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passages, which, with slight variations, occur in his printed works—especially in Hydriotaphia, Quincunx, and Christian Morals, besides several of the Tracts entire, and of the Brampton Urns two copies, both differing from the printed copy. There is sufficient evidence too, that he was very willing to lend out his works, in manuscript; and some of his lesser pieces were even composed at the request of his friends and for their use. It is therefore easily to be supposed that one of those copies of Religio Medici, which he had lent, found its way "without his assent or privacy,” to the press.

When the work had thus unexpectedly made its appearance, it must have struck the author that his name would in all probability be speedily connected with it:-at the same time, its reception (though under the disadvantage of gross inaccuracy) was so flattering, that he probably felt little hesitation in determining to anticipate discovery by avowal, and thus secure to himself the credit and advantage of the work, together with the power of giving it such revision as he wished. In doing this, it was undoubtedly his object, not only to correct the clerical and typographical errors with which the spurious edition abounded, but to modify or expunge certain passages not suited to the temper of the times, or which his more cautious feelings, or altered opinions, made him wish to suppress: he was desirous, also, of making such additions as might justify his having called the former copy " broken and imperfect.” In short, he wished to supersede, and altogether to disown, that edition, and in all probability took care to remove every trace of its original;—for scarcely a fragment of the work remains amongst the Manuscripts he has left. But while the edition of 1643 is to be regarded as that which he intended for the public eye-I am persuaded, from comparing the alterations, additions, and omissions it exhibits, with the Manuscripts and surreptitious editions, that these not only have an equal claim to rank as his composition, but that they alone must be considered to exhibit the work as originally composed " for his own private exercise and satisfaction." In all the manuscript copies are to be found, without exception, those passages of the surreptitious edition which have been omitted in that of 1643, but not one of the numerous additions nor of the most important alterations it contains.-Now, as it has been shown that those manuscript copies most probably represent three distinct originals, their remarkable agreement with the surreptitious edition, where it differs from the genuine, strongly favours the opinion that the latter was not printed from an existing and more perfect manuscript, but from a copy then first prepared, for the express purpose of publication.—The former, in short, contains his private soliloquies, the latter his published opinions.

In the mean time, the surreptitious edition appears to have been rapidly sold, and a second impression of it was printed. Neither of these has a printed title-page, but both have an engraved frontispiece, by Marshall, representing a figure, which a hand from the clouds has caught by the arm, in the act of falling from a rock into the sea; the motto à coelo salus is engraved by the side of the figure, and Religio Medici below it: at the foot of the plate, Printed for Andrew Crooke, 1642. Will. Marshall scu. Both impressions are in very small octavo; the one has 190 pp., the other 159 pp.;—the latter has a larger page of type, but is much more accurately and better printed, and probably is the later of the two. These impressions are extremely rare, especially the former, of which my copy is the only one I have seen. In some of the following notes, it is mentioned as Ed. 1642, W.-the other, as Ed. 1642, C.

Whether the engraved frontispiece had any other origin than the fancy of Marshall the engraver, it is difficult to say, but it seems to have pleased that of Browne; for it appears at the head of his first, and has accompanied every subsequent, edition. The author's frontispiece however differs from the former, in not having Religio Medici in the middle of the design, nor the engraver's name; it has at foot the following words ;-A true and full copy of that which was most imperfectly and surreptitiously printed before under the name of Religio Medici. Printed for Andrew Crooke, 1643. In a perfect copy of this edition in the Dean and Chapter's Library of Norwich, the frontispiece is followed by 4 pp. To the Reader ;—then the work, 183 pp. then Letter to Digby, his reply, and the notice signed A. B. and finally, “Errata;" together 190 pages. It is in very small 8vo.

In the same year appeared, Observations upon Religio Medici, occasionally written by Sir Kenelome* Digby, Knight; printed in the same size, and containing 124 pages. A second edition came out in 1644: the third was published, in 1659, with the fifth edition of Religio Medici, to which work it has ever since been appended, though written with reference to the surreptitious edition.

In 1645, that remarkable personage, Alexander Ross, made an attack on both parties, in his Medicus Medicatus: or the Physician's Religion cured, by a lenitive or gentle Potion : with some animadversions upon Sir Kenelme Digby's Observations on Religio Medici. pp. 112. very small 8vo. The work is dedicated “ To my worthy and ever honoured friend, Mr. Edward Benlowes Esquire.Browne's too great lenity towards Papists, his too free use of “ rhetorical phrase” in religious subjects, his apparent leaning to judicial astrology and other heresies, and the far too measured terms in which he questions certain opinions which Ross roundly condemns,form the general subject of his remarks; which, though often absurd, and sometimes ludicrous, are by no means devoid either of spirit or shrewdness,—though not remarkable, it must be confessed, for candour. In his animadversions on Sir Kenelm, which constitute a third of his book, he chiefly attacks the metaphysicks of the knight and his Catholicism. Some curious proofs of Ross's belief in certain of the vulgar superstitions of his day will be found in the notes, at pp. 132 and 133. The work, however, was not called into a second edition; nor did it provoke any other reply from Dr. Browne, than a fresh edition of his Religio Medici, in that year, 1645; which differs from the first only in having the last figure of the date altered in the plate, and the correspondence with Digby placed before instead of after the work :-—it has 188 pages. It is the second authorized edition, but should rather be considered the Fourth edition.

Among the editions of Religio Medici enumerated by Dr. Watt, in his invaluable work, Bibliotheca Britannica, is one dated 1648; but I have never been able to meet with it, and

An error undoubtedly;—the letter is signed, “ Kenelme Digby.”


am inclined to believe that the work was not reprinted till 1656, when the “ fourth” edition came out. This is the first with a printed title-page in addition to the frontispiece, which is retouched, and has the words “ Fourth Edition" added. But it was only the Third of the authorized editions, unless there was one between 1645 and 1656; if there was not, the surreptitious editions must have been included, but reckoned as one. In the present enumeration it is called

The Fifth Edition. It is in very small 8vo., and the title-page as follows:- Religio Medici. The Fourth Edition, corrected and amended, with Annotations, never before published, upon all the obscure passages therein. London: Printed by E. Cotes for Andrew Crooke, at the Green-Dragon in Paul's ChurchYard. 1656: after 16pp. of Prefaces, &c., and 174 pp.

of the work, follows another title-page;- Annotations upon Religio Medici, fc. then, 175—184, The Annolator to the Reader : and the Annotations, pp. 185—208.

There seems good reason to suppose that the Annotations were written by a Mr. Thomas Keck of the Temple. In the Bodleian* there is a copy of the Edition of 1643, which has his name on the cover, together with this memorandum, “ MS. Notes by Mr. Keck of the Temple.Brief marginal remarks are scattered through the volume, at many of those passages on which there are “Annotations," and the same authorities are referred to. There is also in this volume a very neat manuscript title, thus ;—Religio Medici. The Second Edition, corrected and amended, with Annotations never before published upon all the obscure passages therein, by T. K. London; Printed for A. Crooke, 1654: this agrees exactly, except the initials, with the title actually printed. He probably wrote his Annotations in the year 1644, using this very copy ;—for he says in the preface, (which bears the same date as the manuscript title,) “that these notes were collected ten years ago.” There is also still further coincidence: Mr. Keck was a lawyer; and the annotator, speaking of his profession, says, “I declare myself that I am causarum actor mediocris.So that, on the whole, there seems sufficient evidence to leave little reason for hesitation in announcing him as the author of the Annotations.

* Bibl. Bodl. Rawlinson. Svo. 675.

The Sixth Edition is the first that was published in conjunction with the other works. It accompanied the Fourth Edition of Pseudodoxia Epidemica, fol. 1659, and is printed in double columns. It contains neither the Annotations, nor Digby's Observations, nor the correspondence respecting them. It is called in the title-page, The Last Edition, corrected and enlarged by the Author; Printed for the good of the Commonwealth: and contains 34 pp. with title and preface.

The Seventh Edition. Religio Medici. The Fifth Edition, corrected and amended. With Annotations, fc. Also Observations by Sir Kenelm Digby, now newly added. London, Printed by Thomas Milbourn for Andrew Crook, at the Green Dragon in Pauls Church-yard, 1659;—small 8vo., 283 pp. This edition has a newly engraved frontispiece, date 1660.

The Eighth Edition is dated 1669, and is called the Sixth. But I have never been fortunate enough to obtain a copy, nor any other description of it than the following brief note in the hand-writing of its proprietor, since dead; Religio Medici -6th Edit. 1669. It is in small 8vo.

The Ninth Edition is with Pseudodoxia Epidemica, fc. the Sixth and last Edition, 4to, 1672 ; and is called The Seventh Edition ; London. Printed

for Andrew Crooke. The Tenth Edition. Religio Medici. The Seventh Edition, corrected and amended. With Annotations, fc. Also Obserrations, gc., London, Printed for R. Scot, T. Basset, J. Wright, R. Chiswell, 1678: small 8vo., pp. 374, and 20 pages, not numbered, of Prefaces, &c. The frontispiece has the number of edition and date altered, and the words for Andrew Crooke erased, and at London substituted.

The Eleventh Edition is precisely a reprint of the Tenthexcept that it is called The Eighth Edition, and dated 1682. My copy wants the frontispiece. This was probably the last edition published during the author's life. He died towards the close of the same year.

The Twelfth Edition forms part of the collective edition of the Works, edited by Archbishop Tenison, fol. 1686. It is singular that he should have taken so little pains to ascer

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