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city as Constantinople; yet, for me to take my oath thereon were a kind of perjury, because I hold no infallible warrant from my own sense to confirm me in the certainty thereof. And truly, though many pretend to* an absolute certainty of their salvation, yet, when an humble soul shall contemplate her own unworthiness, she shall meet with many doubts, and suddenly find how little we stand in need of the precept of St. Paul, “work out your salvation with fear and trembling.That which is the cause of my election, I hold to be the cause of my salvation, which was the mercy and beneplacit of God, before I was, or the foundation of the world. “Before Abraham was, I am,” is the saying of Christ, yet is it true in some sense if I say it of myself; for I was not only before myself but Adam, that is, in the idea of God, and the decree of that synod held from all eternity. And in this sense, I say, the world was before the creation, and at an end before it had a beginning. And thus was I dead before I was alive; though my grave be England, my dying place was Paradise; and Eve miscarried of me, before she conceived of Cain.7

SECT. LX.-Insolent zeals, that do decry good works and rely only upon faith, take not away merit: for, depending upon the efficacy of their faith, they enforce the condition of God, and in a more sophistical way do seem to challenge heaven. It was decreed by God that only those that lapped in the water, like dogs, should have the honour to destroy the Midianites; yet could none of those justly challenge, or imagine he deserved, that honour thereupon. I do not deny but that true faith, and such as God requires, is not only a mark or token, but also a means, of our salvation; but, where to find this, is as obscure to me as my last end. And if our Saviour could object, unto his own disciples and favourites, a faith that, to the quantity of a grain of mustard seed, is able to remove mountains; surely that which we boast of is not any thing, or, at the most, but a remove from nothing.

4 pretend to] MS. W. 2 reads, believe. needed not to have enjoined those feel-Ed.

ings.-Ed. 5 little] Edts. 1642 read, much ; and 6 in some sense] Omitted in all the the French and Dutch translations follow MSS. and Edts. 1642 - Ed. this reading. All the MSS. and the 7 And thus, &c.] This clause is not English and Latin editions read, little ; in the MSS., nor Edts. 1642.--Ed. which, though it presents a less obvious 8 sophistical] MSS. R. reads, syllomeaning, was probably intended by the gistical.--Ed. author, who meant to observe that it is 9 object,] This seems to be used in the impossible for “ a humble soul to con- sense of presenting or proposing as an template her own unworthiness," without object.-Ed. “ fear and trembling;" so that St. Paul

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This is the tenour of my belief; wherein, though there be many things singular, and to the humour of my irregular self, yet, if they square not with maturer judgements, I disclaim them, and do no further favour them than the learned and best judgements shall authorize them.

PART THE SECOND.

Sect. 1.—Now, for that other virtue of charity, without which faith is a mere notion and of no existence, I have ever endeavoured to nourish the merciful disposition and humane inclination I borrowed from my parents, and regulate it to the written and prescribed laws of charity. And, if I hold the true anatomy of myself, I am delineated and naturally framed to such a piece of virtue, for I am of a constitution so general that it consorts and sympathizeth with all things; I have no antipathy, or rather idiosyncrasy, in diet, humour, air, any thing. I wonder not at the French for their dishes of frogs, snails, and toadstools, nor at the Jews for locusts and grasshoppers;t but, being amongst them, make them my common viands; and I find they agree with my stomach as well as theirs. I could digest a salad gathered in a church-yard as well as in a garden. I cannot start at the presence of a serpent, scorpion, lizard, or salamander; at the sight of a toad

1 favour] All the MSS. and Edts. 1642 salt, and mixing a little oil, butter, and read, father.- Ed.

fat; sometimes they toast them before a 2 written and] Not in MSS. or Edts. fire, or soak them in warm water, and 1642.--Ed.

without any other culinary process, de3 of virtue,] Not in MS. R.--Ed. vour almost every part except the wings.

4 the Jews for locusts and grasshop- They are also said to be sometimes pickled pers ;] Pliny relates that, in some parts in vinegar. The locusts which formed of Ethiopia, the inhabitants lived upon part of John the Baptist's food (Mark i, nothing but locusts salted, and that the 6,) were these insects, and not the fruit Parthians also accounted them a plea- of the locust tree. T. H. Horne's Introsant article of food. The modern Arabs duction, &c. iii, p. 71.---Ed. catch great quantities of locusts, of which presence] Edt. 1642 C. reads, prethey prepare a dish by boiling them with sent.---Ed.

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or viper, I find in me no desire to take up a stone to destroy them. I feel not in myself those common antipathies that I can discover in others: those national repugnancesó do not touch me, nor do I behold with prejudice the French, Italian, Spaniard, or Dutch; but, where I find their actions in balance with my countrymen's, I honour, love, and embrace them, in some degree. I was born in the eighth climate, but seem to be framed and constellated unto all. I am no plant that will not prosper out of a garden. All places, all airs, make unto me one country; I am in England every where, and under any meridian. I have been shipwrecked, yet am not enemy with the sea or winds;' I can study, play, or sleep, in a tempest. In brief I am averse from nothing: my conscience would give me the lie if I should say I absolutely detest hate

any essence, but the devil; or so at least abhor any thing, but that we might come to composition. If there be any among those common objects of hatred I do contemn and laugh at, it is that great enemy of reason, virtue, and religion, the multitude; that numerous piece of monstrosity, which, taken asunder, seem men, and the reasonable creatures of God, but, confused together, make but one great beast, and a monstrosity more prodigious than Hydra. It is no breach of charity to call these fools; it is the style all holy writers have afforded them, set down by Solomon in canonicalộ scripture, and a point of our faith to believe so. Neither in the name of multitude do I only include the base and minor sort of people :

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6 national repugnances] Sic Angli in with a secret :-2. if he had gone by sea publicis plateis Londini non abstinent when he might have travelled on land :prætereuntem more gallico vestitum ap. 3. if he had passed a day without transpellare Frenche Dogge. Odium inter · acting any business of importance.-M. Hispanos ac Gallos, inter Schotos atque 2 nothing :) All the MSS. and Edts. Anglos, inter Danos ac Suecos, inter 1642 read, “nothing, neither plant, aniTurcas atque Ungaros notum est.-M. mal, nor spirit."-Ed.

7 French,] MS. W. f Edts. 1642 3 hate any essence, but the devil, fc.] read, Flemish.-Ed.

All the MSS. and Edts. 1642 read, 8 seem to be framed] MSS. W. f R. “ hate the devil; or so at least abhor and Edts. 1642 read, seemed forty be- him but that we may come to composiframed; Edt. 1643 reads, seem for to be tion."- Ed. framed.--Ed.

4 enemy] All the MSS. and Edts. 9 airs,] Edts. 1642 read, ages.-Ed. 1642 read, inquiry.-Ed.

1 yet am not enemy with the sea or men, and] Not in MS. W. and the winds ;] So said not Cato !-whose three Edts. 1642.- Ed. causes of regret are thus enumerated by 6 canonical] MS. W. and Edts. 1642 Plutarch:-1. if he had intrusted a woman read, holy.-Ed.

there is a rabble even amongst the gentry;} a sort of plebeian heads, whose fancy moves with the same wheel as those; men in the same level with mechanicks, though their fortunes do somewhat gild their infirmities, and their purses compound for their follies. But, as in casting account three or four men together come short in account of one man placed by himself below them, so neither are a troop of these ignorant Doradoes of that true esteem and value as many a forlorn person, whose condition doth place him below their feet. Let us speak like politicians; there is a nobility without heraldry, a natural dignity, whereby one man is ranked with another, another” filed before him, according to the quality of his desert, and preeminence of his good parts. Though the corruption of these times, and the bias of present practice, wheel another way, thus it was in the first and primitive commonwealths, and is yet in the integrity and cradle of well ordered polities:3 till corruption getteth ground;-ruder desires labouring after that which wiser considerations contemn;-every one having a liberty to amass and heap up riches, and they a licence or faculty to do or purchase any thing.

Sect. II.— This general and indifferent temper of mine doth more nearly dispose me to this noble virtue. It is a happiness to be born and framed unto virtue, and to grow up from the seeds of nature, rather than the inoculations and forced grafts of education: yet, if we are directed only by our particular natures, and regulate our inclinations by no higher rule than that of our reasons, we are but moralists; divinity will still call us heathens. Therefore this great work of charity must have other motives, ends, and impulsions. I give no alms to satisfy the hunger of my brother, but to fulfil and accomplish the will and command of my God; I draw not my purse for his sake that demands it, but his that enjoined it; I relieve no man upon the rhetorick of his miseries, nor to content mine own commiserating disposition; for this is still but moral charity, and an act that oweth more to passion* than reason. He that relieves another upon the bare suggestion and bowels of pity doth not this so much for his sake as for his own: for by compassion we make another's misery our own; and so, by relieving them, we relieve ourselves also. It is as erroneous a conceit to redress other men's misfortunes upon the common considerations of merciful natures, that it may be one day our own case; for this is a sinister and politick kind of charity, whereby we seem to bespeak the pities of men in the like occasions. And truly I have observed that those professed eleemosynaries, though in a crowd or multitude, do yet direct and place their petitions on a few and selected persons; there is surely a physiognomy, which those experienced and master mendicants observe, whereby they instantly discover a merciful

7 a rabble even amongst the gentry;] d'argent, et se moquant de lui à gorge Optime Socrates dixit: “Neque frumen- déployée, dit à ceux qui étoient à l'entum optimum judicamus, quod in pul- tour de lui, et je vous prie voyez un cherrimo agro natum est, sed quod com- peu cette masse de terre dorée, qui a etė mode nutrit, neque virum bonum et stu- cuite au soleil.”-Fr. Tr. diosum, aut amicum benevolum, qui ge- 1 him] So in Edis. 1642 and 1686– nere clarus, sed qui moribus egregiis all the MSS. and all the other Edts. fuerit. Vid. Stobaum serm. 84, ex vers. read, them.--Ed. Gesner.-M.

2 another] All the MSS. and Edts. 8 their fortunes do somewhat gild, fc.] 1642 read, and.-Ed. “ Et genus et formam regina pecunia 3 in the integrity and cradle of well donat.Hor. Epist. I. i. 6.--M. ordered polities:] “ In those well order

9 Doradoes] From the Spanish, Dora- ed polities whose entireness was yet undo, a gilt-head, gilt-poll.-J. W. broken, and their freshness unimpaired.

The epithet is evidently in allusion to Sir Thomas uses integrity in the same the preceding sentence: “ Though their sense in the following passage ;--"who fortunes do somewhat gild their infirmi- go with healthful prayers unto the last ties, &c."--Ed.

scene of their lives, and in the integrity Diogenes, qui ne pouvait souffrir ces of their faculties return their spirit unto gens-là devant ses yeux, voyant une fois God that gave it." Christian Morals un de ces fanfarons, ou de ces galands, p. i, § 4.--Ed. avec un habit tout chamarré d'or et

aspect, and will single out a face, wherein they spy the signaįtures and marks of mercy. For there are mystically in our

faces certain characters which carry in them the motto of our souls, wherein he that can read A B C may read our natures. I hold, moreover, that there is a phytognomy, or physiognomy, not only of men, but of plants and vegetables; and in every one of them some outward figures which hang as signs or bushes of their inward forms.? The finger of God hath left an

4 passion] In the sense of suffering,bush, 't is true that a good play needs no sympathy.- Ed.

epilogue, &c.” 5 direct and] Omitted in all the MSS. To which passage we find in Boswell's and Edts. 1642.-Ed.

Edition of Malone's Shakspeare the fol6 can] MSS.W.f. R. read, cannot.-Ed. lowing note:

7 hang as signs or bushes, fc.] In “It appears formerly to have been the the epilogue to Shakspeare's As you like custom to hang a tuft of ivy at the door it, occurs the following passage :

of a vintner. I suppose ivy was rather “ If it be true that good wine needs no chosen than any other plant, as it has®

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