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A remarkable Letter of Secretary COKE. Sept. crimes. All this notwithstanding, you are there to offer violence, or take prizes or not to conceive, that the whole work of booties ; or to give interruption to any this fleet, is either revenge or execution of lawful intercourse. In a word, his majuitice, for these great offences paft ; but jesty is resolved, as to do no wrong, so to chiefly, for the future, to ftop the violent do justice both to his subjects and friends, current of that presumption, whereby the within the limits of his feas. And this is men of war, and freebooters of all nations, the real and royal design of this fleet, (abusing the favour of his majesty's peace- A whereof you may give part as you find able and gracious government, whereby occasion, to our good neighbours in those he hath permitted all his friends and allies parts; that no umbrage may be taken of to make use of his seas and ports in a rea any hostile act or purpose, to their presonable and free manner, and according to judice, in any kind. So wishing you all his treaties) have taken upon them the health and happine!s, I reft boldness, not only to come confidently,

Your aisured friend and servant, at all times, into all his poits and rivers ; Whitehall, 16 April, but to convey their merchant ships as high 363 i, our Stile.

Јонн Соки, as his chief city; and then to cart anchor B

Tbe ediror of this letter in tbe GENERAL close opon his magazines ; and to con. ADVERTISER, concludes tbus : femn the commands of his officers, when Sir William Monson, in his admirable they required a farther distance. But, Naval Tra&s, observes, that whilst the which is more intolerable, bayc assaulted feet of 1635 was preparing, many idle, and taken one another, within his majesty's factious, and scandalous reports were chamber, and within his rivers, to the spread, to persuade the people, that those scorn and contempt of his dominion and

prepa, ations were only an artifice of ftare, power. And this being, of late years, an C to extort money from the subject. But it ordinary practice, when we have endea.

is not my design, to apologize for the numvoured in vain, to reform, by the ways of berless grievous errors committed under justice and treaties; the world, I think, Charles I. nor to ftir up our nation against will now be satisfied, that we have reason the Dutch, who ought not to be branded to look about us. And no wise man will for the injustice of their forefathers ; and doubt, that it is high time to put ourselves with whom, I hope, we shall ever live in in this equipage upon the seas, and not to amity. My only view is, to turn the eyes fuffer that stage of action to be taken from

D us for want of our appearance.

of my countrymen to their most essential

Intereft ; and if it has that falutary effect, So you see the general ground upon my end will be fully answered. which our counsel ftands. In particular, you may take notice, and publish as cause An Account of a Dwarf, in a Letter from Mr. requires, that his majesty, by this feet, William Arderon, F.R.S. to Mr. Henry intended not a rupture with any prince or

Baker, F. R. S. Taken from No. 495 of state, nor to infringe any point of his obe Philosophical Transactions, jupt pube treaties


but, resolveth to continue and lifhed. maintain that happy peace, wherewith E

Norwich, May 12, 1750. God hath blessed his kingdom ; and to which all his a&ions and negotiations have Twitshall, in Norfolk, in the year hitherto tended, as by your own instruce 1728, and has been shewn in this city for tions you may fully understand. But withal some weeks past. I weighed him myself, considering, that peace must be maintained

April 3, 1750, and his weight, with all by the arm of power, which only keeps his cloaths, was no more than 34 pounds. down war, by keeping up dominion : His 1 likewise carefully measured him, and majesty thus provoked, finds it necessary, found his height, with his hat, shoes, and even for his own desence and safety, to re: F wig on, to be 38 inches. His limbs are affume and keep his ancient and undoubted no bigger than a child of 3 or 4 four years right in the deminion of these scas; and to old : His body is perfe&tly Arait : The luffer no other prince or state to incroach lineaments of his face answerable to his upon him ; thereby assuming to themselves, age ; and his brow has some wrinkles in or their admirals, any fovereign command; it, when he looks attentively at any thing. but to force them to perfo: m homage to He has a good complexion, is of a (prightly his admiral and mips ; and to pay them temper, discourses readily and pertinentiy, acknowledyments, as in former times they considering his education, and reads and did. He will also set open and protect the writes English well. His speech is a little free trade both of his subjects and allies ; hollow, tho' not disagreeable ; he can fing and give them ruch sale condud and coro. tolerably, and amules the company that voy, as they shall reasonably require. He come to see him, with mimicicing a cock's will suffer no other fiets, or men of war, crowing, which he imitates very exactly. to keep any guard upon these seas ; or

Extraets from the Philosophical Transactions.




389 In 1744, he was 36 inches high, and pice, of 8 or 10 years growih, from which weighed 27 pounds and an half. His fa. they collect manna. It seemed to have ther says, when about a year old, he was been tapped two years for ihat purpose ; as large as children of that age usually are, the branches had been barked each year but grew very little and Nowly alterwards. about an inch broad, and two feet high ;

A child of 3 years and not quite 9 but ihey told me this was done by an inch months old, son of the late very worthy at a time, William Jones, Erq; F. R. S. was mea- A They place a cup at the bottom of the Sured and weighed, in order to make a wound, which they empty every five days. comparison between this little man and This liquor becomes manna. They forhim. This boy, tho' very lively and hand. merly let it dry upon the trees, but the fome, is no way remarkable for his fize ; present way keeps it cleaner. The manna and therefore his dimenlions and weight, begins to run (they say, in the scripture stile, compared with the dwarf's, may give a to rain) the beginning of August ; and if tolerable idea of the real smallness of the the season proves dry, they gather it 5 or 6 dwarf.

weeks. The king of Naples has ro large The weight of the dwarf, with all his


a revenue from it, that he is extremely cloaths on, was no more than 34 pounds. jealous of it ; during the season guards the

The child's weight, with its cloaths woods by sbirri, who even fire upon peolikewise on, was 36 pounds.

ple that come into them ; and he makes The height of the dwarf, with his shoes, the fealing of the i quor death. The real hat, and wig on, was 38 5-10 inches. son in which I was at Arienzo prevented

The height of the child, without any my seeing the species of arh. I believe ic thing on his head, 37 7-10 inches.

to be what our gardeners call the flowerDwarf. Child., C ing alh ; the complexion of the bark and

Inches. Inches. bud agrees with one of them I have in my Round the waist

20 5-10

garden at Lindley. The man who shewed Round the neck


97-10 me the wood, told me, it bore a pretty Round the calf of the


flower in the spring.–At Pisa in the phyleg


fick-garden, they thewed me that tree in Round the ancle 6


bloom as the manna-ash. The tree is in. Round the wrist


4 3-10 deed common enough in that neighbour. Length of the arm,

hood : I wonder Mr. Ray does not men. viz.from the shoul.



tion it among the plants found there by der to the wrist

him. The Italians call it or no. A bota. From the elbow to

nift at Rome told me, it was the orpus the end of the mid.

officinarum. A physician at Benevento to die finger

the same purpose, that it was the ornus From the wrist to the

used in medicine. A person is gone from end of the middle 4


Rome to Naples, who has promised to be finger

very particular in getting you information From the knee to the

10 4-10

E of their manner of curing it. He was bottom of the heel

bred a chemift, and told me many ways of Length of the foot


counterfeiting the several appearances of it, with the shoe on

The most common is with Glauber's salts Length of the face 6

6 1-10

and sugar, with a small mixture of manna. Breadth of the face 5

4 8-10

The price of manna at Naples, they told Length of the nose I 2-10 I 2-10 me, was 4 carlins (4 d. sterling each) the Width of the mouth I 8-10 1 8-10 rotolo (32 ounces.) Breadth of the hand 2 5-10 As the measures of the dwarf were taken

F A Description of WILTSHIRE. To with his cloaths on, those of the child were

whicb is annexed a new and correet Map.

ILTSHIRE bas Somersetshire ing a tight stay and petticoat) probably fit closer to his body, and therefore make less the north and north-west, Dorsethire and difference in the measuring round his waist, part of Hampshire on the south, and Berk(the only dimension wherein it could have Thire and Hampshire on the east. Its any effect) than the looler coat or waistcoat greatest length from north to south is 45 of the dwarf.

G miles, its greatest breadth from east to west

37 miles, and it is about 150 in circumfe. Part of a Letter from Robert More, Esq; to rence. contains about 876000 acres,

Mr. W. Watson, F.R.S. concerning ibe and 27100 houses, and is divided into 29 Melbod of garbering Manna near Naples. hundreds ; in which are one city, 15 boT Arienzo, a town between Naples roughs, 9 other market-towns, and 904



10 4-10



10 7-10


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taken over his cioaths; and they (bei W 'n the welt, Gloucefterthire on

A ath

A Description of WILTSHIR E. Sept.

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parishes. It sends 34 members to parlia. K. Henry III. being present. It is said to
ment, viz. two for the county, two for have as many gates or doors as months
the city, and two for each of the 15 bo. in the year, as many windows as weeks,
roughs respectively. The present knights and as many pillars and pilasters as days
of the Thire, or representatives for the in the year. It has a lofty ftceple, 410
county, are Sir Robert Long, Bart. and feet high, which proudiy Thews itself at a
Edward Popham, Eq; Some derive the great distance. On the south fide of the
name of this county from Wilton, once its A church is the cloister, as large, and of as
capital, or from the river Willy, on which fine workmanship, as any in England ;
that town ftands. Its chief rivers are the and the bishop has a stately palace adjoin-
llis, Kennet, Willy, Mader, and the two ing to the cloister. Here is a library built
Avons. It enjoys a moft sweet and health. and furnished by the famous bishop Jewel,
ful air, and affords a very agreeable pro. a chapter-house of a large o&togonal fi.
fpect by its pleasant variety. The northern gure, supported only by a small marble
part, called North-Wiltfire, once over pillar in the middle, and a college built
fpread with woods, is full of delightful and endowed by bishop Seth Ward for 10
a cents, and watered with pleasant clear B ministers widows. The city is very spa.
ftreams. Its southern parts are more even, cious, has one of the best market places
and exceeding fertile in corn and grass, in England, in which is the town-house,
feeding great flocks of meep. But the and every street is supplied with a ftream
middle part is the most plain and level of of water. It is governed by a mayor,
all, bearing the name of Salisbury-Plain, high-fteward, recorder, deputy.recorder,
reckoned the finest in Europe : Of this 24 aldermen, and 30 common.council
county it is commonly said, that if an ox men ; and its present representatives in par-
were left to his choice, he would chuse the C fiament are the Hon. William Bouverie and
north part, and if a Meep were left to his, Edward Poore, Erars. Its chief manufactures
he would chuse the south, and that men are fine flannels and long cloths, called
would chuse to live betwixt both, that they Salisbury Whites ; it has markers on Tuel.
might share in the pleasures of the Plain, days and Saturdays, and gives title of earl
and the wealth of the good foil. It lies in to the family of Cecil. (See a View of
the diocese of Salisbury, and drives a very this city in our Mag for November, 1749.)
great trade in fine broad cloth, in which The boroughs are, 1. Old Sarum, about
no county exceeds it. The river Isis is 2 miles N. of New Sarum, or Salisbury,
also called the Thames ; and indeed Dr. D the remains of the old city, castle, walls,
Gibson, in his notes on Camden, cakes &c. now reduced to a mean village, and it
notice of a vulgar error, as if the Thames is said there is but one farm-house left ;
had its name from a conjunction of the and yet it continues to send members to
Thame and Ilis, and proves by ancient parliament, chosen by 10 electors, who
historians and records, that the name Ifis have lands adjoining to it, and are stiled
feldom occurs in any charter or ancient burgesses and frecholders. The only mem.
history ; and that it is called Thames or ber at present is the earl of Middlesex,
Tems, long before it comes near Thame. E Paul Joddrel, Esq; the other member, dy-
However, it is certain, that the famous ing lince the prorogation of the parlia.
river Thames has its origin from the Ifis. ment.
In describing the places of note in this 2. Wilton, about 3 miles W. of Old Sa.
county, we shall begin with the city, viz. rum, formerly the chief town of the
Salisbury, commonly called New Sarum,

county, but now of litele note, tho' it has
which grew considerable upon the removal a small market on Wednesdays, and is the
of the inhabitants from Old Sarum, the place where the ther ff keeps his court,
ancient Sorbiodunum, for want of water, and the knights of the thire are elected.
and its being too much exposed to winds F It is a borough by prescription, and sends
by its ftuation on a great eminence. Sa two members to pailiament, who at pre-
lisbury is 70 computed, and 84 measured rent are Robert Herbert and William Her.
miles west from London, and is reckoned bert, Esqrs. The decay of this town was
the second city in this part of England. It chiefly occasioned by the bishop of Sa.
is pleasantly situated in a vale on the river lifbury's turning from it the road into the
Avon, is populous, adorned with fair and western counties, The earl of Pembroke
large buildings, and has 3 parish churches, has a stately house built from the ruins of
besides the cathedral, which is a wonder-G the abbey.
ful structure, Arong. built, with double 3. Hindon, about 17 miles N. W. of
cross ifles, and has such a venerable gran Wilton, a small but pleasant, borough
deur, as amazes spectators. It was first

town, encompared with fine downs. Its begun by Richard Poore their bishop, in markes is on Thursdays, and it sends 2 1220, was near 40 years in building, and

members to parliament, who al present dedicated to the Virgin Mary in 1258,



391 are Bisle Richards and Francis Blake De. libacy of the clergy, in 977. It is a small laval, Elars.

town, but well built and populous, has a 4. Heytsbury, 6 miles N. E. of Hindon, handsome church, and a considerable trade an ancient borough by prescription, in an in cloth. It has a market on Tuesdays, open country, on the river Willy, some. and sends two members to parliament, time the seat of the empress Maud. It who at present are William Northey and has a collegiate church, with 4 prebenda. William Elliot, Esqrs. In 1725 so viories, a free-school, and an hospital well A lent a storm of rain sell in this town, and endowed. It has 2 fairs, but no market. the waters sose lo suddenly, that a great Its present representatives in parliament qu: ntity of goods were spoiled and lost, are Pierce Acourt, Esq; and col. William and particularly a cask of oil, of 110 galAcourt.

lons, was borne down by the torrent, and 5. Westbury, about 8 miles N. W. of two men were drowned in the streets, in Heytsbury, a small borough town, that fight of their neighbours, who durtt not has a market on Fridays, and sends 2 ftir to their relief. members to parliament, the present ones 11. Chippenham, 7 miles W. of Calne, being Matthew Mitchell and Chauncey B raid to have been one of the seats of the Townshend, Esqrs. It lies in an open

Welt-Saxon kings, is pretty large and pocountry, adjoining to Salisbury Plain. pulous, has a conliderable clothing trade,

6. Devizes, 11 miles N. E. of Wesbury, is an ancient borough by prescription, and a large, well-built, populous town, full of sends two members to parliament, those wealthy clothiers. It is very ancient, and in the present parliament being Sir Edmund on Rundway-Hill, that overlooks the Thomas, Bart, and Edward Baynton Rolt, town, are the remains of a Roman camp. Esq; Its market is on Saturdays. Its castle was reckoned the strongest in C 12. Malmibury, 8 miles N. E. of ChipEngland, but is now demolished. It has 3 penham, situate upon an hill, by the fide churches, and is governed by a mayor, of the river Avon, which almost encomrecorder, and common-council. Their re. passes it, and over which it has fix bridges. presentatives in the present parliament are It is a neat town, carries on a considerable John Garth and William Willy, Esqrs. Its trade in the woollen manufacture, and has market, which is very considerable, is on a good market on Saturdays. It is governed Thursdays.

by a justice, called an alderman, chosen 7. Ludgershall, about 20 miles S. E. of

D the Devizes, a very ancient borough by pre

annually, and its present representatives in

parliament are John Lee and the Hon. Ed. scription, but now a small place in a de ward Digby, Esqrs. lightful country and healthy air. It has a 13. Wotton. Baffet, about 10 miles S. E. market on Wednesdays, and several of our of Malmsbury, is a handsome town, has a kings formerly retided here. Its present good trade in cloib, is a borough by prerepresentatives are Thomas Farrington and fcription and charter, and sends two mema George Augustus Selwya, Esqrs.

bers to parliament, who at present are 8. Great Bedwin, 5 miles N. of Lud. Martyn Madan and Robert Neal, Esqrs. gershall, is very ancient, and a borough by E Its market is on Tuesdays. The adjacent prescription, governed by a portreeve. It country was formerly covered with wood, has a market on Tuesdays, and its present where now lies Breden-Foreft. representatives are Lascelles Metcalle and 14. Cricklade, about il miles, N. E, William Sloper, Esqrs.

from Wotton. Baffet, an ancient town, 9. Marlborough, about 9 miles N. W. situate on a rifing ground, surrounded with of Great Bedwin, an ancient borough, pleasant meadows and hills at a distance, governed by a mayor, 12 aldermen, &c. which form a delightful prospect. The and sends two members to parliament, the F Thames or Ifis begins to be navigable here, present ones being Sir John Hynd Colton, The town has two parish churches, and a Bart, and Jolin Talbot, jun. Esq; It is market on Saturdays. It is represented in pretty large and populous, is pleasantly the present parliament by William Raw. fituated near the Downs, on the descent of knfon Earle and John Gore, Elgrs. a hill, and watered by the river Kennet, 15. Downton, or Dunkton, 4 miles famous for trouts and craw-filh, Its market S. E. of Salisbury, lies in a delightful plain, is on Saturdays, and it gives title of duke to is watered by the Avon, and has been a the family of Spencers, descendants of John borough by prescription almost ever since lord Churchill, the great duke of Marlbo. G the conquest. It has a small market on rough, by his second daughter, married to Fridays, and sends two members to para the carl of Sunderland.

liament, who at present are Thomas Dun10. Calne, about 14 miles W. of Marl. combe, Esq; and col. Henry Vane. borough, is ancient, and noted for a synod The other market towns are, 1. Highheld here during the contention betwixt worth, 4 miles S. E. of Cricklade, so called sho monks and secular priests about the ce.



A Description of WILTSHIRE. Sept. from its being feated on a hill in the farthest with a rampart as high and large as that corner of the county, north. It has a good at Winchefer. On the north-west side of market on Wednesdays.

the county, betwixt it and Gloucestershire, 2. Swindon, about 8 miles S. W. of are the remains of a trench, called Wans. Highworth, has a good market on Mon dike, which some think was a boundary days. It is but a sinall town, and yet the betwixt the dominions of the West-Saxons houses are large, and well built of stone. and Mercians ; but Dr. Gibson thinks it to

3. Auburn, 10 miles S. E. of Swindon, A have been a rampart against the Britons. a finall town, with a market on Tuesdays, Stonehenge, on Salisbury. Plain, 2 miles principally noted for the great quantity of W. of Ambresbury, and 6 N. W. of Sa. rabbiis it sends to London. It gives name bsbury, is reckoned one of the wonders of to a chace, which lies west of it.

the kingdom, tho' authors are divided 4. Bradford, about 13 miles S. W. of about the occasion of this monument. How Chippenham, has a market on Mondays, fuch vast stones Mould come thither, fince and drives a considerable trade in cloth. the adjacent country wants common stones

5. Trowbridge, 3 miles S. E. of Brad for building, is matter of surprize ; and ford, an ancient town, whole market is on B some therefore think them to be arrificial Saturday. The clothing trade flourishes Nones, made up of sand, and cemented by greatly in and about it. The court of the a glutinous matter : But others think them dutchy of Lancaster for this county is an to be natural stones. Dr. Gibson offers nually kept here about Michaelmas.

several arguments to prove, that it is not a 6. Warminster, 4 miles S. E. of West. Roman monument, nor a place of christian bury, a very ancient town, that enjoyed sepulcure ; and i hat it is not a Danish mo. great privileges, and is now noted for the

nument, because it is mentioned by Nin. vait quantities of corn that are brought to C nius almost 200 years before they had any its market weekly on Sa urdays. There confiderable footing in the inand. He there. are the remains of two o!d camps in its fore thinks it more probable to be a British neighbourhood. The chief trade of the monument for some victory, because there town is clothing and malt ; and near it is are some like it both in Scotland and Wales, Longleat, a noble seat belonging to the lord where the Romans and Danes never came. viscount Weymouth.

Time has much impaired these stones both 7. Lavington, called allo Market. La. as to fize and form. The number of them, vington, 9 miles N. E. of Warminster, as they now remain, is 7?. This surpris has a great corn market on Wednesday. D fing monument stands on a rifing ground, The earl of Abingdon has a noble seat at encompassed with a deep trench about 30 Weft-Lavington in the neighbourhood. foot broad. It has three entrances from

8. Amb: esbury, about 15 miles S. E. of the Plain, the chief of which is towards Lavington, a very ancient town, with a the N. E. and at each of them on the out. small market on Fridays, supposed to de. side of the trench are raised 2 huge stones rive its name from Ambrofius, a British gatewise, parallel to which on the inside king, who was Nain near this place. The are z leffer ones. After passing the ditch, British history says, fome ancient kings & we ascend 35 yards before we come to the were buried here, and that there was a mo. work itself, which consists of 4 circles of nastery of 300 monks in the town, founded stones, and the outermof circle is 100 foot by Ambrofius, to pray for the souls of those diameter. The stones of it are 4 yards that were Oain by the treachery of Hengist, high, 2 broad, and I thick. Two yards the Saxon chief. Not far from this place and a half within this great circle is a range lies Everley, near which is the high:f bill of lefser stones. Three yards further is the in Wiltshire, called Suthbury. Hill, on which chief part of the work, which Mr. Inigo are the remains of valt fortifications; and Jones, the great architect, calls the cell, at Estcourt in the neighbourhood, near a


It is of an irregular figure, made up of 2 Roman causey, some urns were dug up in rows of stones. The outermost consists 1693.

of great upright ones, 20 foot high, 2 9. Mere, 9 miles W. of Hindon, has a yards broad, and I thick: These are coupled market on Tuesdays, and is a great staple at top by large transom ftones like archie for wool.

traves, 7 foot long, and ; and a half thick, Dr. Gibron says, that at Silbury, there Within this lies another row of pyramidal is the largest and most uniform burrow per stones above 6 foot high. In the inner most haps in England, supposed to be the place G part there was a stone not much above the where Ceol, king of the West-Saxons, was rurface of the earth, 4 foot broad and 16 killed. About half a mile from hence is foot long. Upon the whole, Dr. Gibson Aubury, a monument more considerable in thinks it to have been built by the Britons, itself than known to the world, a village after the Romans came in, and to be a rude of the same name being built within it, imiation of some of thuir truetures. and out of its stones. It is encompelled


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