 men! If this story be not a formity. When the leaders, with a cart for MYTH, where are myths to be found ?" their pulpit, and the field for their church, The “Westminster Review” for January nounced, and were stoned and caried off to

provoked the vices and passions they despeaks of Wesley as follows:

prison, the rector was less likely to be their Some century and a quarter ago, John intercessor than their judge. And in WesWesley was Fellow of Lincoln College, and ley's college days, where the premonition of Greek Lecturer there. With a few com- his religious movement was distinctly given, panions recoiling like himself from the pro- he met no wisdom and affection to protect fligate habits of the place, he took to heart him from the scorn of the learned and the the appeals of Law's “Serious Call," and laughter of the rich. The apostle of popu. resolved to live with the invisible realities, lar piety was repudiated and contemned." which with others served but for a stately dream or a mocking jest. In the cold mid

So also the Edinburgh Review, for Janunight, beneath the truthful sky, he struggled

ary, 1851, in an article on Devon and Corn. for a faith worthy of so great a sight. He

wall, which part of England was called prayed without ceasing; he fasted in secret;

“West Barbary," from the wild and almost he passed the mystery on from his own

ferocious character of its population before heart to the souls of others; and led the

the coming of Wesley among its people, saintly life with less offence to creed and

speaks as follows of the influence of Meth

odisma there : prejudice, than almost any devotee in his. tory. The son of a High Church rector, he “Whether or not we sympathize with the could not be charged with unsacramental particular religious spirit introduced in these doctrine or nonconformist sympathies; he quarters by the teaching of Wesley, and denied the Christian baptism of dissenters, sedulously maintained by his disciples, no and drove them from the communion as un. one can deny the deep influence it exercises regenerate. He duly proved his spirit of over the lives, as well as the sentiments, of self-sacrifice by preferring a mission to the great numbers of the people; the strength it Indians of Georgia to a parochial provision lends to their courage and enthusiasm; the at home, and the fraternity of the poor severity it imparts to their moral principles. Hernnhuter to the aristocratic priesthood of Their fishermen range the whole coast of England. The sequel is well-known : how the south of England, and have turned the he took up the labours, while others boasted seas of Ireland, neglected by its inhabitants, of the privileges, of Apostleship; civilized into preserves of their own; their miners whole counties ; lifted brutal populations disinter the hidden wealth of Brazil and into communities of orderly citizens and Australia. And yet the peace of this popu. consistent Christians; and in grandeur of lous district, swarming with men of so ad. missionary achievement rivalled the most venturous a race, whose employments are splendid successes of Christendom. With peculiarly liable to those extreme fluctuawhat eye did the Church as the mother, and tions which try, above all things, the temper the University as the nurse, of so much and judgment of the operative, is maintained greatness, look upon his career? Did they by a detachment of thirty soldiers at Falavail themselves of his gifts, bless Heaven mouth. No partiality for old world investi

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