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1751. Of..the Minuteness of the Seeds of some Plants. 219 mon mushrooms, even when seen each seed is the 2430th part of an with the second magnifier, and the

inch in diameter. latter with the first.

And according to these calcula. He concludes as follows : Permit tions 44,100 of the fungous heads, me to add, that having often viewed or 5,904.900 of the seeds may lie the heads of a small kind of fungus, by one another in the furface of an which are about inch diameter, of A inch square. a coriaceous substance, I have ever Yet, minute as the seeds of this found the seeds which are produced little fungus are, Dr. Miles observes on the gills, much larger than those very juftly, that they are larger than of any mushrooms I ever examined, the seeds of some mushrooms, which tho' rather less than those produced exceed it many millions of times in by this unregarded plant.

bigness. As to which, I beg leave Now, that a body whose form is B to take notice, that the proportion, not to be distinguished by the un. in size of the fruits or seeds of trees assisted eye, should produce seeds se- or plants, to the size of the trees or veral times larger than another of plants that bear them, comes under the same genus does, which exceed- no' regulations that correspond with eth it many millions of times in our conceptions. For the vast bulk bulk, must suggest those thoughts to of some sorts of timber-trees (the one's mind, which, I know, I need C beech and ah, for instance) is pronot point out to you.

duced from a seed smaller than that

of the common garden-bean. The Some Offervations on the above-men- towering and mighty oak produces

tioned Plants and Seeds. By Henry for its fruit only a little acorn, whereBaker, F. R. S.

as the pumpkin (some whereof weigh HAVE carefully examined the above an hundred pounds) I

the plants and seeds sent me by Dr. D production of a feeble creeping plant, Miles, in order to determine their unable to support itself, and much real bigness ; and, taking the fun. less its enormous fruit.

The va. gous heads of the middle size (some nilla (a plant that rises to the height being larger and others smaller) I of several feet, by clasping about find, according to my micrometer, whatever it finds near it) produces, that three of them take up the side in long pods, seeds so small, that of a square, 70 of which squares E their diameter is not more than the make an inch in length, and conse. 1oodth part of an inch. Suppofing quently, that 3 times 70, or 210 of therefore the cavity of the pod to be these fungi, are required to make a equal to a cylindrical tube of i'o line, whose length is one inch ; or, of an inch diameter, and the length in other words, that the diameter of of the pod to be fix inches (which these fungous bodies is, at a medium, dimensions are taken with great mothe 210th part of an inch. F deration) the number of seeds con

The seeds are oval, and I find, tained in one single pod will be more by the same micrometer, that 10 of than 47,000. Moit kinds of fern, them laid by one another the Mort- of which some are pretty large plants, eft way of their diameter, or 8 of bear seeds so extremely minute, chat them the longest way, fill up the they appear to the naked eye only side of a square, 270 of which squares like a fine duft; while seeds of a con. make an inch in length.-Taking G fiderable bigness are produced by therefore

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at the medium, 270 plants of a great deal smaller size. times 9, or 2430 of these seeds will be required to make a line of an inch in length; or, in other words, Ee 2

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220 An Aurora Australis. The Dragon-Fly. May

transparent wings : At its first appearance An Account of as Aurora Australis, seek

there is only what one may call the rudi. Jan, 23, 1749-50, ar Chelsea. By John

ments of wings, but it is a most enterMartyn, F. R. S. Prof. Bot. Cantab.

taining sight to observe how they shoot communicated by Martin Folkes, Esq; Præs,

out, and expand themselves : Thus, in Reg. Soc.

less than an hour, they have attained their J

AN. 23, 1749-50, at about half an complete dimensions. During all this ope.

hour after five in the evening, casting A ration the creatures are immoveable, and
my eye accidentally toward a window so continue until their wings are dry, and
which looked to the S. S. W. I thought I then they fy (wiftly away, roving about
faw a reddish light about the planet Venus, the sides of ponds and rivers, seeking their
which then thone exceedingly bright. Be- food, being inleds of prey, are very vo.
ing suspicious of some fire in the neigh- racious, and, like the hawks among birds,
bourhood, I went immediately to a win- are very swift of flight, and nimbly secure
dow on the stair-case, where I saw a red- their prey, which is mofily flies, and small
dith light, which shone with such exceed- green grafhoppers : They delight in fun-
ing brightness, that the lustre of the fine B înine, in cloudy weather ibey are rarely to
constellation of Orion was almost effaced. be seen, but seek protection under the
I then went to a window facing the leaves and boughs of trees.
N. N. E. where I presently saw a very Towards the end of May the female is
broad band of crimson light,

ready to deposit her eggs : She then reeks
Thence I withdrew into my garden, the warm quiet fides of ponds and water-
where I plainly saw a band or arch, of a courses, continuing in a hovering posture,
very deep crimson colour, in appearance dodging up and down in the water : In
about 15 broad, the southern edge of c this action the male seizes her, and with
which passed just above Canis Minor, and the end of his tail catcheth fast hold by the
the thoulders of Orion. It was termi. back of her head, and fieth away with
nated to the westward near Venus, then her. It is uncertain how long they con-
about 20° high : But it extended to the tinue in this polition before the female
eastward as far as I could see, and the bends the end of her body, so as to pene-
farther it went that way, the deeper was trate the part between the belly and breast
the colour, and the broader the band. of the male.- In this singular and sur-
About a quarter before eight, there was prising manner she is impregnated; then
formed a crown about 30 degrees to the D me repairs again to those till allow wa-
fouthward of the Zenith ; for I could ters, whose bottoms are covered with
plainly perceive the Pleiades, which had mors, sticks, and weeds, which may be
then just passed the meridian, very near it, a security to the little grubs.--Here she in
when the light was faint. From this a hovering posture depofits her eggs in the
crown a great many rays darted to the water, which immediately fink, and find
E. S. and W. but not toward the N. a proper nidus in the aquatick moss, &c.
where only some whitish streaks were to be The eggs are foon hatched ; the young
feen, but very faint. Presently after this, E reptiles creep among the stones and weeds,
the part of the arch extending to the east &c. and so continue water animals the
Seemed to be suddently kindled, as if some greatest part of the year, until the season
train had been fired ; grew extremely comes round for their appearance in that
bright and vivid ; and, as if all the red beautiful fly, which is different from our
matter had been then consumed, put an European ; but their process, I think,
end to the phænomenon before eight. well agrees with ours, as it is curiously de-

During the rest of the evening, a pale scribed and delineated by that excellent nalight covered the south part of the heavens, turalift M. Reaumur. They have a great as if the moon had thone.

F variety of this tribe of insects in America,

as well as we have in Europe.
Some Observations or be Dragon-Fly, or In another place (wbere ibey are called

Libella of Penslyania, collected from Mr.
John Bartram's Letters, communicated by

May-Flies) is this furiber arcount.- -Their

bodies being replenished with an oily mata Peter Collinson, F. R. S.

ter, they eally quit their husks, and rise

up to the surface of the water, and disperse
served many deformed water-insects, themselves a mile or more back in the
by naturalists called Hexipodes, creep up G woods, whilst others stay near the water.
out of the water, and fix themselves on
the shrubs and rushes ; in this fituation

May 4, 1749, I perceived many had

attained wings, and were very chick (pread they continue but a few hours before their on the bushes and grass, by the river back (plies open ; and from this deformed fides. The second day after their leaving cale creeps out a beautiful fly, with thining their aquatick abode they cant another skin,

after

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1751. Proceedings at the Ele&tion of Chamberlain. 221
after which their tails were longer, and their wished to have given. I am therefore,
wings drier, and more transparent. The gentlemen, in justice to all my fellow.citi.
sch and 6th was rainy, the 7th windy, zens, obliged to request your permission to
so very few came out. The 8th cool, lo resign an office, which I am no longer
few were seen : But the oth and Toch be- equal to.
ing warm, many (warmed late in the But tho' this publick relation, which has
evening ; and the nth, 12th, 13th, they so long fubfifted between us, will now
fwarmed abundantly. What I call fwarm- A have its period; yet the most grateful sense
ing, was their gathering thick as bees, of your continual favour and indulgence,
near the rivers, to lay their eggs in the and your kind acceptance of my imperfect

service, will ever live in my remembrance,
In their fight they mount to the tops of and warm my heart with the firmest at-
trees, 20 or 30 feet high : Their motion tachment to your interests ; and I may
is surprising, hovering up and down, rifing reasonably hope, by thus withdrawing
and falling, 7 or 8 feet at a time : This I myself, to be the longer enabled to exert
take to be the time and manner of their my best endeavours, on all proper occa-
impregnation. After which they fly to the B Gions, for the honour and dignity of this
brooks, cast out their eggs, and perish im- ancient and august city. I am,
mediately : Their eggs link directly to the GENTLEMEN,
bottom, and lodge amongst the mud and

Your moft obliged, gravel, and may be food for some minute Epsom, and obedient humble servant, water-animal. From their eggs proceeds a 30 April, 1751. JOHN BOSWORTH. deformed grub, which subfifts under wa'ter, and is food for eels, until next season,

After this, the following candidates were that it attains its Ay state, and then is food C put in nomination, viz. Mr. Richard Glo. for fith and fowl.

ver, Mr. deputy Harrison, Mr. deputy The reason of their being so long in Hodges, Mr. Thomas Meakes, and Mr. coming forth this year was, the cold chilly deputy Pycroft ; when the sheriffs declared weather : Other years, in a warm season, Mr. deputy Harrison to have the majority in five days they would have performed all of hands ; but a poll was demanded by their functions, and disappeared.

the friends of Mr. deputy Pycroft, Mr. We have two other smaller kinds, that deputy Hodges, and Mr. Glover; which very

much resemble the former, but they d began the next morning at Guildhall. come later by (wo or three weeks : What Wednesday, May 1, the poll at Guild. is most remarkable, the males are black,

hall was for deputy Harrison 705, deputy and live several days after the females. Pycroft 338, Mr. Glover 327, and deputy

Hodges 276 : So that Mr. Harrison gained
Proceedings at Guildhall at tbe Eletion of a the majority of Mr. Pycroft 367 ; of Mr.
Chamberlain.

Glover 378 ; and of Mr. Hodges 429.
N Tuesday, April 30, was held a
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Thursday the poll was for deputy Harrison court of Hustings at Guildhall for the 1246, Mr. Glover 588, deputy Pycroft election of a chamberlain for the remain- E542, and deputy Hodges 474. Friday ing part of the year, in the room of Sir morning Mr. deputy Pycroft and Mr. de. John Bosworth, Knt. (See our last, p. duty Hodges declined the poll, which ourn187.) Upon opening the court, the re- ed a licile in favour of Mr, Glover ; and corder made a handsome fpeech to the li- at the close of this day che numbers stood very, and read Sir John Bosworth's letter thus ; for deputy Harrison 1686, and for of resignation, which was as follows. Mr. Glover 1074. Saturday, for deputy

Harrison 1938, and for Mr. Glover 1358. Torbe Wortby Liverymen of ibe City of Majority for Mr. Harrison 580. Upon LONDON.

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which Mr. Glover fignified his intencions Gentlemen,

to the sheriffs on Saturday evening of his HE honour you conferred, and have declining the poll on Monday morning,

so long continued to me, in the and accordingly did fo ; when the books office of chamberlain, I once flattered my- were publickly cast up upon the Hultings, felf, would determine only with my life ; but the numbers were not declared till che: but I find, after long and frequent ftrug- next morning before the lord-mayor, court. glings, that the Morteft refidence in this of aldermen, and livery. There being air, is now attended with so much danger, G the above majority for Mr. Harrison, hc and such great distress, as disables me from was declared duly elected chamberlain of discharging my duty in a manner suitable London, and immediately paid bis respecte to its importance, and even prevents my to the livery in the following terms : publick and perfonal attendance on you his day, which I very earnestly hoped and

Gentlementy

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222 Mr. Harrison's and Mr. Glover's Speeches.

May

of the matter, and my known zeal to serve Gentlemen,

you, however ineffectual my attempts I

might prove, were always sufficient to ic. cere thanks, for the very high honour cure me the honour of a kind reception and you have donc me, in electing me cham- unmerited regard. berlain of this great and opulent city.

Your countenance, gentlemen, first drew So honourable a preference speaks tho me from the retirement of a studious life i very favourable opinion you are pleased to A your repeated marks of dihinction frrt entertain both of my integrity and abilities : pointed me out to that great body, the The former of these my heart tells me you merchants of London, who, pursuing your cannot be mistaken in, how partially ro- example, condescended to entrust me, unever you may have judged of the latter. I equal and unworthy as I was, with the Alatter myself therefore, that by a due ex. most important caule, a cause, where your ertion of these abilities (such as they are) interest was as nearly concerned as theirs. in a diligent and conscientious discharge of In consequence of that deference, which the important trust repored in me, I shall has ever been paid to the sentiments and be honoured with the continuance of your

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choice of the citizens and traders of Lonfavour and protection.

don, it was impollible, but some faint lula Give me leave, gentlemen, once more tre must have glanced on one, whom, weak to thank you, and with a heart overflowing as he was, they were pleased to appoint with gratitude to assure you, that I shall the instrument on their behalf ; and if from endeavonr to act, both in my publick and these transa&tions I accidentally acquired the private capacity, as becomes a faithful fer. smallest thare of reputation, it was to you, vant of the corporation, and a fincere gentlemen of the livery, that my gratitude friend to every individual member thereof. C ascribes it ; and I joyfully embrace this

publick opportunity of declaring, that what. Mr. Glover then addressed the livery in

ever part of a publick character I may prethe following elegant and pathetick (peech. sume to claim, I owe primarily to you. Gentlemen,

To this I might add the favour, the twenFTER the trouble, which I have had ty years countenance and patronage of one,

whom a supreme degree of relpect thall application for your favour to succeed Sir

prevent me from naming ; and cho' under John Bosworth in the office of chamber- the temptation of using that name, as a lain, this day so worthily supplied; I should D certain means of obviating some miscondeem myself inexcusable in quilting this fructions, I shall however avoid to dwell place, before I rendered my thanks to those on the memory of a loss fo recent, so just. in particular, who lo generously have e- ly, and so universally lamented. Permit Spoused my intereft ; to your new elected me now to remind you, that when placed chamberlain himself, and numbers of his by these means in a light not altogether un. friends, whose expressions and actions have favourable, no lucrative reward was then done me particular honour, amid the the object of my pursuit, nor ever did the warmth of their attachment to him ; to E promises or offers of private emolument inthe two deserving magiftrates, who have duce me to quit my independance, or vary presided among us with impartiality, hu. the least of my former professions, which manity, and justice ; and lastly, to all in always were, and remain Nill founded on general for their candour, decency, and in. the principles of universal liberty ; princidulgence.

ples, which I assume the glory to have estaGentlemen,

blijhed on your records ; your sense, liveHeretofore I have frequently had occafi. rymen of London, the sense of your great on of addressing the livery of London in

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corporation so repeatedly recommended to publick ; but at this time I find myself at an your represetatives in parliament, were my unusual lors, being under all the difficul. sense, and the principal boast of all my ties, which a want of matter, deserving compofitions, containing matter imbibed your notice, can create : Had I now your in my earliest education ; to which I have rights and privileges to vindicate, had I always adhered, by which I fill abide, and the cause of your suffering trade to defend, which I will endeavour to bear down with or were I now called forth to recommend me to my grave. And even at that gloomy and enforce the parliamentary service of period, when deserted by my good fostune, the most virtuous and illustrious citizen, G and under the severert trials ; even then, my tongue would be free from constraint, hy the same confistency of opinions and and expatiating at large, would endeavour to uniforinity of conduct, I still preserved that merit your attention ; which now must be part of reputation, which I originally de. solely connned to co narrow a ruhjeet, as rived from your favour, whatever I might mysell. On those occasions the importance pretend to call a publick character, undhaken

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1758. Account of Dr. Mead's Physical Admonitions. 223 and unblemished ; nor once in the hour of proper vehicles. Therefore the divine Auaftliction did I banish from my thoughts chor of nature formed fibres of a twofold the most fincere and conscientious intenti- kind, some carneous and some nervous, as on of acquitting every private obligation, the receptacles of this active principle ; as soon as my good fortune thould please both of which are partly interwoven in the to return ; a diftant appearance of which membranes of the body, and partly col. seemed to invite me, and awakened rome lected together into tendons adhering to Aattering expectations on the rumoured va. A the members, for performing, by the help cancy of the chamberlain's office ; but al.

of bones, their motions, ways apprehending the imputation of pre- But this admirable engine Aill wants a fumption, and that an higher degree of de. first-mover, as it cannot move itself, licacy and caution would be requisite in me

Therefore the soul is appointed as its go. than in any other candidate, I forbore, till vernor and director, and is the firft cause Jate, to present myself once more to your of all our motions and sensations ; for notice, and then for the firft time, abftract.

whether it exifts in the head, as in its paed from a publick consideration, solicited

lace, or whether it exists in no particular, your favour for my own private advantage. B but in every part of the body, as was My want of success Mall not prevent my maintained by Xenocrates, the disciple of chearfully congratulacing this gentleman on

Plato, it rules and governs us in every his election, and you on your choice of so thing. Our motions, however, as well as worthy a magistrate ; and if I may indulge our sensations, are both internal and ex.' a hope of departing this place with a share

ternal : To the former are subjected not of your approbation and esteem, I folemn.

only our vital parts, such as the heart, the ly from my heart declare, that I thall not

lungs, the stomach and intestines, but bear away with me the least trace of disap. C likewise all our nervous membranes. pointment.

Moreover, the physical authors ufually N. B. The number of liverymen who put a very notable difference between the polled at the former election of chamber.

motions of our vital parts, and those of the Lain was 6646, and at this last election other parts of the body : The former, af. 4312.

ter they have in our earliest infancy begun,

they suppose do persist, and necessarily con. Tbe learned Dr. Mead baving lately published

tinue, whether we will or no ; but that a Book in Latin, called Phyfical Admoni.

the latter are directed by the judgment of tions and Precepts, we lball give our Dthe mind, according as things happen. Readers obe Substance of ibe Introduction

But in this they judge amiss, being deceived und Conclufion, because ebey are of a general

by this, that the former, without our beConcern; and indeed ebe Wbole deserves a

ing conscious of it, are observed to con. Place in the Study of every one that can pure tinue thro' the whole course of life, with. cbafe ir, because obe Doctor expreffo bim

out any sensible interruption ; yet neverselj so clearly, and bis Precepes are s plain,

theless, if this affair be ftri&ly examined, ibat ibey may be underflood even by ibose wbe

it will very clearly appear, that these vital understand norbing of Pbyfick. His Intro

E motions do not seem to be free from the duction is in Subfiance as follows, viz.

government of the mind, for any other

reason, but because by immemorial custom diseases to which our body is liable, we perform them so readily and with so it will be worth while briefly to premise little attention, that even tho' we would something of what it is when in full health

we cannot easily stop or reftrain them from and vigour.

executing their several functions. Some. If one would therefore form to himself

thing of this kind we experience, as often a true idea of the human body, he ought as we shut our eyes, whether we will or to conceive in his mind a certain fort of F no, upon turning them towards the rays hydraulick machine constructed with the

of the sun, or any thing else that hurts nicest art, in which there are innumerable them; and yet no one doubts of this mo. canals fitted and accommodated for carry. tion's being made at the command of the ing fluids of divers kinds. Of these the mind. This I could prove and, illuftrate chief is the blood, from whence are de.

by many other examples ; but it would be rived fluids which serve for the differenc too tedious, and therefore I chuse rather to offices and purposes of life ; particularly, recommend to the reader a treatise pubthat called ibe animal spirits, which being G lished by that learned physician Porterfield, generated in the brain, and indued with a who has so clearly elucidated this matter as most extraordinary elastick force, are the to put it out of all doubt. efficient cause of all our motions and sen. But this power of the mind appears in (ations ; neither of which offices they could no case more manifestly than in fevers, feiform, if they were not contained in especially those that are called peftilential ;

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