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(probably before his marriage with the Virgin, as he seems to have been much older than the latter,) according to the Levirate law, (Deut. XXV, 5.) On this account,

2. James II. or “the Legs,” Joseph's oldest son by that marriage, would be styled the [legal] son of Clopas, as well as the [reputed half-] brother of Jesus. This helps to clear up the controversy whether this is the same with “ James the Lord's brother.” Gal. i, 19. However, the express title of Apostle given the latter in this last passage, as well as in 1 Cor. xv, 7, (compare also Acts ix, 27,) seems decisive as to their identity, no other James being mentioned among the twelve except “ James the brother of John," who was no relative (so immediately at least) of Christ. Another question is, whether he was the same with the James mentioned along with Joses, Simon, and Judas as Christ's brothers, in Matt. xiii, 55, and parallel passages. This is almost certain, if the above view of the sisterhood of the two Marys be allowed. Its direct determination depends upon the interpretation of the term “brother" as used in these texts last cited. That the title is intended to be taken in its proper sense, and not in the general signification of kinsman, is pretty clear from its use there, (as well as in John ii, 12; Matt. xii, 46–50; Mark iii, 31-35; Luke viii, 19-21; Acts i, 14,) in explicit connexion with his actual mother, and under relations which imply that they were members of his immediate family; especially as no intimation is there or elsewhere conveyed to the contrary. This inference is sustained by the striking coincidence in the names of the brothers in the list of the Apostles (namely, James, Judas, and apparently Simon, in Luke vi, 15, 16; Acts i, 13) with those in the reference to Christ's brothers, (namely, James, Judas, Simon, and Joses, Matt. xiii, 55, and parallel places ;) and also by the fact that both “ James the Less and Joses” are said to be the sons of the same Mary who was the widow of Clopas. (Mark xv, 40, and Matt. xvii, 56, compared with John xix, 25.) Moreover, “the brethren of the Lord,” referred to as Apostles in 1 Cor. ix, 5, could have been no other than this James and these his associated brothers. (Compare Jude 1.)

This arrangement meets all the statements in the case, and is confirmed by declarations found in early Christian writers, which may be seen in full in Lardner's Works. (Consult the Index.) The only objection of any force against such an adjustment is, that toward the latter part of our Saviour's ministry it is said, “neither did his brethren believe on him,” (John vii, 5,) whereas two of them at least are in this way included among his Apostles, (namely, James and Judas, if not Simon ;) and although they are mentioned in Acts i, 14, as subsequently yielding to his claims, yet the language in John vii, 7 seems too strong to admit the supposition that those there referred to can then have sustained so prominent a place among his converts. A more likely mode of reconciling these two passages is, to suppose that there were still other brothers besides those chosen as Apostles, not mentioned particularly anywhere, perhaps only Joses and one younger, who may not have believed in him until after his resurrection. Indeed, if three of these “ brethren" were Apostles, the language in Acts i, 13, 14, requires such a supposition of additional brothers; for after enumerating the Eleven, (including, as usual, James, Simon and Judas,) it adds " and with his brethren." Whether these unmentioned brothers (as indeed may be said also of the “sisters," and perhaps of Simon) were the children of Mary, Clopas's widow, or of the Virgin Mary, is uncertain ; but in the expression, “her first-born son,” applied to Jesus, (Luke ü, 7,) as well as in the intimation of limited abstinence in Matt. i, 35, there seems to be implied a reference to other. children of Joseph by the latter; and be that as it may, there can be no good reason given why such should not naturally have been the case, popish sanctimony to the contrary notwithstanding. We may therefore conjecture, that while James, Simon, Judas and Joses, were Joseph's children by Clopas's widow, and the first three of sufficient age to be chosen Apostles, all the others were by the Virgin, and among them only some sisters were of such age and notoriety at Christ's visits in Nazareth as to be specified by his townsmen ; the children of the Virgin generally (including perhaps Joses) being the “ brethren” that did not believe in Christ till late. To the objection, that if the Virgin had had other children, especially sons, she would not have gone to live with the Apostle John, a comparative stranger; it may be replied, that they may have been still too young, or otherwise not suitably circumstanced to support her: and if there had been no inconvenience of this kind, the express direction of Christ, her eldest son, would have decided her residence with “ the beloved disciple;" who was moreover eminently fitted, by his amiable manners and comparative affluence, to discharge that bequest.

To illustrate in one view this whole subject, I have constructed the following

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ART. XII. LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

Theological.

EUROPEAN.

THE reputation of Professor EBRARD, of the Elizabeth church in Berlin, in the Erlangen, in the department of New Testa

years 1836-1840. They furnish a fair imment criticism and Apologetics was estab pression of his religious and intellectual lished by his Wissenschaftliche Kritik der activity at the best period of his life. evangelischen Geschichte, the second edi

A NEW school of theology, or something tion of which we noticed briefly some time

very like it, is springing up on the Rhine, ago. We have now before us his Christ

under the impulse of Prof. SCHERER, late liche Dogmatik, vol. i., (Königsberg, 1851,

of Geneva, whose ultra-liberal views on the pp. 552.) In the preface, Dr. EBRARD de

subject of the inspiration of the Scriptures fines his book to be a Christian theology, have been heretofore made known to our written from the Reformed stand-point, but

readers. It finds an organ in the “Revue not with strict conformity to the older

de Théologie et de Philosophie Chrétienne, Reformed theologians. He further states

published in Strasbourg, and edited by that it will appear, especially in the second

Licentiate Colani, a friend of Scherer's. volume, that, with regard to the doctrine

From this school also comes a new work, of Predestination, he is a follower of Me

which is greatly praised in the Studien u. lancthon rather than of Calvin. The gene

Kritiken for ability and thoroughness ; viz., ral division of the work numbers three

Recherches critiques sur l'Epître de Jude, parts :- I. Die Lehre von der Verklärung

par E. Arnaud, Strasbourg, 1851, pp. 218. Gottes als des Ursprungs der Creatur.

ONE of those exhaustive discussions II. Die Lehre von der Verklärung Gottes als des Mittlers in dem Faktum der Erlö

which only Germany can furnish, lies be

fore us in “ Die Völkertafel der Genesis; sung. III. Die Lehre von der Verklärung Gottes als des Vollenders. The subordi- Ethnographische Untersuchungen von August

KNOBEL, Professor zu Giessen.” (8vo., pp. nate divisions are logical and exhaustive,

358.) It traces the generations of the sons but we have not space to give them here.

of Noah, as given in the tenth chapter of We have received a copy of " Synopsis Genesis, by the light of history and of ethEvangelica, ex quatuor Evangelicis ordine

nographical science, as far down as possible Chronologico concinnavit, protexto brevi com

in the history of humanity. Whatever mentario illustravit

, ad antiquos testes apposi- may be thought of Prof. Knobel's concluto apparatu critico recensuit. CONSTANTINUS

sions, none can refuse him the praise of TISCHENDORF (Lipsiæ, 1851 ; 8vo., pp. 202). great erudition, ingenuity, and research. The volume gives us the last results of Tischendorf's critical labours in the appro

TÆOLUCK'S “ Discourses on the Leading priate form of a harmony of the Gospels.

Questions of the Age in regard to Religion," He adopts the tripaschal theory, and his bar

are in process of translation by Rev. W.

Farrer, and are published in single nummony is framed according to it. The book is neatly printed, but it adopts the upright

bers at three-pence each. The first sermon

treats of “The Worth of Human Reason." Greek type which the French have introduced, and which, while it economizes MESSRS. JOHNSTONE & HUNTER, of Edinroom, is yet very painful to the eye. The burgh, have issued their prospectus of margin is crowded with references and “The Protestant Library,and announce critical remarks, the same, in substance, as that the first year's issue will contain the are furnished in Tischendorf's last critical following works :--Vol. I. Barrow on the edition of the New Testament.

Supremacy claimed by the Pope of Rome: OUR readers will remember a translation

Vol. II. On the Rule of Faith: Vol. III. On of part of OTTO VON GERLACH's Commentary

the Infallibility claimed by the Papacy: on the New Testament, and also a brief

Vol. IV. Treatises on the Reformation, and estimate of his character, in a former num

on the Church. The subscription price ber of this journal. We have since received

will be one guinea a year, a copy of “ Predigten über herkömmliche Peri- MESSRS. BAGSTER & Sons announce the Icopen und freie Texte," preached by him in third volume of Dr. Davidson's "Introduc

1

tion to the New Testament, containing an faith. The apostles, indeed, were uncultiExamination of the Authority, Interpreta- vated fishermen; but the Jews, as such, tion, and Integrity of the Canonical Books, had this superiority over the heathen—that with reference to the latest inquiries.' they stood upon a higher religious platThis volume completes the work.

form than the heathen,-being trained to NUMBER 1 of a new series of The Journal refer all the forms of ordinary life to the of Sacred Literature, edited by John Kitto,

law of God, which was, in a certain meaD.D., F. 8. A., will be published on the 1st

sure, itself a theology. God has given us of October, 1851. In this series more equal

an intimation of his own will in this reattention will be given to all the depart spect, in that the Bible is given to us in ments of sacred literature, and an effort will

ancient and foreign tongues, making philobe made to render the Journal more gene- logical science necessary for an indepenrally readable to all who take interest in

dent understanding of its contents. Dr. Biblical investigations, without compro

LEHNERDT therefore argued that it was mising the character for sound scholarship very important to the missionary to be able which the publication has already won.

to compare the original languages of Scrip

ture with the current versions. His calling A NEW edition of Chevallier's Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, ledge of Exegesis and of Church History.

also demands more than ordinary knowPolycarp, and Ignatius; and of the Apolo So he should understand the heathenism gies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian ; with

with which he has to fight, and this knowan Introduction and brief notes illustrative of the Ecclesiastical History of the first ledge would be greatly aided by a thorough

acquaintance with ancient heathenism. two Centuries, has been recently issued.

LEHNERDT was followed by AHLFELDT, of This edition contains an introduction treat

Leipsig, (formerly of Halle,) one of our ing of the integrity of the Greek text of

most distinguished preachers, especially the Epistles of Ignatius, with reference to

pre-eminent in the gift of popular oratory, the Syriac version lately edited by Mr.

who supported LEHNERDT's opinion, and Cureton.

added, that the missionaries should hold it LETTER FROM PROFESSOR JACOBI.

as part of their duty, when Providence BERLIN, 28th July, 1851. opened their way, to plant the seeds of The Conference of Ministers at Berlin, science and knowledge in the minds of June 18–20, 1851.

their converts. At the same time, he THE Annual Conference of Ministers thought it should be well settled, that opened its session at Berlin on the 18th of while preparatory education should be the June. The first question considered was, rule, it should also be understood that help whether Christian men destitute of literary ers, without such training, might be adand theological training might be safely vantageously employed, and that educaemployed as missionaries, or whether the tion to the same extent was not equally choice should be confined only to educated necessary among all the heathen nations theologians. Dr. LEHNERDT (successor of to which missionaries might be sent. The Neander in the University of Berlin) opened United Brethren were cited as showing the discussion in a speech which received great prudence and wisdom in the adaptagreat approbation. He took the ground tion of their missionaries to the fields they that, as a rule, missionaries should be men were to occupy. The forenoon of the seof thorough education. In support of his cond day was occupied by Professor JACOBI, views, he distinguished between the posi- in an address on the “ Age of the Reformation of Christ, his apostles, and modern tion compared with our own time;" and preachers of the gospel, as follows: Christ the afternoon by the Missionary Anniverwas Oɛócopos, because in him dwelt the

sary. On the morning of the 20th, Dr. wisdom of God and the fulness of the

Nitzch delivered a most instructive lecture Spirit; the apostles were OɛÓTVEVOTOL, be

“The Recent Conversions to Romancause endowed with special inspiration of

on

ism,” in which he gave an excellent statethe Spirit; the preachers of the gospel,

ment of the characteristics of true Protesthowever, are Oɛodidakti, because their

antism. You will find this lecture printed Christian knowledge stands in need of sci

in the Deutsche Zeitschrift. ence. He did not mean to deny, however,

New and Important Works. that study and science are human means, Among the recent publications, there additional and subordinate to Christian are two of special importance and value

:'?

son.

to theological science, particularly with (Berlin, 1848, pp. 562.)

The editor was reference to ecclesiastical antiquity. The a young man who studied theology in first is “Berengarius Turonensis, oder eine Berlin, and then went to Spain and deSammlung ihn betreffender Briefe herausg. voted himself to the search for literary von Dr. H. Sudendorf." Berengarius, a treasures in the libraries of Spain, several contemporary of Pope Gregory VII., was of which have never yet been thoroughly one of the ablest thinkers of his age, examined. His labours were rewarded by and the greatest among those theologians several valuable discoveries—among them of the eleventh century who sought to a fragment of Livy. On the memorable establish a theological science derived revolutionary night of 18th March, 1848, from the Scriptures, the fathers, and rea- he was mortally wounded. The "Letters":

Doctrines derived from these three before us furnish the most important resources, were not, he thought, to be subor- sult of Heine's travels that has yet apdinated to those whose only support was peared, and they throw much light upon Church tradition. It is well known that

some of the most important years of the Berengarius's doctrine on the Lord's sup- Reformation. The "Letters" were written per was very similar to that of Calvin, and by the emperor's confessor, Cardinal Garthat he declared himself boldly against cia de Loaga, who kept up a constant cortransubstantiation, for which he was per- respondence with him from Rome on politisecuted, though at first protected by Grego- cal and personal affairs, and was one of his ry, who sympathized more with his views

most trusted advisers. They afford us than those of his opponents. He was weak glimpses of the most private relations of enough to recant, yet continued afterwar is

the emperor, of Pope Clement VII., and of to spread his opinions. The present re- other very important personages. The markable collection of his letters is edited cardinal himself was a fine specimen-even by Dr. Sudendorf from MSS. in the Hanno- a model of the zealous, politico-religious ver library. It throws much new light Catholic priesthood. He fulfilled his duupon the character of Berengarius. It ties as confessor to the emperor most conshows him as a worthy man, a loving scientiously. Contrary to our previous Christian, and a man of tender and placa- understanding, these letters show that ble nature. It shows also that his learning Charles had occupied his thoughts with embraced a wide range: he was a most religious subjects from early youth. The zealous student of the fathers, he practised emperor was penetrated with a sense of medicine as a physician, and was much gratitude to God for the vast power which admired as an orator. It shows further, had been committed to his trust, and often what was not before known, that he was expressed to his confessor his wish to do in intimate relations with some of the battle for Christ, and to lay down his life foremost men in France; and that, in par- in testimony of his gratitude for the great ticular, Godfrey of Anjou was his friend blessings he had received. The confessor and protector. We also learn a great deal warned him of the sins to which he was from this book of Gregory's conduct during most liable, --- unchastity, intemperance, his stay in France, and find that a very and indolence,--and urged him to abandon general sympathy with Berengarius's views them all; reminding him that the great existed among the chief clergy of France task was laid upon him of re-establishing and of the neighbouring German border. the peace of the Church, and of freeing it Dr. Sudendorf's historical explanations are from the Protestant heresy. Any and all both acute and thorough.

means to that end he justifies. He adThe second of the works referred to is

vises the emperor to gain over influential the so-called manuscript of Origen, of Protestants by bribery, and to fill even which a fuller notice is given at page 645 the Spanish bishoprics with Germans, if neof this number.

cessary.

The political and theological There is another work, longer before the leaders of Protestantism, he says, must be public than the two mentioned above, but bought: no price could be too great for such which has not yet, I think, received, in a purchase: God would reimburse the emAmerica, the attention it deserves. It is peror for money so spent, not only in suc

Briefe an Kaiser Karl V., geschrieben von cess and honour, but also in fine ducats. seinem Beichtvater in d. Jahren 1830-32. In Succeeding with the leaders, he advises dem Spanischen Reichsarchiv von Limancas the emperor to issue admonitions and aufgefunden u. mitgetheilt von Dr. G. HEINE." edicts to the common people; and finally,

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