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1751. A DESCRIPTION OF WILTSHIRE,

391 are Bisle Richards and Francis Blake De. libacy of the clergy, in 977. It is a small laval, Elars.

town, but well built and populous, has a 4. Heytsbury, 6 miles N. E. of Hindon, handsome church, and a considerable trade an ancient borough by prescription, in an in cloth. It has a market on Tuesdays, open country, on the river Willy, some. and sends two members to parliament, time the seat of the empress Maud. It who at present are William Northey and has a collegiate church, with 4 prebenda. William Elliot, Esqrs. In 1725 so viories, a free-school, and an hospital well A lent a storm of rain sell in this town, and endowed. It has 2 fairs, but no market. the waters sose lo suddenly, that a great Its present representatives in parliament qu: ntity of goods were spoiled and lost, are Pierce Acourt, Esq; and col. William and particularly a cask of oil, of 110 galAcourt.

lons, was borne down by the torrent, and 5. Westbury, about 8 miles N. W. of two men were drowned in the streets, in Heytsbury, a small borough town, that fight of their neighbours, who durtt not has a market on Fridays, and sends 2 ftir to their relief. members to parliament, the present ones 11. Chippenham, 7 miles W. of Calne, being Matthew Mitchell and Chauncey B raid to have been one of the seats of the Townshend, Esqrs. It lies in an open

Welt-Saxon kings, is pretty large and pocountry, adjoining to Salisbury Plain. pulous, has a conliderable clothing trade,

6. Devizes, 11 miles N. E. of Wesbury, is an ancient borough by prescription, and a large, well-built, populous town, full of sends two members to parliament, those wealthy clothiers. It is very ancient, and in the present parliament being Sir Edmund on Rundway-Hill, that overlooks the Thomas, Bart, and Edward Baynton Rolt, town, are the remains of a Roman camp. Esq; Its market is on Saturdays. Its castle was reckoned the strongest in C 12. Malmibury, 8 miles N. E. of ChipEngland, but is now demolished. It has 3 penham, situate upon an hill, by the fide churches, and is governed by a mayor, of the river Avon, which almost encomrecorder, and common-council. Their re. passes it, and over which it has fix bridges. presentatives in the present parliament are It is a neat town, carries on a considerable John Garth and William Willy, Esqrs. Its trade in the woollen manufacture, and has market, which is very considerable, is on a good market on Saturdays. It is governed Thursdays.

by a justice, called an alderman, chosen 7. Ludgershall, about 20 miles S. E. of

D the Devizes, a very ancient borough by pre

annually, and its present representatives in

parliament are John Lee and the Hon. Ed. scription, but now a small place in a de- ward Digby, Esqrs. lightful country and healthy air. It has a 13. Wotton. Baffet, about 10 miles S. E. market on Wednesdays, and several of our of Malmsbury, is a handsome town, has a kings formerly retided here. Its present good trade in cloib, is a borough by prerepresentatives are Thomas Farrington and fcription and charter, and sends two mema George Augustus Selwya, Esqrs.

bers to parliament, who at present are 8. Great Bedwin, 5 miles N. of Lud. Martyn Madan and Robert Neal, Esqrs. gershall, is very ancient, and a borough by E Its market is on Tuesdays. The adjacent prescription, governed by a portreeve. It country was formerly covered with wood, has a market on Tuesdays, and its present where now lies Breden-Foreft. representatives are Lascelles Metcalle and 14. Cricklade, about il miles, N. E, William Sloper, Esqrs.

from Wotton. Baffet, an ancient town, 9. Marlborough, about 9 miles N. W. situate on a rifing ground, surrounded with of Great Bedwin, an ancient borough, pleasant meadows and hills at a distance, governed by a mayor, 12 aldermen, &c. which form a delightful prospect. The and sends two members to parliament, the F Thames or Ifis begins to be navigable here, present ones being Sir John Hynd Colton, The town has two parish churches, and a Bart, and Jolin Talbot, jun. Esq; It is market on Saturdays. It is represented in pretty large and populous, is pleasantly the present parliament by William Raw. fituated near the Downs, on the descent of knfon Earle and John Gore, Elgrs. a hill, and watered by the river Kennet, 15. Downton, or Dunkton, 4 miles famous for trouts and craw-filh, Its market S. E. of Salisbury, lies in a delightful plain, is on Saturdays, and it gives title of duke to is watered by the Avon, and has been a the family of Spencers, descendants of John borough by prescription almost ever since lord Churchill, the great duke of Marlbo. G the conquest. It has a small market on rough, by his second daughter, married to Fridays, and sends two members to para the carl of Sunderland.

liament, who at present are Thomas Dun10. Calne, about 14 miles W. of Marl. combe, Esq; and col. Henry Vane. borough, is ancient, and noted for a synod The other market towns are, 1. Highheld here during the contention betwixt worth, 4 miles S. E. of Cricklade, so called sho monks and secular priests about the ce.

from

392

Å Description of WILTSHIRE. Sept.

from its being feated on a hill in the farthest with a rampart as high and large as that corner of the county, north. It has a good at Winchefer. On the north-west side of market on Wednesdays.

the county, betwixt it and Gloucestershire, 2. Swindon, about 8 miles S. W. of are the remains of a trench, called Wans. Highworth, has a good market on Mon- dike, which some think was a boundary days. It is but a sinall town, and yet the betwixt the dominions of the West-Saxons houses are large, and well built of stone. and Mercians ; but Dr. Gibson thinks it to

3. Auburn, 10 miles S. E. of Swindon, A have been a rampart against the Britons. a finall town, with a market on Tuesdays, Stonehenge, on Salisbury. Plain, 2 miles principally noted for the great quantity of W. of Ambresbury, and 6 N. W. of Sa. rabbiis it sends to London. It gives name bsbury, is reckoned one of the wonders of to a chace, which lies west of it.

the kingdom, tho' authors are divided 4. Bradford, about 13 miles S. W. of about the occasion of this monument. How Chippenham, has a market on Mondays, fuch vast stones Mould come thither, fince and drives a considerable trade in cloth. the adjacent country wants common stones

5. Trowbridge, 3 miles S. E. of Brad- for building, is matter of surprize ; and ford, an ancient town, whole market is on B some therefore think them to be arrificial Saturday. The clothing trade flourishes Nones, made up of sand, and cemented by greatly in and about it. The court of the a glutinous matter : But others think them dutchy of Lancaster for this county is an- to be natural stones. Dr. Gibson offers nually kept here about Michaelmas.

several arguments to prove, that it is not a 6. Warminster, 4 miles S. E. of West. Roman monument, nor a place of christian bury, a very ancient town, that enjoyed sepulcure ; and i hat it is not a Danish mo. great privileges, and is now noted for the

nument, because it is mentioned by Nin. vait quantities of corn that are brought to C nius almost 200 years before they had any its market weekly on Sa urdays. There confiderable footing in the inand. He there. are the remains of two o!d camps in its fore thinks it more probable to be a British neighbourhood. The chief trade of the monument for some victory, because there town is clothing and malt ; and near it is are some like it both in Scotland and Wales, Longleat, a noble seat belonging to the lord where the Romans and Danes never came. viscount Weymouth.

Time has much impaired these stones both 7. Lavington, called allo Market. La. as to fize and form. The number of them, vington, 9 miles N. E. of Warminster, as they now remain, is 7?. This surpris has a great corn market on Wednesday. D fing monument stands on a rifing ground, The earl of Abingdon has a noble seat at encompassed with a deep trench about 30 Weft-Lavington in the neighbourhood. foot broad. It has three entrances from

8. Amb: esbury, about 15 miles S. E. of the Plain, the chief of which is towards Lavington, a very ancient town, with a the N. E. and at each of them on the out. small market on Fridays, supposed to de. side of the trench are raised 2 huge stones rive its name from Ambrofius, a British gatewise, parallel to which on the inside king, who was Nain near this place. The are z leffer ones. After passing the ditch, British history says, fome ancient kings & we ascend 35 yards before we come to the were buried here, and that there was a mo. work itself, which consists of 4 circles of nastery of 300 monks in the town, founded stones, and the outermof circle is 100 foot by Ambrofius, to pray for the souls of those diameter. The stones of it are 4 yards that were Oain by the treachery of Hengist, high, 2 broad, and I thick. Two yards the Saxon chief. Not far from this place and a half within this great circle is a range lies Everley, near which is the high:f bill of lefser stones. Three yards further is the in Wiltshire, called Suthbury. Hill, on which chief part of the work, which Mr. Inigo are the remains of valt fortifications; and Jones, the great architect, calls the cell, at Estcourt in the neighbourhood, near a

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It is of an irregular figure, made up of 2 Roman causey, some urns were dug up in rows of stones. The outermost consists 1693. .

of great upright ones, 20 foot high, 2 9. Mere, 9 miles W. of Hindon, has a yards broad, and I thick: These are coupled market on Tuesdays, and is a great staple at top by large transom ftones like archie for wool.

traves, 7 foot long, and ; and a half thick, Dr. Gibron says, that at Silbury, there Within this lies another row of pyramidal is the largest and most uniform burrow per- stones above 6 foot high. In the inner most haps in England, supposed to be the place G part there was a stone not much above the where Ceol, king of the West-Saxons, was rurface of the earth, 4 foot broad and 16 killed. About half a mile from hence is foot long. Upon the whole, Dr. Gibson Aubury, a monument more considerable in thinks it to have been built by the Britons, itself than known to the world, a village after the Romans came in, and to be a rude of the same name being built within it, imiation of some of thuir truetures. and out of its stones. It is encompelled

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1751.

393 JOURNAL of the PROCEEDINGS and DEBATES in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from P. 354.

been his choice, to have applied to In order to understand the following this house for redress. But the scru

Debate, I must refer your Readers tiny ended the zoth of April, and to the Summary you have publißbed surely, from the 12th to the zoth, last month and the preceding, with no great harm to one candidate, or relation 10 the Proceedings in Par- benefit to the other, could have been liament upon the Case of the West- A obtained by any affectation of delay; minster Election ; where they will for if there was any affectation of see, that a Question arose, Whether delay between the end of the scruthe High- Bailiff of Westminster tiny and the declaration, it must Jhould be asked, By whom, and by have been in the high-bailiff himself. what Means the Election was pro- However, let us suppose, that some tracted by an affected Delay ? other person was guilty of an affecConsidering the Circumstances of the B tation of delay between the 12th and Case, and the Importance of an im- 30th of April, or between the 30th partial Inquiry into all controverted of April and 12th of May, when Elections, we resolved to have a the high-bailiff made his declaration Debate upon the Subject, which in favour of the noble lord who now was opened by T. Sempronius moved for his attending, and for his Gracchus, in Substance as follows, being asked this question: Was it viz.

C not the high bailiff's duty to have Mr. President,

made his complaint to this house the very first day of the session ? But in

stead of this, he neglects to make HEN the motion was any complaint for several days after made for calling this our first meeting ; and at last a peti

gentleman to attend the tion being presented to us by a very house immediately

, I could not sug-D great number of the electors, comgest to myself the reason for such an plaining of the injustice of his reextraordinary motion, or the use that turn, of the irregularity of his prowas intended to be made of it ; and ceedings, and of his having protherefore my curiosity led me to be tracted the election for gain, he is passive, in order to discover what I called upon to come and retort the could not then comprehend. Last accusation ; and, I suppose, it is by session, it is true, he received the E this question intended, that we should directions of this house to expedite examine into this retorted complaint, the election, and if he met with any and punish the persons accused by thing to obstruct him therein, which him, before we make the leaft inhe could not prevent, to apply for quiry into the original complaint a. the support of this house in the dilcharge of his duty. The house con- This, Sir, I can now see is the tinued fitting till the 12th of April F intention of the noble lord, who following without any complaint from moved for this gentleman's being him, consequently we cannot fup ordered to attend immediately; and pose, that before that day any one I can forelee, that this gentleman's protracted the election by an affected complaints will be directed chiefy delay ; for if any one had, it was against those, who were the managers his duty, and would, I believe, have

upon the scrutiny for the unsucceisful E- of E

candidate ; because from the nature September, 1751.

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