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PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. April ill, by laying it down as a maxim, London against ftockjobbing; and that the parliament must never in every one knows what opposition he termeddle in any disputes or diffe met with within doors, what re. rences, that happen in our army. proaches without, before he could

To refute this doctrine, Sir, which get that bill passed into a law. It is I thought of such dangerous conse true, Sir, we have, thro' complaiquence, was the only end of my A fance, or for satisfying a filly popustanding up, and therefore I shall lar clamour, given our consent to not take up your time with giving several such bills ; but I hope we you my opinion upon any of the ftall at last put an end to this comother points now under our conside.. plaisance ; for I do not think there ration, but conclude with observing was ever a more ridiculous bill sent in general, that I shall always be up to us, than the bill now under jealous of a power, the exercise B consideration. whereof is trusted to the absolute There is no man, Sir, that more and arbitrary will of a single man; heartily wishes the improvement of nor do I think, that any such power the British fishery than I do : There can ever be necessary in time of is no man more sensible of the benepeace ; for tho’ in time of war such

fits that might accrue to this nation a power muft often be granted, yet by extending our fisheries, especially even then it ought to be as little C that of white herrings, upon the made use of as posible,

coasts of our own island, and there

is no man more forry than I am, The next Debate I shall give you, is that proper expedients have not been

one we had in our Club upon the found, for turning to the best adfamous Bill paffed last Sefion, in.

vantage, the spirit that at present titled, An Act for the Encourage prevails among the people for the ment of the British White Her- D improvement, or rather, I should say, ring Fishery ; which Debate was the introduction of that fithery. I epened by C. Claudius Nero, who, am from information, as well as ftuupon that Occafion, spoke in Sub- dy, fully apprised of the riches that fance thus :

might accrue to this nation from a Mr. President,

due improvement of that fishery, of

the numbers of poor people that SIR,

E might thereby be usefully employed, T is very furprising, that of all and above all, of the vast addition

the bills fent up to us of late that might thereby be made to the years from the other house for a. number of our seamen, which is the mending the law, improving trade, natural strength and the true glory of or removing any grievance publickly this kingdom ; therefore, I cannot complained of, most of them were but desire above all things to see this such as were apparently ineffectual F trade put upon a proper foundation ; for the end proposed, or such as and for this very reason I must be tended to introduce a greater griev. against the bill now under consideance than that they intended to re ration ; because, from such regulamove. Such were their bills against tions, I am sure, we can meet with the ase of fpirituous liquors, their no success, and a failure in the atbills against vagabonds, and many tempt will throw such a damp upon others I could mention. In short, G the present laudable spirit, that it I can think but of one bill that has will not for many years be poslible to fully answered what was expected revive it. from it, which was that brought in Did we ever hear, did we ever by a worthy magiftrate of the city of read of a company, that carried on

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1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 159 a trade with any success, unless it trade, or lay it open to our own was to a place where none could people, and this put an end to the trade but themselves? Do not we trade of the company ; for their know, that in order to enable a present circumstances fhew, that they company with a joint stock to carry have never since carried on the trade on any trade, they must not only

with any advantage. have an exclusive privilege with re- A Our East-India company owed its gard to their own countrymen, but establishment to the same causes, it must be to fuch a place, or a trade and will, at last, I fear, Sir, have of such a nature, that they cannot the same fate with our African com. poffibly be rivalled by any foreigners? pany; for its trade will be at an end Is not the bill we but the other day as foon as it begins to be rivalled by agreed to, for extending and im. the private traders of other nations ; proving the trade to Africa, a me. B but thank God! our neighbours have lancholy proof of this truth? No all hitherto carried on that trade by trade had ever stronger arguments companies as we do. And as to the in favour of a company with a joint Soath-Sea company, they have neftock, than that trade had at the be. ver so much as once endeavoured to ginning : It was to be carried on

establish a trade in that which is proupon a savage coaft, where it was perly called the South-Sea ; and imposible to trade with any security C now, I believe, will never more for your merchants and factors, with. have any trade in any sea whatever. out having forts for their protection But left it should be objected, that against the natives. The friendship these were all exclusive companies, of the natives was to be purchased I shall make some observations upon by prefents to their little princes, our Turkey company. This comand yet that friendship, after you had pany was from the beginning depurchased it, could not for a day be D figned to be a free and open comdepended on, unless you had a fort pany : That is to say, every man for a fecurity against their perfidy. was to have leave to trade to Turkey, Such a trade, therefore, could not who could make himself free of the be opened without a much greater company by the payment of a small expence than the profits of the trade

fum, I think 5l. But the company could answer in a great number of were enabled to make by.laws, and years ; consequently, this expence E every man free of the company was must be defrayed by the publick, or to be subject to these by-laws. What a company with a joint stock and was the consequence? Some cunning exclusive privilege must be erected. fellows among the directors conAs the government had not at that trived a by-law, by which they extime millions yearly at its disposal, cluded every man from the Turkey as it has had since, it could not spare trade but themselves and their the expence, and therefore it was F friends * By this means they inabsolutely neceffary, for the opening grossed the trade to themselves, and of that trade, to erect a company lold all English goods in Turkey at with a joint stock and exclusive pri such a high price, that the French vilege. Whilst that company was were enabled to rival us, and at last unrivalled, or but very little ri run away with the greatest part of valled by foreigners, they carried on the trade. the trade with advantage ; but as

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In this country, Sir, we should soon as they came to be rivalled by be more cautious of erecting trading the private traders of other nations, companies, than in cougtries where We saw that we muft either lose the their government is arbitrary. Mer.

chants, * See a debate on ebe Turkey trade, London Magazine for 1745, P. 521, 530.

160 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. April
chants, in all countries, are but too panies. In the infancy of both these
generally selfish and cunning : They trades, the undertakers made vast
will endeavour to inrich themselves profits in both countries ; but the
often by such methods as tend to the application of those profits was very
ruin of their country; and by erect different: The directors of the Dutch
ing them into companies you furnifh East-India company applied a great
them with the means of exercising A share of those profits in planting co-
their talents in this way. When lonies and ingrosing the spice inlands;
such attempts are made in arbitrary by which they have secured a lasting
countries, the ministers may easily revenue to their successors, and ex-
and speedily put a stop to it, and tensive dominions to their country:
punih severely the authors, in an Whereas the directors of our Ealt-
arbitrary, short, and summary way ; India and African companies applied
but here you must proceed according B their whole profits yearly towards in-
to the forms of law; and it is so creasing their dividends, in order to
easy to evade any law that can be raise the price of their stock, by
made for preventing such practices, which indeed they inriched them
that it is impossible to convict them, selves and the then proprietors, but
especially as they are to be tried by they procured no folid lafting ad-
lawyers, who seldom, I believe, un vantage to their successors, nor any
derstand any thing of trade. We useful dominion to their country ;
had a strong instance of this in the and the late fate of Madrass is a
Turkey company I have mentioned; melancholy proof, how precarious
for tho' che affair was about four or their little possessions are in that part
five years ago brought before parlia. of the world.
ment, and tho' the pernicious con These things I thought necessary
sequences of the by.law they had to premise, Sir, concerning the con-
made, were set in the clearest light, D duct and fate of trading companies

yet not only the authors of it escaped in this country, in order to Thew,
without punishment, but the by that we should never erect any such
law itself was left in its full force ; without an absolute neceflity ; but
whereas had our government been 'what is the necessity of erecting the
arbitrary, and our ministers careful company now under considerati-
of their duty, the by-law would on ? Por carrying on the fishery we
have been by the supreme authority E have no occasion for erecting any
abolished as soon as made, and the forts, or for purchasing the friend-
chief promoter of it hanged, for at. Thip of any foreign princes : We
tempting fuch an injury to the trade

have no occasion for being at any of his country.

expence, but what with frugal ma. We may from hence see the rea

nagement may be reimbursed by two son, Sir, why trading companies or three successful voyages ; and the proíper much better, and are of F fitting out a herring buls is so small more advantage to their country, in an expence, that any common merFrance than in England. Even in chant may by himself alone underHolland they have generally been take it. When I talk of frugal maconducted with much more publick nagement, I must observe, that it is spirit, and a greater regard to the by this alone, and by selling at a good of the commonwealth in gene small profit, that the Dutch have ral, than ever they were in England. G hitherto prevented our interfering We may be convinced of this, by with them in the trade, and now we comparing the conduct of the Eart

are going to grasp at a share of the India company in Holland, with that

trade, by carrying it on in the most of our East India and African com expensive way that can be thought

of.

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1751 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 161 of. This really, Sir, appears so ri do; but 10,000l. is too large a sum diculoas, that I am ashamed of it, for most men to invest in such a new and yet it is certainly the case ; for and precarious trade, and most men à company can never carry, on any like to have the whole management trade at fo cheap a rate as private of what money they employ in trade, men may do, and London is the most nor will any man living in the north inconvenient port in the kingdom, A of Scotland chuse to have the acthat herring buffes can be sent from, counts of his outset under the inspec. or fitted out at ; because it is more tion of the society of London. distant from the proper places for Therefore I am much afraid, that fishing than any port in Holland, this London company will be like, and the voyage more tedious and more the dog in che manger : They can dangerous; and the building and fit neither carry on the trade themselves, ting up of busses at London will be B por will they allow others to carry more expensive than at any other it on; and I am sure, the company port in the kingdom, because the can be of no service to the governwages of workmen are much higher ment, with respect to the discovery than any where else. For these rea. or prevention of frauds. fons, Sir, I think it is almoft a de. I cannot therefore see, Sir, what monstration, that whatever may

occasion we had for a company : I expected from the chambers at the C am sure, it will be a cramp upon the other ports of the kingdom, the trade, rather than of any advantage company at London can never carry to it, and it is so evident, that the on the trade with success, because they company mult lose by their trade, if will always be underfold by the Dutch, they carry on any, that few men if not by the chambers at other ports. will engage in it with that view.

Then, Sir, as to the chambers, I am therefore afraid, that there is if any such be set up in the north of D some ftockjobbing scheme, or some Scotland, they may, by means of the fuch fraudulent scheme in view premiums allowed them, come in for of some of those concerned a share of the trade with the Dutch ; if this should at last appear to be but why should you put those pre. the case, or if the company should miums, or at least, the 31. per cent. honestly and fairly engage in the onder the management of a company trade, and in a few years exhaust at London? Or why should you con- E their capital, as they will probably fine the 3l. per cent to the company do, it will be such a discourage. and the chambers? Why should not ment as will, for many years, preevery private man, that will rikk 500 vent others from engaging in it. or icool. in this trade, have the For this reason, Sir, I think we fame encouragement, so as the whole fhould reject the bill now before us, does not exceed 500,oool, that the fince it is such a one as cannot be publick may be certain what sum F amended ; and because we cannot it has to pay yearly upon this ac propose to have another bill brought count? If this had been done, I am in and passed this session, we thould persuaded, that many private men address his majelty to order the board would have engaged in the trade, of trade to prepare such a scheme a. and would have gone to settle gainst next session, as they may think at, and fic out buftes from, the will be effectual for promoting the northern ports of Scotland ; where, G white herring fishery, and other fihby being near the proper places eries, upon the coasts of Britain and for fishing, they might have carried Ireland. it on at a much less

expence

chan (1 his JOURNAL to be continued in it is poffible for the Dutch to our nexe.) April, 1751.

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Tbe

; and

162

A

A MARRIAGE by Bill of EXCHANGE. April

The London correspondent read over and over the odd article, which

put the future - spouse on the same The follozcing hamourous Adventur; of a

foot with the bales of goods he was Marriage negotiated by Bill of Ex,

to send to his friend ; and after adchange, in one of the English lands miring the prudent exactness of the in America, was received by a Vil A American, and his laconick Itile, in fellately arriv'd from Jamaica. Dated, Kingiton, Jan. 26, 1750-1.

enumerating the qualifications which

he infifted on, he endeavoured 10 Merchant originally come from serve him to his mind; and after ma.

London, having acquired à ny inquiries, he judged he had found great fortune in that itland, conclud a lady fit for his purpose, in a young ed with himself he could not be hap- person of a reputable family, but no py in the enjoyment of it, unless he B fortune ; of good humour, and of a shared it with a woman of merit ; polite education; well shaped, and and knowing none to his fancy, he more than tolerably handsome. He resolved to write to a worthy corre made the proposal to her as his friend spondent of his at London. He had directed, and the young gentleknow no other stile than that he used woman, who had no fubsistence but in his trade ; therefore, treating af from a cross old aunt, who gave her fairs of love as he did his business, C a great deal of uneasiness, accepted after giving his friend in a letter se. it. A ship bound for that island was veral commissions, and reserving this then fitting out at Bristol ; the genfor the last, he went on thus: “Item, tlewoman went on board the same, seeing that I have taken a resolution together with the bales of goods, beto marry, and that I do not find a ing well provided with all necessaries, suitable match for me here, do not and particularly with a certificate in fail to send by next ship bound hither, D due form, and indorsed by the cor. a young woman of the qualification respondent.' She was also included and form following: As for a por. in the invoice, the last article of tion, I demand none ; let her be of which ran thus: “ Item, a maid of 21 an honell family ; between 20 and years of age, of the quality, shape, 25 years of age ; of a middle fta

and conditioned as per order ; as ap. ture, and well proportioned ; her pears by the afidavits and certificates face agreeable, her temper mild, her E she has to produce.” Writings, which character blameless, her health good, were thought necessary, to so exact and her constitution strong enough to a man as the future husband, were, bear the change of the climate, that an extract of the parish register ; a there may be no occasion to look out certificate of her character signed by for a record thro' lack of the first,

the curare ;

an attestation of her foon after she comes to hand ; which neighbours, setting forth that he had must be provided against as much as F for the space of three years lived with poffible, considering the great dir an old aunt who was intolerably peetance, and the dangers of the sea. vilh, and that she had not, during all If the arrives, and conditioned as that time, given her faid aunt the least abovefaid, with the present letter in occasion of complaint. And lastly, dorsed by you, or, at least, an at the goodness of her conftitution was tested copy thereof, that there may certified, after consultation, by four be no mistake or impofition; I here. noted physicians. Before the gentle. by oblige and engage mytelf to fa woman's departure, the London cortisfy the faid letter, by marrying the respondent fent several letters of ad bearer at 15 days fight. In witness vice by other ships to his friend, whereof I subscribe this, &c." · whereby he informed him, that per

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