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in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from p. 161.

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come first in season ; and those who In the Debate upon the Fishery Bill, come first to market will always get which was begun in your las, the

such an excessive profit upon their next that spoke was M. Agrippa, first cargoes, that they may afterwhose Speech was to the Effect as wards supply the market for little or follows :

no profit: If a man gets rool. pro

A fit upon the first rool's worth of Mr. President,

herrings which he sends to market, SIR,

he may sell 19ool's worth of her: WAS glad to hear the noble rings at prime cost, because the prolord who spoke last, declare fit of his first sale gives him 51. per himself so sencible of the bene.

cent. for his money, which is as fits that might accrue to this nation, much, I believe, as any man, espefrom the fitheries that might be car. B cially a Dutchman, can expect for ried on upon our own coaks; and the money he employs in the her: indeed they are so conspicuous, that ring fishery. it is imposible for any man that will Now, Sir, let us consider, that open his

eyes not to see them ; yet, the Dutch send out yearly 800 or evident as they are, we inust be con- 1000 Tips for the herring fishery. vinced by experience, that the trade This fleet consists mostly of fishing will never be set on foot by private c vessels, called busses ; but then every adventurers, and confidering its pre- certain number of busses has a runfent fituation, we may ealily dis- ner, or swift-failing vessel, to attend cover the reason why it will never them, which last they call yaggers, be so. If the white herring fishery and the first barrel of herrings caught were now in its infancy: If no other by every buss in the fleet is put on nation were now in possession of it, board one or more of these yaggers, I shall grant, that it might be set on D or runners, who fail away directly, foot by private adventurers, to their as soon as loaded, to Holland, where own great ensolument, as well as the first herrings are sold generally that of their country ; but as the for zod. apiece ; and if more of Dutch are, and have been for many these yaggers come in than are ne. years in possession of this trade, they cessary for lupplying the first demand, are able, and certainly will endea- they sail away directly to some fovour to ruin any private adventurer, f reign market. This, I say, is their by underselling him at every foreign method at present, but if they found market.

themselves in danger of being riBesides, Sir, there is a particular valled by us in this trade, I make circumstance in this trade, which not the least doubt, but that they will always enable the Dutch to un- would order their yaggers to fail dersel our private adventurers ; for away directly from the feet without the chief profit of this trade lies in


touching in Holland, in order to get
the first sales that are made, in every the first of the market at every place
place where there is any sort of where herrings can be fold.
market for this commodity. Her- These yaggers, Sit, attend the
rings, like all other things, are sold feet from June 24, when they be-
at an extravagant price, when they gin fishing, to July 15, by which
E-- of Gle.

time they must be all dispatched,


May, 1751.

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have any:

for they are forbid to take any her. his trade, and that support ought to
rings on board after that day ; be- be considered as a part of the ex-
cause all carried away by them are pence attending the trade ; whereas
slightly cured, and designed for pre- the directors of a company are ne-
sent consumption, whereas those ta- ver supposed to support their fami-
ken after that day, are all cured, lies by the salaries they have from
and stowed in the hold of the buss, A the company, supposing them to
which upon her return carries them have falaries, which all directors
to Holland, where they are visited have not; and in the present case it
and repack'd for winter keeping, is not proposed that they should
and sold at home, or sent to foreign
markets according to the demand. But taking it for granted, Sir,

From this account, Sir, of the that no company can possibly carry Dutch method of carrying on this Bon any trade at so small an expence fishery, you must fee, that it will as it may be carried on by private always be impossible for us, to catch men, yet experience has shewn, that the first market, which is the chief for setting up a new and unknown profit, in any part of Europe, unless trade, a company has in some cases we can fit out such a number of been absolutely necessary; and when bufies or fishing vesels, as will by con- the setting up of a trade required a cert load two or three runners the C very great first expence, which no first night or two of the fishing; and immediate returns could answer, an no such concert can be expected from exclusive privilege for a term of years private and separate adventurers, W:s reasonable and indispensable. especially when the trade is first set Such a trade is like an improvable on foot ; for which reason, I think, farm, which requires an immediate a company is at the beginning abro- advance of a sum of money for the lutely necessary. I Mall grant, that D improvement. Let that improve. companies seldom do carry on any ment be never so certain, no farmer trade at so little expence, as it may will lay out the sum requisite, unless be carried on by private men ; but you grant him a long lease, that is I can see no reason for believing the to say, an exclusive privilege to enthing impossible. On the contrary, joy that farm for such a term of I am of opinion, that if the di

years, as may bring him an advanrectors of a company had honesty, E tage proportionable to the sum of diligence, and publick spirit enough, money he is obliged to lay out upon they might carry on the company's the improvement. trade at a less expence than private This of granting a long leafe, or merchants can do, especially if the exclufive privilege, is always neces. company has a great stock employed fary io countries that are to be new in trade; because private merchants planted, and in trades that are to be must have their clerks and book. F newly set up it is often as necessary ; keepers at home, and their factors and when the preservation of such a abroad, as well as a company, and trade requires an extraordinary annuin proportion to their stock they al expence, this exclusive privilege must have a greater number, than is must be continued, or the company necessary for a company, because must be undone, not because they every separate merchant must keep are at a greater expence in carrying separate books, whereas one set of G on the trade than private men are, books is sufficient for the company, but because they alone support that let their stock be never so consi. expence, which others are allowed to derable, Besides, every separate reap the benefit of. It was this merchant mult support bis family by chiefly tbat ruined our African com



203 Pany; for other nations supported materials made use of in building the their forts and settlements upon that hips, and making the nets; and most coast at the publick expence, whilst of these we may already have from we left the whole upon the compa

our northern colonies in America, ny, even for many years after we I may, perhaps, Sir, be a little too had taken their exclusive privilege sanguine in my hopes, but I do hope from them; and tho I shall not pre. A thac in a few years our fisheries upon tend to justify their management,

our own coasts, at home and in Ameyet in such circumstances it was im. rica, will be a greater advantage to possible for them to avoid being un- this kingdom, than the mines of done.

Mexico and Peru ever were to the The present melancholy condition kingdom of Spain ; and my hopes of our African company is therefore are founded upon the experience I no argument, Sir, against our efta. B have had of the goodness of our blishing any new company even with home-cured herrings, and the great an exclusive privilege, and much less increase of the consumption which a company where no such privilege may by custom and example be prois so much as desired or intended ; duced. Notwithstanding the preand as the society are to lay their ac- vailing opinion, which has been incounts yearly before parliament, they duftriously propagated by the Dutch will of course be continually under C and their agents, chat the Dutch herthe inspection of parliament ; confe. rings are better, and more fit for longquently, if they should either by a keeping, than those cured in Scot by-law, or by any other means, at- land, I know the contrary : When I tempt a monopoly, or to obstruct the was at Stockholm, I had an oppor. separate traders in their leveral cham- tunity to make the experiment. I bers, a remedy would certainly be had the best of both that could be applied the very next session. Then, D got for money or favour, and I found Sir, as to there being any stock job. that the Scottish herrings were by bing design in this project, if there much the best for winter keeping ; ever was any such, or if any one and I have since had here in Engconcerned ever had such a design, it land, an opportunity to try which is sufficiently guarded against by that were best in their kind : I had a good clause in the bill now before us, many years ago a present of some which prevents the transfer of any E Scottish herrings sent me by the late part of their stock for five years from earl of Eglintoun. Upon trial every the date of their charter; consequent- gentleman agreed, that they were ly we must suppose, that every man most exquisite both for taste and flawho does subscribe is resolved to relt vour, and far exceeding any Dutch satisfied with the annual profit herrings they had every tasted; yet which he expects from the trade, or they were despised by the country that he subscribes with the generous F people: Even my own servants could view of risking so much money, for hardly be induced to taste them : the sake of setting up a trade that So far does custom and fashion premay be of infinite advantage to his vail, even as to what we eat and country.

drink; but if herrings should once I say, Sir, of infinite advantage ; come to be frequently served up at for tho' the private undertakers can the tables of the great, they would expect no great profit, yet the king. G soon come to be covered by the dom in general will reap a vast pro- poor, and would be as cheap and as fit, because the whole produce of all

wholesome a food as any they now the fish sold in foreign markets will use ; by which means the consumpbe clear profit to the nation, deduct- tion might be vally increased even ing only what we pay for the rough

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