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Toleration necessary, and a Cbriftian Duty. Aug began to be a perfecutor. Would fion of Lewis XIV. to the throne of yqur majesty, in following his cxam- Lewis XIII, no more than of what ple, cease to be the beloved of your he says of Lewis XV, and his great people, and drown in seas of blood, grandfather Lewis XIV *. a title which they have unanimously The Roman church and the cler. given you amidit tears and fears, gy of that communion are not more a title which the greatest princes A (pared. After he has said, that if the envy you, a title which was incom- spirit of charity was the principle of patible with that of intolerant?” persecution, it would punish vices, he

In the body of the work, the au- adds ; ! Is it not indeed infinitely thor demonstrates, that toleration more criminal to carry into another's is a christian duty, because it is the bed the pleasures which they retrench characteristick mark of a good chri. from that to which they are united stian, because intolerance is exprefly B by oaths taken before the altars, than contrary to the law of nature ; be. to say, that Emor has not a right to cause it has dreadful consequen, depopulate kingdoms and insenfibly ces; and because its principles are to annihilate itself by making men contradictory, and rejected by the and even women eunuchs ? Is it not most able lawyers. He shews, next, infinitely more criminal to dishonour that civil toleration is necessary in human nature by excesses of sensuagood policy, because princes have C lity, than to believe that Emor is not no right of inspection over conscien- a magician, kilful enough to operate çes; because the intolerants are the with four words contradictory prodi. greateft enemies to the society; and gies? Is it not infinitely more crimi. because their maxims tend to arm nal to deceive men, either by the inall men, one against another. Fi- fraction of treaties, or by subtle nally, he shews, that the edict of, tricks, than to say with experience, Nantz was irrevocable, and that in D that Émor and its conclave are subjustice, equity, and sound policy, it ject to be mistaken even involuntarily? ought to be restored. This is, in -To perpetuate the empire of vices, brief, the purport of this book; and to destroy that of opinions, what fubwe should here conclude our extract, version of order! Why do we let (Jays our Journalif) were there not that reproach fubfift, which the infisome particular passages, upon which dels continually throw out against us, it will not be useless to stop a little. E that our life destroys our sentiments

We observe, first, that it were to May it not be, as Ebba de Larsvil + be wished, that the author had been said, because the Dervisses I, who more cautious in his expressions. It are the principal favourers of intole. is difficult to make ourselves liked rance, find themselves infinitely more by persons, to whom we tell hard proper to multiply mankind and truths ; but we make them our ene. vice, than to multiply errors ?"mies, when we express them in F And lower, “ Dervisles, Fadirs $, too strong terms, Self-love at such Ebba's ll, Kueves**, Klarnadis It! time plays its game; they are tempte - Is it for the good of the Kanvili. ed to look on all this as the effect of ans II that you have obtained so mapassion and a spirit of party ; and ny thundering decrees? Alas! if you the best reasonings are without ef- have so much zeal for the salvation feet. We cannot therefore approve of others, why bave you not some of the infinuations of the Anonymous G for yourselves? Why do you scan. against the legitimacy of the succes- dalize

us by your worldliness?

Why 3, Here sbe Journalif quotes some very severe pasage from the book, wbieb we shall not metilke wirb, any more tbon wiib jome orbers towards ebe end of bis abfra&t. t Abbé de Villars, 1 Priges. S Farbers, # Abbots.

tt Cardinalt, II Calvinifis.

* Bifbops.

1751. A fevere SATIRE 'on the Romish Clergy. 351 Why do you not reform a life, which will find many censors among the ill agrees with your principles, your courtiers, the ministers, and even the duties, and your character? Why do people. He maintains, that there you employ the money of the poor, cannot be a despotical fovereign, the fubftance of the members of Rists because the sovereignty having been kesusi, in your pleafures, in luxu. established for the good of the subry, in good cheer, in debauchery ? A jećts, they cannot hope to attain that Why are the most disorderly among end by arbitrary power. Besides, if you the most zealous persecutors ? it be true, that there have been subDo they think by this intolerance to jeets senseless enough to make, as pass a spunge over their disorders ? the Danes have done, a king matter Do they think thereby to expiate of their estates, of their lives, of their crimes : If persons upright in their own and their childrens blood, the commerce of life, irreproachable B such a contract is null in itself, be in their manners, persecuted the cause it is unjust, and because it is Kanvilians, it mighi be imagined not in any one's power to bind him. that their blind zeal came from a self in such a manner. Every love virtuous principle; but that Dervis. reign therefore, who exercises an arses, who join the errors of the heart bitrary power, and who makes use to the errors of the mind ; that Fa. of it to opprefs his subjects, is a ty.

dirs, whose idleness makes them a Crant, &c. &c. * useless weight upon the earth ; that But does arbitrary power take

the disciples of Alloyo *, who have place in France? The Anonymous kreened from the sword of justice affirms it ; and it is against this affer. one of their brethren, attainted and tion that the French will not fail to convicted of a crime, perhaps com. exclaim. He has foreseen it : And mon among them, who have their indeed he excepts against them for hands still dyed with the blood of the Djudges. “ Those, says he, who by best and the greatest of our kings, birth, education, example, interest, who are always ready to renew the have been formed to the yoke, can. like attempts, who, besides, are foto- not well judge of the nature and of lerating, that they even permit idola. the prerogatives of liberty." try ; that Ebba's, whose whole oc- The author then endeavours to cupation is romances, whose whole fhew, by what degrees arbitrary powpleasure is gallantry, whose whole E er has been established in the kingknowledge is the history of the toi. dom, from Lewis XIII. to this time. lets, whose whole merit is the petit- The parliament of Paris gave the last maitre air ; that voluptuous Kueves; blow to the liberty of the French, that effeminate, proud, covetous by deciding, some years ago, at the Klarnadis, that a villain (you under request of the attorney-general, that Aand me) should be the promoters the three orders of the kingdom do of persecution, is what is called P not form any body in the state, exmaking sport with the publick.”. cept when they are assembled; which

What the author says of the Row they can be only by the king's perman church and of its clergy, will mission ; that when they are afsem. have many approvers amongit the bled, they may represent but not deFrench laity, who very often divertcide, they may make remonftrances themselves with this subject ; but but not laws. perhaps it will not be the same with G As the author's reasonings might his opinion of the power of fove make him pass for a difturber and a“ reigns, and the state of dependence seditious, he endeavours to obviate of the fubjects in respect to them. It this reproach in concluding this fub.

ject • Ignatims Leyela,

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Advantages of a LIBERAL EDUCATION,

Aug: ject. "Let it not be believed, fay's he, mistress of the world by her con. my

reflections tend to arm the quests, became the object of its people against their sovereigns. God wonder and imitation, by the imforbid ! The subjects may do as provements that she made in almost they will. It little concerns me. I

every art. should be very sorry to disturb the Africk, on the other hand, thro' repose of kingdoms; but to say the A her neglect of literature, is grown truth, I should be still more so to altogether unfruitful, and even falhave pleaded for tyranny and Navery. len into that barbarity, of which it Somebody was asked, whether fub

bears the name. jects had a right to revolt against The reverse has happened amongst their princes? It was answered, that the northern nations: They were long it were to be withed, that princes looked upon as rude and barbarous : were perfuaded that the people have B As soon, however, as learning was that right, and that the people should introduced amongst then, they sent believe they have it not. This an-! abroad proficients in all arts and fwer is very sensible, and I adopt sciences, who have equalled at least, it.”

if not furpafied, what other nations

have ever produced. AhAradl of the late celebrated Mr.

As the arts and sciences gain ROLLIN's curious Disertation C ground in any nation whatsoever, on the valuable Advantages of a the inhabitants thereof are in proporLiberal Education.

tion transformed into new creatures : LL skilful and industrious tutors, From whence it may be justly con

who make the instruction of cluded, that the minds of men are their pupils both their duty and de. near upon a level in all parts of the light, have three principal objects world ; that all the difference be. in their view, in the due discharge D tween one and another, is principally, of their important trust. Their first if not altogether, cwing to a liberal concern is, to cultivate their minds

education' ; that according to the with all those aids of learning, where. neglect, or cultivation of the sciences, of their years are capable. From whole nations rise or fall; and that thence they proceed to rectify and their future prosperity or declension, form their hearts by the principles in a great measure, depends upon of honour and honesty. And for the E them. However, without having completion of their work, they use

farther recourse to history, let us their utmost endeavours to establish take a transient view of what, for them in the principles of their most the generality, occurs in the course holy religion.

of nature.

From thence we may In order to entertain an adequate discern, what a wide difference a idea of the great advantages, which little art and industry will make bearise from the habituating of youth F tween two traits of land of equal to the study of such arts and sciences value. The one, if uncultivated, re. as are suitable to their years, we mains wild, and is over run with need only reflect on the vast distinc- weeds ; the other under the care sion which learning makes, not only of a skilful gardener, is richly laden between one man and another, but with fruits of all kinds, and of the between two different kingdoms. most delicious flavour ; is embellished

Tho' the Athenians possessed but G with a vast variety of particoloured a small territory in Greece ; yet, by flowers ; contracts within a few carrying the liberal arts and sciences acres whatever is most curious, molt to perfection, they compleated their proper for the nourishment and sup. own glory.

port of the owner, and most enter. Rome, which had made herself

taining

1

.1751.

The Mind improv'd by STUDY. 359 taining to his eye ; becomes, in corrected. It gives rectitude and thort, a pleasing epitome of all that exactness to our thoughts, and is most valuable in the different sea. strength and vigour to our reason. It fons of the year, and in the remotest aids and allifts us in the regular and countries. And thus it is with the just arrangement of whatever we mind, which ever repays the care, propose to write or speak, and

prewhich we take in the cultivation of A sents the brightest sages of antiquity it, with the the utmost gratitude and to our view, as the nobleft patterns profufion. That is the foil, which for our imitation. By setting their every one, who is conscious of his

judgment before us in a fair and adhigh descent, and for what worthy vantageous light, we walk with purposes he was created, is under safety under their friendly guidance an indispensable obligation to im- and direction. prove to the best advantage ; a foil B Was this study of no other use, both rich and fertile, capable of the than that of acquiring a habit of noblest productions, and alone worthy labour, the attaining of a steadiness of of all our care.

mind, and subduing our averfions to The mind is actually refreshed and such things as seem to give a check invigorated by those sublime truths, to the natural bent of our inclinations, with which she is supplied by the it would, notwithstanding, prove a help of study. It gradually increases C concern of the last importance. In and grows up, as it were, with those effect, it draws us off from indolence great men, whose operations are the and inactivity, from a corrupt taste objects of its attention. It strives, for gaming, from a too violent purby a laudable emulation, to attain fuit of the diversions in fashion, and in to their honour and fame, and has short, from a too partial indulgence just grounds to expect it from that of our inordinate appetites and affecsuccess which they have met with. Dtions : It fills up, to advantage, all Unmindful of its own frailty, it our vacant hours, and renders that makes glorious attempts to rise with leisure highly agreeable, which, them above its usual pitch. Being without the aid of study, is a kind of but poorly provided of itself, and death, and the grave, if I may contracted within a narrow compass, be indulged the expression, of a man it has too often but small scope of alive. invention, and its powers are with E The next grand article in the ineare exhausted. Study, however, ftruction of youth, is the forming of compensates for all its imperfections, their manners. ---- Were there no and supplies its various necessities nobler views in instruction, than the from abroad. It opens the under- improvement of youth in learning, standing by foreign aid, extends its were it to aim only at the enlargeviews, enlarges i:s ideas, and ren- ment of their ideas, without a due ders them more lively and distinct. F regard to the forming of their hearts ; By study, we are taught to consider it would not answer what might truch in a variety of lights, to dis- jusly be expected from it, nor concern the copiousness of principles, duct us to one of the principal ends and draw the remotest conclutions

for which we were created. from them.

Man is a sociable creature, and At our first entrance into the not made for himself alone. Proworld, we are overwhelmed with a G vidence has allotted him a proper cloud of ignorance, which is very sphere to move in ; he is the memmuch augmented by the false preju- ber of a community, the advantages dices and preposseilions of a bad whereof he ought, as much as is in education. By study, however, the his power, to promote. former is dispersed, and the latter

However,

360 Necessity and Amiableness of VIRTUE. Aug.

However, amongst the valt variety ty name of lessons, are on their of employments, which distinguish guard, and turn a deaf ear to all one man from another, all publick such admonitions. posts of trust require the moft shining In order, therefore, to preserve talents, and a more than common them from the contagion of the share of wisdom and good conduct. present degenerate age, they must

Now it is virtue alone, that quali- A be carried back into distant counfies a man for the due discharge of tries, as well as times, and the o. any such important offices. It is pinions and examples of the great the good intention of the heart, that men of antiquity must be opposed diftinguishes him from the common to the false maxims, and bad exberd of mankind, and renders bim amples, by which the greater part a proper instrument for the promo. of mankind are led aftray. Youth tion of social happiness. It is virtue, B will attend with pleasure to fuch that gives him a true taste of glory, lectures, as are recommended to that inspires him with zeal for his them by a Scipio, or a Cyrus ; and country, and with proper motives such instructions, concealed under the to serve it to the utmost of his power: pleasing mask of Nories, will make

It is virtue, that prompts him to a deeper impression on their minds, think nothing truly valuable but as they appear artless, and seem to fincerity and júltice ; nothing agree. Cbe laid before them without design. able, but a conscience void of of- By the great examples, and amifence towards God and man; and able characters, which are to be met nothing odious or Thameful, but with in history, our youth are taught what is vicious.

to have an early sense of what is exThe end of all study, therefore, cellent, to have a taste for virtue, is to make men virtuous. The end and to fix their attention on real of instruction, in the opinion of Pla-D merit. From hence they learn to to, was to reform the manners of form a judgment on mankind, to youth: And whoever departed from conquer popular prejudices, and to chat great principle, did by no look upon a real service done to means deserve the approbation of a friend in distress, preferable to the the publick.

.conquest of an enemy in the field We may with ease apply this of battle. principle to the study of literature, E Nothing is more apt to inspire and all the liberal arts. The use sentiments of virtue, and create a that ought to be made of them is, deteftation of vice, than the converto inspire young pertons, by a pro- sation of men of merit. And this per application of the maxims, ex- advantage is principally to be drawn amples, and remarkable events, from the perusal of the best authors. which are transmitted to us in the It forms a kind of relation betwixt writings of the most approved au. F us and the greatest men among the thors, with the love of virtue, and antients. We converse with them ; an abhorrence of vice.

we live with them; we hear their Youth stand in need of a faithful discourse ; and are witnesses of their and conttant monitor, and an ad- actions. vocate to plead with them in the When a rutor has gone thus far, cause of truth, integrity, and right and has infilled the principles of reason.

But who muit this moni. G honour and honesty into the hearts for be? Shall their tutors form fet of his pupils, he is to take one step lessons for their improvement in farther, and to use his utmost endeaihis particular ? By no means. vours to confirm them in the prinChildren take the alarm at the ve- ciples of their most holy religion.

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