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214 Of tbe Duke de SULL Y's Memoirs. May 34 hundred, and carry shot of 12 it becomes both the interest and the pound weight each: On the quarter- duty of other kingdoms and states to deck are

12 in number, length 9 unite themselves against her, and to feet, weight 24 hundred, and the endeavour not only to reduce this exfhot 6 pound weight each. The orbitant authority, but to oblige her number of yards of canvas in the to defist from all thoughts of it. whole suit of sail is 7393 ; and they A How far this


be practicable is carry more for spare fails 6346 yards. another consideration, but that it is

fit, expedient, and even necessary, is A LETTER to a FRIEND, with here proved to a demonstration. SUL L Y's Memoirs.

There is, next, a much fuller and,

more explicit account of the politiSend you, Sir, herewith, the Me. cal sentiments and system of queen moirs of the duke de Sully, so B Elizabeth, and of the earliest

negofar as they regard the affairs of Eng- tiations with king James, than it land, translated into English, which will be easy to find upon as good au. I presume you will think worthy of thority any where else. For, as I your notice, if it was only on the observed before, the author was a score of the author's high reputati competent judge of these things, on, who was for many years the fa- speaks altogether from his own knowvourite of a great king, without pre- C ledge, and from the mouths of those judice to his morals, and, after ma- princes, with whom he conversed naging long the finances of a potent familiarly, and in the same degree kingdom, was as much elteemed for of confidence as with the king his his disinterestedness as before his be. mafter ; a thing very remarkable ing raised to that post at all. Such and extraordinary, but which nevera person must be presumed to be an theless cannot be denied to be true. excellent judge of measures, and of p This circumstance, at the sanie time men; and as his peculiar character that it gives us an insight into things was that of speaking freely and with which otherwise we should never our reserve, you may the better trust have known, affords us likewise a to his relations. Besides this gene- moral certainty, that we know them ral recommendation, give me leave as they really were ; for the duke to infift upon two or three points de Sully was a man not to be impormore diftinctly, in order to convince e ed upon, and, which is a point of you of the importance of the book, no less consequence, was a man who and of its value with respect to Eng. would not impose upon others. In lith history.

some great circumstances he is absoIn the first place, the utility and Jutely lilent, which is another argunecessity of a balance of power in ment why we ought to believe, that Europe is more fully and at the same in those upon which he speaks plaintime more sensibly set forth in this aly, he is fincere. than perhaps in any other book what. Lally, there are in these memoirs ever, and we may, without carrying the characters of many of our minithings too far, affirm, that in this lite fters and nobility drawn with great tle piece we have the testimony of spirit and freedom, and, we have the belt king of his race, and of the reason to think, with equal precision wisest minister in France against the G

and truth. For we ought by no conduct of their succesiors. For in means to put upon a level such porthele memoirs it is incontestably traits as flow from fancy or conjecMewn, that when any power in Eu- ture, with those that are depicted by rope, acquires unreasonable weight, the hand of a master from the lite. and aims thereby at universalinfluence, The former muy be, and indeed fre


Dr. Garcin's Letter to M. de Reaumur,

215 quently are, improbable and incon- cure, or in that beautiful work of the fiftent; the latter have a boldness, Divinity, called the universe, an inftrength and freedom, which speak a comprehensible and surprizing melikeness to the eyes of all who are ca. chanism of force and motion, which pable judges. Upon the whole, there- maintains the course of their gene: fore, as these are all of them things rations, or of their propagation, and of great consequence, and as I know A that, for the good of all creatures, you have nothing so much at heart which have life, and which are of a as understanding thoroughly the his- reciprocal advantage to each other. tory of your own country, I per- You see all these things, Sir, with fuade myself I shall receive your clearer eyes than mine. But as life thanks for putting into your hands a is so fort, it is not possible for one piece so clearly as well as so concise single man, how learned soever he Iy written, which may be read in a B may be, to discover all that remains few hours, and which will furnish for us to know; and this is what the matter for long meditation. I have great Hippocrates has said long fince. nothing more to add than my hearty To advance our knowledge, then, and wishes, that you may ever persist in particularly that of nature, which is your attachment to the true interests the most agreeable and the most useof your country, and in having an ful of all, it is necessary, that there equal contempt for unmanly depen- C should be observers in the several dance, and unreasonable opposition. parts of the earth, who, each on

I am, SIR, their part, should work upon divers
Yours, &c. kinds of objects, to make discoveries

in them, and to communicate them A LETTER from Neufchatel in

to the publick. Switzerland, to M. de Reaumur, upon the general Usefulness of In- D the universe, whereof we do not

There still remain many objects in feets. By L. Garcin, M. D.

know the ends and the neceflity for F. R. S. and Correspondent of tbe Royal Academy of Sciences of Pa

the general good of the animated be. ris, 1746. Translated from a fe- body has made so many learned in

ings. The irsects, as to which no reign journal.

quiries as you, and such useful disco.

veries, are of this number ; and the Cannot express to you the charms E great advantages that are reaped even

I feel, whenever I turn my eyes from filkworms, bees, and cochineal, towards the several objects of nature, are not, perhaps, the only ends that with a design to contemplate them, must be attributed to them. as well to admire the wisdom and Those little animals of different the power of their Author, as to orders, so numerous, and of an infisearch out directly their ends, their nite variety, are looked upon by most destinations, or their usefulness. Al- F men, and especially by the common ready we have attained to that ex- people, as a plague to mankind, as cellent knowledge in respect to a a cursed and contemptible race, progreat number of those admirable ob. per, at least in most of their species, jects. We know, in most of them, only to hurt and to destroy the fruits their properties, and the motives to of the earth, which man cultivates, which they owe their existence, by and in certain years to make great the advantages which we reap from G devastation. There are some species them, with the other living crea- which do a great deal of hurt, and tures, eicty year, every day, and in others which are only troublesome. all sorts of seasons. We equally find Some infect the air and the waters, : by experience, that there is in na- and others cause diseases at certain




216 On the general Usefulness of INSECTS. May times both to men and cattle. In two laft kinds of beings, is a good fine, these animals seem to have been which equally redounds to men; for created to make war wich the human it is from those two reigns of creaspecies, and to be its greateft ene- tures that we draw all our helps. mies. And indeed, no body ascribes Nature in her mechanism has va. to them any other end, any other rious means to accomplish her works, destination, but that of serving as an A and to attain the end, to which the inftrument to humble man, to pu- universal and all-wise Cause has denish him on account of his fin. The figned her. Our insects enter into ancient moralifts, as well facred as this mechanism, effectually to help, prophane, knew how to draw lessons

by their liule operations, to the against finners, from the occasions fructification of the plants, and con. wherein the insects did great damage sequently, to their propagation, that to the fruits of the earth. From B is to fay, to increase the force and thence it has followed, that they quantity of them. These are two have looked upon these little deftroy- essential advantages to the life of all ing animals, as a direct cause to pu- animals, and consequently, to that nish the proud and the ungratetul, of man. Were it not for the affiftinstead of considering them, at molt, ance of their little workings, the as an indirect means for that purpose. plants would receive less nourilhment

We do not therefore as yet know Ç than they commonly do, their life their true destination ; for chạt which would be languishing, they would the publick opinion gives them can- have less vigour, they would be lefs not be the same as the Creator had in frụitsul, their propagation would be view in giving them being. The flower, and their species less abunbeauty of their structure ; the çon- dant. In this case, a scarcity would 'ftancy of their propagation every reign among the animals, and man year; their metamorphoses ; their D would be very much troubled to find choice of a proper food ; their di- fufficient provisions for his necessities. versity in kinds and species; and fi- Were it not for them, in a word, the nally, their number, which is pro- crop of the fruits would be alwa; s, digious, and equally spread over the and in all places, less or unfavourwhole earth, tho' one more and ano- able, which would make the world ther less abundant, according to the have less to subsist on, from whence climates and the nature of the fea. E it would result also, that it would be

fons, are things which do not per- less peopled. It is true, that those mit an enlightned mind to think, little animals sometimes do a great that they have no other end in their deal of harm, but this harm proprocreation, but that of hurting man, duces every time in return, a much and that almost all in general. greater good afterwards : This is

The reflections that I have made, what I fall explain hereunder. Sir, upon their nature, and upon These new ideas, without doubt, actions which pass among them, or will not appear fo ftrange to your at least in a great number of their eyes, if I thould not explain them, kinds, have creared in me, in ob. as they would be to the eyes of a serving them, some new sentiments in multitude of people, who do not their favour, which agree much better take the trouble to open them to difwith the advantages which man reaps cover the truth, as you do, as to the from the fruits of the earch by cul. G various springs which nacure enture, and with the need which all the ploys in all her operations. But you plants and all the animals have to will not disapprove, Sir, of my enpreserve themselves. It is certain, tering into this detail. that all which is suitable to chele


the F

1751. The wonderful Mechanism of NATURE. 217

I am going to lay before you the plants ; and that then it goes out of several ideas which I have formed to them to return again into the genemy self upon this fubject, and which ral mass, there to circulate again as a curious man, who is intent on the before, to be prepared there anew, study of the works of God, ought, I and to become proper to serve again think, to lay hold on, if he will af- as a common nourishment to all forts sure himself, with satisfaction, of the A of plants, in diverse other places. good and of the advantages, which It is clearly seen by this idea that, insects produce in the world.

were it not for a like circulation, The first idea which he ought to which ought to furnish daily to the form to himself, does not, as yet, plants, and to each of them, little concern those little beings; it con- portions of matter well prepared and cerns properly the matter, which na- very much rarefied, all animated ture employs to nourith the plants B creatures would perish. The plants, and animals ; and this knowledge which are the first creatures which serves as an introduction to the reit. give life to the others, could no You know perfectly, that this mat- longer grow, fructify, nor multiply, ter consists of a general mass finely if the subtilized matter ceased to endivided into particles, that is to say, ter into the composition of the parts very much rarefied and spread over which constitute their bodies. Now the whole globe of the earth ; that C it would cease entering into them, if this same matter circulates in all it totally ceased to circulate in the places and in all climates, under an world. invisible form, by the force of the I pass to a second idea, which a folar heat, and of the motions of the curious man ought also to form to air made by the winds ; that it most himself on this subject : Which is, commonly ascends up to the atmo. that in the mechanism of nature, {phere, and precipitates by rain, to D death is absolutely necessary, as well enter into the earth and into the wa. to the animals as to the plants, to ters; that from thence it is introdu- maintain that circulation, and conseced into the plants, there to circulate quently to give course to the new with the sap, of which it is the ef- generations of those two sorts of besence, to nourish, increase, and ings. For if those beings ceased to Itrengthen in them all their parts, to die without cealing to propagate, or animate in them the organs of fruc- E to multiply, their number would betification, and to carry into them come too great, and the mass of cir. buds proper to the species of each culating matter would be exhausted kind, of which buds, which are the in the end ; from thence there would principles of propagation, the air, happen an entire scarcity of food, the earth, and the water, are full, and all would fall into dreadful disand whereof I am assured by my

order. If the matter which circuown observations ; that one part of F lates, and which ferves to nourish, this matter stays in the said plants, was all employed, how could we enfixes there, and is modified in them joy life, how could we beget an isinto their proper subitance, while a- fue, how could all the species of nother part goes out of them as su- creatures sublift and continue their perfluous, by transpiration, from generations ? All nature would be enthence to circulate in the atmosphere tirely disordered by it, the buds of and around the globe as before ; that, G all kinds, which are spread in it and in fine, from the plants it passes, for infinitely numerous, would remain the greatest part, into the animals, useless.' It is easy to comprehend, to nourish them and maintain their that in such a system all would be functions, as it had done in the contradictory. May, 1751.




218 Of the green Mould on Fire-Wood: May

The mechanism which God has dif- and new decorations, necessary to played in all his works, is necessarily support the courfe of nature, and established, according to a wife and the force or vigour of the secret constant order, because its Author is springs which are in the world, and Wisdom it self, infinite and immuta- whereof we fo little know the deble, and because he is equally pow. fign erful. Consequently, the laws, which A According then to this idea found- . govern this mechanism, are general ed on experience, there must, by the in the universe, and are always con- force of those fame all-wise law., ftant without being subject to changes; be made among the vegetables and so they ought always to produce and the animals, a sum of destruction and repeat the phenomena which we fee diffolution of their bodies, equal to succeed one another in them, some the sum of their new productions frequently, and the others more rare. B and of their increase. Why fo? It ly. All the bodies in the universe is that the course of the generations are changeable by virtue of these may be preserved, and that the cirimmutable laws. They are limited culation of the matter may be main. in their duration. They perish by tained in its proper force, for the little and little in growing old, and buds to be regularly employed acare altogether annihilated in their cording to their destinations. form by time. New ones are falhi. C [The remainder in our next.] oned from them, which succeed them, and all this continues always In a Letter from the Rev. Henry and successively to grow old, to be

Miles, D. D. and F. R. S. 80 Mr. renewed, and to change their face by Henry Baker, F. R. S. concerning these same laws. The ages of bo- the green Mould on: Fire-wood, dies are different. They are more (inserted in No. 494 of the Philoor less retarded, in proportion to D

sophical Transactions, just publishtheir nature and to their design. We ed) the Doctor says : do not know the duration of the great OME days ago, happening to heavenly bodies, of which our earth take notice of a quantity of is of the number, because our life is what we commonly call mould too short, and our understanding too on the bark of some fire-wood, I limited for us to perceive it. It is had the curiosity to view it with a for this reason, that we do not know e lens, of about an inch focus, when the great changes to which the parts I found it to confift of numbers of of the universe are subject. Let us minute fungus's, whose regular aptherefore confine ourselves to what

pearance invited me to examine them concerns the plants and the animals, in the microscope, with a good mag. fince those two sorts of beings are nifier ; upon which their spherical more in reach of our senses. We heads seemed as if they had been know well enough their duration, f nothing else but globules of seeds ; which is proportioned, in each spe. at the same time I observed several cies, to the want that nature has of seeds adhering to the transparent them. The laws of that common foot talks, which supported the heads, mother require their life to be short, and many scattered on the glass. and their colonies to be often renew- plate, whereon the substance was ed upon the surface of the globe. placed, in order to be viewed. And They will have death and birth to G here I had an opportunity of seeing succeed one another very quickly in many diftinct seeds, which appeared all their races, that by these two nearly of an oval form, but several means there may be made changes times larger than the seeds of com

mon • Of a brigbe verdegrife coleur.

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