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148 Of the Princes and Minorities in ENGLAND. April
name of Henry III. was proclaimed king that time the eldest sons of our kings have
by those barons who had remained attached always been called, and generally created
to the father ; and they having chosen princes of Wales, tho' they still retained the
the wise earl of Pembroke regent of the title of princes of England, and since the
kingdom, and guardian of the infant king, union that of princes of Great-Britain,
he in a short time recovered the affec which is the most honourable title, and
tions of the people, drove the French which they have without creation.
out of the kingdom, and established his A. Upon Edward's death he was succeeded
infant fovereign upon the throne. But by his son Edward, called Edward II, who
he died in less than three years after he was had but one son named Edward, whom he
appointed regent ; and in his room the created prince of Wales ; but he governed
bihop of Winchester was appointed regent, so ill that a rebellion was raised again him,
and Hubert de Burgh chief justiciary of headed by his own queen, who had got
England, during the king's minority, who along with her his only son ; and he had
did not govern near fo prudently.

fo entirely last the affections of the people,
However, Henry cont nued in peaceable that he could make no resistance ; but was
poffeffion till by his own mismanagement, B taken as he was endeavouring to make his
after he was declared of age by the parlia- escape to Ireland, deposed, imprisoned, and
men', tho'not then 19, he raised the barons then murdered.
in rebellion against him, who headed by In his room, his son Edward was de.
the earl of Leicester, defeated and took clared king by the name of Edward III.
him prisoner at the battle of Lewes, but and as he was but 13 years old, the parlia.
in about a year after, he was released by ment appointed a regency, who were all
his eldest son Edward, after having de probably of the queen mother's nomination;
feated the earl of Leicester's army at the C for the kept the government entirely in her
battle of Evesham, where the earl himself own hands, and administered it chiefly by
was killed.

her favourite Roger Mortimer, whom the Henry added the title of prince of Wales got created earl of March. But Edward to that of prince of England, in the per growing fenfible of his mother's misconduct, fon of his eldest son Edward, and his when he was but 16, he by stratagem other fon Edmund he created earl of surprised her and her favourite in the castle Lancaster ; but Edward could never in of Nottingham, and made them prisoners; his father's life-time make good h:s title to after which he called a new parliament, and the principality of Wales ; and when his D by chat parliament he was declared of age, fallier died, he was upon an expedition to and the earl of March was impeached, the Holy Land ; but as he had acquired a condemned and executed. great character by his conduct and bravery Edward had five fons, Edward, como in battle, and especially by the mercy he monly called the Black Prince, Lionel duke Thewed even to his rebel enemies, after he of Clarence, John duke of Lancaster, Ed. had conquered them, notwithstanding his mund duke of York, and Thomas duke of absence, he was upon his father's death Gloucester. The prince Edward was, as proclaimed king without the least difficulty, E usual, created prince of Wales and earl of and the archbishop of York, the earl of Chester ; and as the tille and estate of Cornwall, his coulin, and the earl of Cornwall had reverted to the crown by Gloucer.er, were appointed by the council, failure of the heirs of Richard, brother có and sooo after confirmed by the parliament, Henry III. the king erected it into a as regents of the kingdom till his return. Dutchy, had both title and estate annexed

Edward had fix fons, John, Henry, Al to the crown, and so settled upon his ron phonfus, Edward, Thomas, and Edmund. Edward, that for the future they should John died while he was upon his expedi. always belong to the eldest son of the king ; lion in the Holy Land, and Henry and F fince which time the eldest fon of the king Alphonsus foon after his return. Edward has at his birth, or father's accession, (ucfucceeded him, Thomas was created earl ceeded heredirarily to the title and estate of of Norfolk, and Edmund earl of Kent. duke of Cornwall, and they have generally

As Edward, a few years after his return, been created princes of Wales and earls of made an intire conquest of Wales, he not Chester. only gave the titles of prince of Wales and But this brave prince Edward died before earl of Chester to Edward his then eldest son, his father, leaving one only (m, named but put him in possesBon of all the estates G Richard, who was soon after by his grand, helonging to the crown in both; and to father created prince of Wales, duke of Secure the affection of the Welch, he car Cirnwall, and earl of Chester; for as he was ried his queen then with child to Caernar not son of the king he had not hereditarily pon, where she brought forth Edward, by the said act a right co ne title or estate that the Welch might say, they had fill of Cornwall, a prince of their own country ; and since

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1751. Of the Princes and Minorities in ENGLAND.

149 This Richard succeeded to his grand Henry having been dethroned, and imfather by the name of Richard II. and as prisoned, where he died or was murdered, he was but eleven years of age, the parlia. Edward duke of York mounted the throne, ment appointed his three surviving uncles, which he claimed as his right, being by his Lionel the eldest being dead, together with grandmother, daughter to the earl of fome bishops and lay lords, to be regents of March, the lineal heir of Lionel duke of the kingdom during his minority ; but at Clarence, second son of Edward III. the same time they appointed others to A This Edward, called Edward IV, had take care of his person and education. two sons, Edward whom he created prince

As Richard was violent in his temper, of Wales and earl of Chester, and Richard he assumed upon himself the government whom he created duke of York; but he before he was 18, and he made fo bad a died in the infancy of his two sons, and use of it, that at last a rebellion was raised his brother Richard, duke of Gloucester, against him, headed by his cousin, Henry,

caused himself to be appointed protector by eldest son of John duke of. Lancaster, to * pack'd council. whom he was forced to resign his crown, Young Edward was accordingly proand being imprisoned was there murdered, B claimed king by the name of Edward v. without leaving any issue.

but he reigned but a few months; for the Upon Richard's refignarion, Henry was protector usurped the crown, and got both declared king, by the name of Henry IV. the young king and his brother murderto the prejudice of Roger earl of March, ed in the Tower, where he had them con. grandson of Lionel duke of Clarence, by fined. his daughter and only child Philippa, who Richard, who was proclaimed king, by had been declared next heir to the crown the name of Richard III. had a lon named by act of parliament in Richard's reign. C Edward, whom he created prince of Wales As soon as Henry was crowned he de

and earl of Chester, but the young prince clared Henry his eldest son prince of Wales,

died foon after, and the father foon met duke of Cornwall, and earl of Chester ; and with a juft reward for his crimes ; for in befides this son he had Thomas duke of the beginning of the third year of his usurped Clarence, John duke of Bedford, and Hum reign, he was defeated and killed in the phrey duke of Gloucester.

battle fought in Bosworth field between Upon Henry's death he was Rucceeded by him and Henry earl of Richmond, heir of his eldest ron Henry, by the name of

the house of Lancaster, who was there

D Henry V. who added to our kings titles upon declared king by the name of Henry that of France, and dying young left but

VII, and by marrying the eldest daughter, one son, an infant of 9 or 10 months of Edward IV, he put an end to the fatal old, who succeeded him by the name of dispute between the two houses of York Henry VI.

and Lancaster. As Henry came so young to the crown, By this marriage Henry had two sons, he was never created carl of Chefter or Arthur and Henry. Arthur was created prince of Wales, but by coming to be king prince of Wales and earl of Chester, but he succeeded to them as heir to his father, Ehe dying without issue in the life-time of those titles being always granted to the his father, Henry who had before been prince and his heirs kings of England ; and created duke of York, was created prince as he was so young, the parliament appointed of Wales and earl of Chester, and upon the duke of Bedford to be protector of the the death of his father fucceeded to the kingdom when present, and in his absence crown, by the name of Henry VIII. the duke of Gloucester, the duke of Cla Henry VIII. had likewise two sons, rence having been before killed in France ; Henry by Catharine of Arragon, and Ed. byt at the same time they appointed a

F

ward by Jane Seymour ; but Henry died council of regency, none of whom could in the second month after he was born, be removed without authority of parlia. and consequently was never created prince ment; and they committed the care of the of Wales or earl of Chester ; and tho' king's person and education to the duke of Edward was called prince of Wales, there Exeter and bishop of Winchester.

is no record of his having been ever lo Henryhad one only son named Edward, created. whom he 'reated prince of Wales and earl However, Edward fucceeded to the of Chester but cho' he had a long, he crown upon the death of his father, by the had a moftlyfortunate reign ; for before G name of Edward VI, and as he was but he was of age we loft almost every thing his nine years old, his father had by his will father had acquired in France; and at appointed 16 regents with equal autho. Jaft he lost the crown and kingdom of rity to govern the kingdom during the England, as well s his only son, who was king's minority, but they were to go. killed in cold blood fter being caken prisoner vern by the advice of a privy council of of the battle of Texasbury,

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150 Account of the celebrated SHAKESPEAR. April 12 persons all named in the will, none of duke of Gloucester, January 10, 1917-18, whom they could remove. As this was by proxy installed knight of the garter, April a form of government inexecutable, it was 30, 1718, created duke of Edinburgh, July soon new moulded : The duke of Somerset, 15, 1726 ; and upon his father's acceffion the king's uncle, was declared protector, and he became of course duke of Cornwall, la got the whole power into his own hands; the year 1728, he was sent for from Ha. but a faction soon formed itself against bim, nover and arrived at St. James's, Dec. 4 ; headed by the eart of Warwick, afterwards A and, on Jan. 9, following, he was crea. duke of Northumberland, by which the ted prince of Wales and earl of Chester, regent was degraded, and afterwards be. Upon his decease, his eldest son, George headed, and the former got thereby tho William Frederick, was, on the 22d init. whole power into his hands. Whether to created, (see p. 187.) And to the duke this last had any design upon the king's life dom of Cornwall he has not, without a is uncertain, but he certainly had a design new creation, a right, because by the limi. to get the crown into his family, for which tation it belongs only to the e deft son of the he lost his head in the next reign ; and as king, and consequently, as his father never the young king was seized with a distemper, B was king, cannot by law belong to him. of which he afterwards died, in about As we bave bere exbibited a beautiful Copper a year after the death of his uncle, the duke Plate of ebe Monument erected but a few of Northumberland was violently suspected Years ago, in Westminster Abbey, to be of having been the cause of his death.

Memory of that most celebrarid of all our As Edward was succeeded first by hig dramatick Writers, Mr. WILLIAM filter Mary, and then Elizabeth, we had SHAKESPEAR, (fee Mag: for 1741, no prince of Wales till the accession of p. 99.) it may be juftly expected that we James I. who had two sons, Henry and o foould give some Account of bis Life, wbicb Charles : Henry was created prince of we present our Readers wirb as follows. Wales and earl of Chester ; but dying be. HIS extraordinary man, to whom

nature gave so vast a genius, that bis his room, and upon his father's death suce imagination, thought and expression seem'd ceeded to the crown.

almoft unbounded and inexhaustible, was Charles had three fons, Charles, who born at Stratford upon Avon, in Warwickfoon after his birth was created prince of thire, in April, 1564. His father was Mr. Wales and earl of Chester ; James, created John Shakespear, of a good family in those duke of York; and Henry, created duke D parts, and a considerable dealer in wool; of Gloucester.

but having ten children, his substance was Upon the murder of Charles, his ron not lo large, but that he was obliged to Charles succeeded to the crown by the bring up this son, tho' his eldest, to his name of Charles II. but did not come own employment. He sent him, for some to the poffeffion till 1660, foon after time, indeed, to a free-[chool, where, 'tis which his brother Heory died; and as probable, he acquired what Latin he was Charles died without any legitimate issue, master of ; but the narrowness of his cir he was succeeded by his brother. James, é cumstances, and the want of his affistance who had a son born in 1688, called James, at home, made his father take him from and presently after his birth created prince school, and to prevented his further profi. of Wales and earl of Chester ; but as his ciency. But whatever he wanted in leamfather abdicated the crown before the end ing, nature amply supplied; and perhaps of the year, the son is now called the pre his unacquaintance with the antienis gave tender.

his genius a freer scope, than it might have Upon the abdication of James, William had if he had been ever lo well versed in prince of Orange was declared king, by them. For tho the knowledge of chern the name of William III. As he died with. F might have made him more correct, yet out issue, and as Q. Anne's son, William his over attention to that correctness might duke of Gloucester, died before he came have abated that fire, and restrained that to the crown, we had no prince of Wales, impetuosity, and even beautiful extravatill the accession of his late majesty, who gance, which we so much admire in soon after his arrival in England created his Shakespear. only son, now our most gracious king, Upon his being taken from school, he prince of Wales and earl of Chester, he seemed to think of nothing else but entirely having before been created duke of Cam. devoting himself to the burrels his father bridge and installed knight of the garter ; defigned him for ; and in oder to settle in and upon his late majesty's demise, he luce

the world in that way, he married, while ceeded to the crown, by the nam of

he was yet very young, the daughter of George II.

one Hathaway; a subrantial yeoman in Frederick Lewis, his eldest son, now de.

the neighbourhood. I this kind of life ceased, was by his late majesty created

(the

1751.

Account of the celebrated SHAKESPEAR. 151 he continued for some time ; but having, his lively wit and engaging manners proby a misfortune too common to young fel cured him the acquaintance and friendship. lows, fallen into bad company, some of of the gentlemen of the neighbourhoud, whom made a frequent pra&ice of deer. In that country they have a tradition to this stealing, he was engaged with them more day, that he had a particular intimacy with than once in robbing the park of Sir Tho Mr, Combe, an old gentleman noted for mas Lucy, of Cherlecot, near Stratford, his wealth, and for being a great usurer ; who prosecuted him for it ; and as he A and that in a pleasant conversation with thought him too severe, to be revenged, him and other friends, Mr. Combe merrily he made a ballad upon him, which, prom told Shakespear, that he fancied he intende bably, was the first eslay of his poetry, ed to write his epitaph, if he happened to tho it be now loft. However, 'tis said to out-live him, and since he could not know have been so very bitter, that it redoubled

what might be said of him when he was the prosecution against him ; so that he dead, he desired it might be done immedia was forced to leave his bufiness and family “ately : Upon which Shakespear gave him in the country, for some time, and take Thelter in London. Tho' this was certain

the following lines : B

Ten in tbe bundred lies bere ingrav'd, ly at that time a blemish upon his charac 'Tis a bundred to ten bis soul is not fao'd: ter, and seemed at first to be a misfortune

If any man ask, wbó lies in tbis romb ? to him ; yet it afterwards proved the oc.

OL! bo! quorbibe devil, 'ris my Jobned. cafion of exerting one of the greatest ge. Como nius's in dramatick poetry that ever was known.

But the sharpness of the satire is said to For as the abovementioned accident

have Nung the man so severely, that he brought him to London, so it occafioned C never forgave it.

Shakespear died in 1616, in the <3d year his first acquaintance with the play.

of his age, and was buried on the north ers ; among whom tho' he ac first stood in

fide of the chancel, in the great church at a very mean rank, yet his admirable wit, and the natural turn of it to the Nage, roon

Stratford, where a monument is placed in

the wall. On his grave-ftone underneath distinguished him, if not as an extraordioa

are there lines : ry actor, yet as an excellent writer, What parts lie acted in feveral plays is yntertain;

Good friend, for Jefus' fake forbear but, it seems; the top of his

performance D

To dig the dust inclosed bere. was the ghost in his own Hamlet. Befides Blef be tbe man ibat spares obese stones, his furprizing and almost inimitable wit,

And curft be be obat moves my

bones, he was a very good-natured man, of great He had three daughters, of whom two sweetness in his temper and manners, and lived to be married, and had children ; but a most delightful companion ; which excel. there all died without issue, lent qualities brought him acquainted with Mr. Pope says, if ever an author dethe best perfons of his time. Q. Elizabeth ferved the name of an original, it was had several of his plays acted before her, Shakespear.-His characters are so much and, without doubt, gave him many gra. E nature herself, that it is a sort of incious marks of her favour : She was so jury to call them copies of her.-Every well pleased with his character of Falstaff, fingle character in him is as much an indiin the two parts of Henry IV. that the vidual as those in life itself. The power comminded him to continue it for one play over our passions was never poffeffed in more, and to lhew him in love ; which is a more eminent degree, or displayed in Taid to bave been the occasion of his wri fo different instances : Yet all along there ting'Tbe MerryWives of Windsor. But the is no labour, no pains to raise them :-We particular nocice and encouragement of F are surprized the moment we weep ; and the queen was not his only advantage : yet upon reflection find the passion so just, The earl of Southampton, so famous for that we should be surprised if we had not his friendship to the unfortunate earl of wept, and wept at the very moment. Effex, was his munificent and generous -How surprizing is it again, that the patron, who at one time is said to have pasfions directly contrary to these, laugh given him 1000 l. to enable him to go thro' ter and spleen, are no less at his comwith a purchase he was then about. It mand! That he is not more a master was to this noble lord that he dedicated his of the great than of the ridiculous in hu. poem of Venus and Adonis.

G man nature ; of our noblest tender. The laiter part of his life was passed in nesses, than of our vainest foibles, of our retirement and the conversation of his strongest emotions, than of our idleft fen. friends. He had the good fortune to ac sations.--Nor does he only excel in the quire a competent estate, and is said to pafsions : In the coolness of reflection and have spent some years before his death at reasoning he is still as admirable. his native Stratford. It is no wonder, thas

BRI

152

BRITAIN's ISL E. April

A NEW SONG
Writ the Day after the Demise of his Royal Highness FREDERICK

Prince of Wales.
By the AUTHOR of Arno's VALE.

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