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Gi ( 125 ) Ghost, dead person. bHf. 3, 2. Kin to the hebr. | chai, life, and the pers. Gahs, good spirits, (Jzeds), of the day's parts. to Ghost, to haunt as a ghost. AC. 2, 6. Gib, gib cat, male cat. An expression exactly analogous to that of a Jack ass, the one being formerly called Gib, or Gilbert, in old French Tibert. Tib was also a common name for a cat. aHd. 1, 2. H. 3, 4. Douce's Ill. of Sh. I, 415. to Gibber, to gab, gabble, babble, jabber, gabber, gibe, jape. H. 1, 1. Alltogether relations, as varieties of the gr. chaō, chainō, engl. to yawn, jawn, chaun, to open the mouth, called also gab. The consonants being but later precipitates of earlier aspirations, their change must be the greater and the more licentious in a mixt and hybridous language chiefly, that fluctuates between various assonances of words and ideas.
to Gibbet, to hang on a gallows, (gibbet MW. 2, 2. aHd. 4, 2.) or any thing. bHd. 3, 2. that alludes to the manner of carrying a barrel by putting it on a sling. From the fr. gibet, ital. giubetto, giubette, kin to the hebr. gab, high,
Gibe, jest, mockery, scorn. MW. 3, 3. 4, 5. H. 5, 1. O. 4, 1.
Giber, mocker, jeerer. Co. 2, 1. S. to gibber. Gig, turning top. LL. 4, 3. 5, 1. Kin to the gr.
kiō, kikys, kikō, kichō, the engl. quick, etc. Giglet, giglot, gigle, wanton wench, drab, strumpet. MM. 5, 1. aHf. 5, 1. Cy. 3, 1. An assonance of the anglos. gagol, gaegl, lascivious, the engl. to giggle, gr. kichlizō, kichliskō, germ. kichern, the subst. giggle for mistress. S. Gifford's Ben Jons. III, 124. to Gild, to cover with foliated gold. MV. 2, 6. KJ. 2, 2; to pay, bHd. 4, 4., where the pun with gild and guilt: See also He. 2. ch. Rb. 2, 1. Gold was popularly styled red; hence to gild with blood a common phrase in the sixteenth century. M. 2, 2. Gilt, gilded, drunk. T. 5, 1. by a jocular allusion to the grand elixir of alchymists as stone. bHd. 3, 2. TA. 2, 2. or as aurum potabile bHd. 4,4. AC. 1,5. AW'. 5, 2. JC. 1, 3.
Gilded puddle AC. 1, 4. puddles of urine, where there is formed a film, which reflects all the prismatic colours and very principally yellow and other tinges of a golden hue. Gill, abridged for Gillet, from Julietta. RJ. 2,4. as Gillian CE. 3, 1. from Juliana. Gilt, gold, gilding. Rb. 2, 1. cHf. 2, 2. Gimmal, or gemmow is in general all what is mechanically artificial, and nicely or curiously formed machinery, mechanical work or performance; whence aHf. 1, 2. some odd gimmals. or device are joined, and He. 4, 2. g. bit is a curious bit. Of course gimmal and gimmer, or gimcrack, or curious contrivance or machinery are the same word-for / and r notoriously are changed not seldom-. The notion of double ring here intruded by an odd etymology must therefore be wholly abandoned. For the word is an assonance of the gr. keimelion, as well, meaning a curious, precious and therefore kept up thing, as of the german verb zimmern, kin to the gr. demein, the engl. timber, that is to work curiously in mechanics. Even by gim, gimmy, pretty, spruce, neat, it assonates the gr. komos, kompsos, komō, the engl. gimp, scot jimp, jemmy, the lat, comptus, comtus, of whom the general notion is the same. So it
will appear, that Nares' conjecture MD. 4, 1. jewel for gimmal is superfluous. Gin, snare to catch birds, trap. TN. 2, 5. M. 4, 2. bHf. 3, 1. cHf. 1, 4. Contracted, as it seems, from engine, like genius and ingenium. to Gin, to begin. M. 1, 2. Anglos. gynnan. Ginevra, king Arthur's false consort LL. 4, 1. Ginger, a sort of spice very current in Shk's times. aHd. 2, 1. WT. 4, 2. MM. 4, 3. MV. 3, 1. Gr. zingiberis. S. Douce's Ill. of Sh. I,
Gingerly, softly, heedfully, carefully. TG. 1, 2. Kin to the germ. zimperlich, zipperlich, zapp
lich. Gipsy, gipsey, giptian, Egyptian. AC. 4, 10. to Gird, to cut, or lash with wit, to reproach, fob, jeer. bHd. 1, 2. Co. 1, 1. Gird, a cut, sarcasm, stroke of satire. TS. 5, 2. aHf. 3, 1. Nares derives it from the sax. gyrd, virga, switch, germ. Gerte. Gifford's Ben Jons. III, 385. deems it a mere metathesis of gride, viz thrust, blow, metaphorically a smart stroke of wit, taunt, reproachful retort. Girdle. There is no discretion below the girdle, a proverb alluded to KL. 4, 6. by the words But to the g. do the gods inherit, beneath is all the fiends. cf. H. 2, 2. On fortunes cap we are not etc. Another proverb: If he be angry, let him turn the buckle of his girdle, or in Ireland turn his brogues, that is prepare himself for combat by turning the girdle behind, and to obtain redress, is alluded to MA. 5, 1. By Gis, Gisse, Jyse, Jis by Jesus! an oath. H. 4, 5. Gist, gest, lodging or stage for rest in a progress or journey, chiefly of the king, written in a scroll and containing also the time of staying at each place. WT. 1, 2. The fr. word gite. to Give off, to cease, leave off, to diminish, relent. AC. 4, 3. Given, endowed. bHƒ. 3, 1. JC. 1, 2. aHd. 3, 3. MM. 2, 1.
Gives, gyres, fetters for feet. MM. 4, 2. alld. 4, 2. Cy. 5, 4. RJ. 2, 2. H. 4, 7. From the gr. kyphōn, originally a crooked, courbed wood for shackling, from kybō, kypō, kyphō, kyptō. to Give, gyve, to fetter. O. 2, 1.
to Glance, to allude, give a hint of. MD. 2, 2. Kin to the gr. laō, glaussō, engl. gloss, to varnish over, of course to polish, forbish, make sleek, even, also in a metaphorical sense, assonant in to glose, wh. s.; leios, germ. gleissen; engl. glad, sax. glaed, glad, germ glatt, icel. gladr, gladvaer.
to Glare, to look with piercing eyes, to stare at. KL. 3, 6. H. 3, 4. Kin to flare, by the gr. laō (s. to glance), and the lowsax. glaren, gloren, to glow like coals, whence angloren, anglotzen (gr. glaussein), glarogig, metath. grallogig, answering to the homerical glaukop's. Of the same root is
to Glass, to euclose in a glass. LL. 2, 1. Gleam, a beam of light, corrected by Voss MD. 5, 1. for beam, or stream. The lineage extends itself farther to glow, glimmer, gleen, glimpse (gr. lampō, lampsō) glisten, gloss. leusso), germ. glühen, glimmen, sux. leoman, lioman, geleoman, radiare, coruscare, lucere, lat. lumen, flamma. S. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 373. Gleeful, joyful, mirthful, merry. Tản. 2, 3. The primitive word glee is used by Chaucer and in Tristan 2. 7. 10. 13 for music, so that
it is from the sax. gligg, glie, gle, kin to the gr. kaleō, klazō, klangō, germ. klingen, Klang, engl. gleek, transferred to mirth, and joy. There assonates however also the gelaō, to laugh. Gleek, jest, scoff. aHf. 3, 2. From the sax.glig, ludibrium, jest. S. gleeful. To give the gleek, to pass a jest upon, to make appear ridiculous. RJ. 4, 5. Douce's Ill. of Sh. I, 192. to Gleek, to jest, scoff at. MD. 3, 1. He. 5, 1, where gleek and gall, wh. s. The nearest etymon of this word in this meaning is the gr. glaux, owl, as mocking bird in mythology. Gleek, a game at cards, played by three persons with 44 cards, each hand having 12, and 8 being left for the stock. Gleek were 8 cards of a sort, as 3 aces, 8 kings etc. from the germ. gleich. To this and the double meaning of scoffing is alluded Rb. 4, 5.
to Glew, or glue, to join with a viscous cement,
to Gloom, to be dark, tenebrous, to look
te Glut, to cloy, overfill, swallow. T. 1, 1.
to Gnarl, to snarl. Rb. 1, 3. bHf. 3, 1. Sax.
Goad, sting, pointed stick to prick oxen forward. WT.1, 2. where it is joined to thorns, nettles, tails of wasps.
one of the mates or pheres of Bacchus, a company like the Satyri and Fauni. The idea was individually formed and framed by every people, and accommodated to the language, and vice versa. It implies however the notion of a playful, merry, droll, harmless spirit. S. Douce's Ill. of Sh. I, 892.
God 'ild or dild you, corrupt form instead of god yield or give you some advantage. AL. 3, 8. 5, 4. S. M. 1, 6. AC. 4, 2.
to Goad, to stimulate, incite. MM. 2, 2. AW.
Goal, landmark set up to bound a race; aim,
From the gr. kypellon.
God before, either god going before, assisting, guiding, favouring, or be fore, viz god may defend, assist, shield by an archaism. He. 1, 2. 3, 6.
God's blessing. To go out of god's bl. into
Gore, blood. M. 2, 3. He. 4, 6. TA. 3, 5. Oldgerm. Grau, cambr. crau, bohem. krew, lat. cruor, from the gr. kraō, aeol. krauō, lat. creo, to curd, kin to crew, crystal.
to Gore, to prick, stab, pierce, bore. Rb. 1, 3. TC. 1, 1. 3, 3. KL. 5, 8. Probably kin to the gr. kerō, keraō, karō, keirō, keraizō, to shear, cut, kill, send a ship to the bottom. The verb. bore, sax. geborian, whence Johnson derives it arbitrarily, lay in other series of notions; and perhaps it would not be absurd, to hear assonate the precedent word.
to Gorge, to fill the gorge, to feed. KL. 1, 1. TS. 4, 1; to swallow, devour. JC. 5, 1. From the lat. gurges.
Gorgeous, pompous, magnificent, stately, splendid. T. 4, 1. aHƒ. 5, 4. KL. 2, 4. Gorget, piece of armour to defend the neck, TC. 1, 3. No doubt originally the gorge, and therefore the same with habergeon, heburgeon, hauberk, germ. Halsberge.
to Gormandize, to gluttonize, banket. MV. 2, 5. bHd. 5, 5. In French gourmand, from the lowsax. Körmann, from kören, kiesen, to choose, to taste, gr. geuein.
sand; to make stop, to perplex. AL. 4, 1. Gravel seems a labial form of grail, fr. grêle, transposed from glarea, like the germ. Gries, gr. cheras.
Gr Gorse, goss, furze, the low sort that only grows to Gravel, to cover with gravel (Hh. 1, 1.) or upon wet ground; it has prickles like those on a rosetree, or gooseberrybush. T. 4, 1. Originally furze and gorse seem however to have been the same word. Gospell'd, bound by the gospel, pious, reli- Gray malkin, Grimalkin, a fiend supposed to gious. M. 3, 1. Gospel is god's spell, god's resemble a grey cat. M. 1, 1; a cat. S. Malkin. letter or word. to Graze, to fret (wh. s.), gall, glance, as a Gossamer, gossomer, gossamour, properly bullet. He. 4, 3. O. 4, 1. In this signification cotton; light downy matter; the long floating it is kin to the gr. rhaō. s. fret, and add cobwebs seen in fine weather in the air, all- chrauō, grauō, graō, graphō, chraō. In the hallown-summer. KL. 4, 5. RJ. 2, 6. From the other of feeding on grass, it is from the latter gr. gausapos, lat. gossipium, fr. gossampine. word, kin to the gr. grastis, krastis, sax. Gossip, relation or sponsor in baptism; familiar gaers, graes, related to chortos. Cf. Horne acquaintance, chiefly tattling women. TG. 3, 1. Tooke Div. of P. II, 375. CÊ. 5, 1. MD. 2, 1. MV. 3, 1. WT. 2, 3. Sax. Greedy, covetous, eager, desirous. MW. 1, 3. godsibbe, whence Chaucer's godsib, from the Goth. gredig, ind. gridhne, sax. graedig, sax. syb, sippe, germ. Sippe, kin to the lat. germ. Gier, gierig, kin to the gr. kear, ker. cippus, prosapia, germ. Saft. Greek, jovial fellow, fond of good living and to Gossip, to act as a gossip, to stand sponsor free potations; whence the proverb as merry to any one in giving a name. AW. 1, 1. as a Greek, corrupted since into grig. TC.1, 2. Goujere, goodjer, goujeer, the french disease, 4, 4; pander, bawd. TN. 4, 1. Gifford's Ben KL. 5, 3. corrupted to good year, like to the Jons. III, 261. observes 'That patronymic apital. malanno, and vice versa; for goujere or pellation, like Trojan, Lacedaemonian etc. goodjer is an exclamation. MA. 1, 3. bнd. 2, 4. was merely used as augmentative and must be MW. 1, 4. It is derived from the fr. gouge, understood from the context. a trull; but that etymology seems not altogether Green, unexperienced, unskilful. KJ. 3, 4. 0. to be questionless, so that one might suspect 2, 1. H. 1, 3; fresh. TC. 2, 8. H. 1, 2. yet a far deeper corruption of some word or Greenly, unskilfully. O. 2, 1. words, like guajac, gout, germ. Gicht, Kopf-Greenness Warburton restores for grossness schur (answering to the french crown. At least of his years Rc. 3, 1. terms like the lowsax. Dumm Jörkenpulver for Green sickness, chlorosis. AC. 3, 2. RJ.3, 5. pulvis gummi guttae, Violenrumor for philo- Greensleeves, an old popular ballad of the nium romanum show evidently the licentious- amorous kind. The character of Lady Greenness of the language. sleeves is rather suspicious; for green was a colour assumed by loose women. MW.2, 1. 5, 5. Gregory, St, pope Hildebrand. TG. 4, 2. aHd. 5, 3.
In Government, regularly, according to the time. MD. 5, 1.
Gourd, a species of false dice, probably bored internally, with a secret cavity. MW. 1, 3. S. fullam.
Gouty, that has the gout (germ. Gicht.) TA. 4, 8.
Grace at meat was often said in metre. MM.
Grice, greece, greese, grieze, grize, grise,
Griefshot, shot, hit by grief. Co. 5, 1.
to Grin, to gnar, grumble. bHf. 3, 1. S. to
to Grind, to bruise, crush. Co. 3, 2. AC. 3, 5. TC. 1, 1; to whet, sharpen. H. 5, 2. Anciently grint, grinst, grynst, kin to the gr. rhaiō, rhaō, rhassō, thraō.
Gripe, grype, vulture. Sometimes old writers inadvertantly use the word for grife, or gryphe, the griffin. Gifford's Ben Jons. IV, 61; paw, talon, fist, hand. Hh. 5, 2. M. 3, 1. In Germ. Griff, from greifen, gr. chriō, chriptō, chrimptō.
Gripe, to hold with the fingers closed, to seize, close. Rb. 2, 1. alld. 5, 2; to pinch, press, squeeze. Cy. 3, 1. Hh. 2, 2. S. to grapple. Grisly, horrible, ghastly. aHf. 1, 4. From the
gr. rhissō, rhigeō, phrissō, krissō, to bristle, wh. s., to be rough. Grizzle, grizzled, gray black. AC. 3, 11. H. 1, 2. TN. 5, 1.
to Groan, to breathe with a hoarse noise. TA. 3, 2. LL. 4,3. S. to grin, and compare further the gr. krainein, krēnē, the austr. grainen, lat. grunnire, fr. gronder, pers. gharendieh, rugiens.
Groin, parts about the privities. bHd. 2, 4. Kin Gurnet, gurnard, a fish of the piper kind, to the gr. choiras, tumour of the jugular glands.
probably a very bad and vulgar dish, when
Groom, 'denotes always attendance, observance,
Grove, place covered with trees. aHd. 1, bHf. 1, 2. Sax. graef, middlelat. grava, probably because surrounded with a grave, or ditch.
to Grovel, to. creep. bHf. 1, 2. 1, 4. Kin to creep, croop, gr. herpō, serpo, repo, germ. krabbeln.
Ground, soil, land. H. 1, 1; air or musical
to Grub up, to dig up, to root up, to extirpate.
to Guard, to ornament with guards or facings.
Guile, fraud, deceit, treason. aHf. 4, 1.
Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 324. Add to those
Gules, red fields in heraldry; red. TA. 4, 8. H. 2, 2. from gula, gall. gueule, vocabulum, quo frequenter utuntur feciales nostri ad designandum in armis seu insignibus rubeum colorem. Est autem gula pellis rubricata.
Gulf, stomach, paunch. M. 4, 1. Gr. kolpos.
Gust, sudden, violent blast. aHf. 5, 6. bHƒ. 3, 2. cHf. 3, 1. Co. 1, 6; top, height. TA. 3, 5. Icel. gustr, giostr is cool wind.
to Gust, to taste. WT. 1, 2. Kin to the lat. gustus, gustare, gr. geuō, engl. choose, germ. kosten.
Haberdasher, one who sells small fashionable wares, pedler. Hh. 5, 3. cf. TS. 4, 3. where there is some catalogue; and Walt. Scott's Heart of Midloth. I, 85. where 'hosiers, glovers, hatters, mercers, milliners and all who dealt in the miscellaneous wares now termed haberdasher's goods.' It is derived from berdash, a kind of necklace, or from the germ. habt ihr das (ridiculously enough!) But there seems rather to lay in the word averium, ware, and the germ. Tasche, budget, bag, likewise as budget, bag and pocket, of course the dental letters related, as the labial ones. So it would be one that has a bag or budget of wares. Hack, to cut, chop. The appropriate term for chopping off the spurs of a knight, when he was to be degraded. MW. 2, 1. whence it is to become cheap and vulgar, alluding to the prodigality of James I., in bestowing these honours (cf. Warburton at 0. 3, 4). Ibid. 4, 1. he teaches him to hick and to hack in Mrs. Quickly's cant punning with hic, haec seems to mean to make whores, to debauch, and would answer to the german hucken und hocken, or hecken und höckern.
Hackney, hired, much used, common. LL. 3, 1. Whether from equus, or from the germ. Höker, is uncertain.
to Hackney, to lend, put, let out, to lease. alld. 3, 2.
Hag, witch. T. 1, 2. WT. 2, 8. M. 4, 1. aHƒ. 3, 2. 5, 4. bHf. 4, 1. KL. 2, 4. From the gr. aix, coat, form of the frightening god in mythology.
Haggard, a hawk not manned, or trained to
obedience, a wild hawk. O. 3, 3. MA. 3, 2. TS. 4, 1. Kin to hawk, sax. hafoc, hafue, havoc, germ. Habicht, Hacht, Falk, falco, faucon, auca, oca, sax. gof, aquila, gawk. to Haggle, to maim, mangle. He. 4, 6. Kin to
Hair, grain, wh. s., texture, quality of any
calm does domineer; hence for placid, quiet, peaceful, still. aHf. 1, 2. Half caps, half bows, slight salutations with the cap. TA. 2, 2. Halffaced, showing only half the face, the rest being concealed. bHf. 4. 1. Said also of a face drawn in profile. KJ. 1, 1. where half face alludes to a thin, meagre face, half formed, as it were, as bld. 3, 8. aĦd. 1, 8. Half kirtle, a common dress of courtesans, a short skirted loose bodied gown. bHd. 5, 4. Halfsword, at close fight, or handstrokes. aйd. 2, 4.
Halidom, holiness, faith, sanctity, honesty.
burdocks, bordocks, hardokes, hoardocks. The Harm, malice, wickedness. aHd. 2, 4. Sax. gr. eryngion, the lat. eruca seems to assonate, yrmth, iermth, what hurteth, from yrman laedere. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 425. Harness, armour. M. 5, 5; horse trappings. TS. 1, 2; instruments of war. aHd. 3, 2. From the fr. harnois, it. arnese, by the sax. ar, iren, engl. iron, cambr. haiarn, kin to the lat. ues; germ. Harnisch.
to Harrow, to break with the harrow. Co. 5, 8; to vex, plunder, torment, confound, perplex. H. 1, 1. 1, 5. AC, 3, 3. In this latter meaning, unless corrupted from harry, yet the same in notion, and kin to harass, from the sax. her¬ gian, gr. arassō; whereas in the originary notion kin to rake, germ. Rechen, provincially Harke, kin to the fr. charrue, the lat. irpices, sirpices, urpices.
Hatch, to engrave, or mark with lines. TC. 1, 8. From the fr, hacher.
A hall, a hall, an exclamation commonly used to make room in a crowd. RJ. 1, 5. Gifford's Ben Jonson VI, 235. VII, 416Hallowmas, the mass or feastday of All-hallows, to or all Saints. Nov. 2. On all Saint's day the poor people went from parish to parish a soul-Hatches, the openings by which they descend ing, that is, begging in a certain lamentable from one deck of a ship to another, bHf. 3, 2. tone, for a kind of cakes called soulcakes, and Rc. 1, 4. T. 1, 2. KJ. 5, 2. singing a song which they call the souler's Hatchment, escutcheon put upon the wall of song. TG. 2, 1. Rb. 5, 1. MM. 2, 1. a house, where a person died. H, 4, 5. Gifford's to Hamper, to fetter, entangle, perplex, seduce. Ben Jons. V, 289. It is esteemed to be a corbHf. 1, 3. where hamper and dandle are joined. ruption of atchievment, Kin to hemp, lat. canabis, sax. haenep, germ. where the case is perhaps rather reversed, since hatchment is Hanf. Hamstring, senew nearer to hatchet, that very well in heraldry or tendon of the hip. could be an emblem of lordly jurisdiction, or TC. 1, 3. Hand. A hot and moist or oily hand was ac- Having, estate, fortune. MW, 3, 2. WT. 4, 3. right on life and death. counted a sign of an amorous constitution, M. 1, 3. 0.4, 3. TN. 3, 4. He. 2, 3, 3, 2. TA. dry and cold one sign of debility and age. TN. 2, 2. Germ. Habe, 1, 3. AC. 1, 2. O. 3, 4. VA. 5. — At any hand, at any rate, at all events. TS. 1, 2. sometimes any hand. AW. 3, 6. of all hands LL. 4, 5. Of his hands, of his inches, of his size; a hand being the measure of four inches. MW. 1, 4. WT. 5, 8. At my hand, on my behalf. MA. 5, 2. Handfast, hold, custody, confinement. WST. 4,3. Handy dandy, a play, where somewhat is held in the hands, and is to be guessed by another, answering to Hocuspocus. KL. 4, 6. Hanger, loops in which the dagger was constantly worn, adorned with fringes and tassels of needlework, often very costly. H. 5, 2. S. Gifford's Ben Jons. II, 449. cf. carriage. Germ. Gehenk, Henkel, Haken. Hanging, tapestry, hanging carpet. TS. 2, 1. bHf. 5, 2; the action of suspending by the neck. Hanging and wiving go by destiny, a proverb T. 1, 1. MV. 2, 9. Hence a good hanging prevents a bad marriage. TN. 1, 5. Harbinger, forerunner, an officer in the royal household, whose duty was to allot and mark the lodgings of all the king's attendants in a progress. H. 1, 1. From the germ. herbergen, properly to lodge or quarter an army, engl. to harbour. Hardiment, courage, acts of courage. aHd.
Haviour, for behaviour. TN. 3, 4. Cy. 3, 4.
to Haunt, to frequent, to trouble, vex by
Hare was called melancholy on account of her
to Hawk, to spit, to retch in spitting. AL.5, 3.