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412 Summary of the last Session of Parliament. Sept.
Lucceffor should be of tender years; by time, your majesty has pointed cut to us
means whereof their safety and princely generous concern to provide for the conti-
education may be secured, the publick nuance of that happiness (as far as human
peace and good order maintained, and the forefight can do) after God thall have de-
Itrength and glory of the crown of Great. prived us of the inestimable blessing of your
Britain suffer no diminution : For there immediate carc. In return for this pater-
reasons, his majesty, out of his paternal nal goodne's, permit us to assure your ma.
affection and tenderness for his royal fami- A jesty, that we will lose no time, in taking
ly, and for all his faithful subjects, sernelt. into our confiderat on the weighty affair
ly recommends it to both houses of parlia. laid before us in your melage.
ment, to take this weighly affair into their We are truly sensible of the high and
molt serious deliberation ; and proposes to eminent qualities of her royal highness, the
their confideration, That, when the impe- princess dowager of Wales ; and we look
rial crown of these realms Thall descend to upon what your majesty has been graciously
any of the issue of his son, the late prince pleased to propose to our confideration, as
of Wales, being under the age of 18 years, The result of your widom, and tender con-
the princess dowager of Wales, their mo? B cern for your

royal family, and the interests ther, should be guardian of the person of of these kingdoms; and we thall have the fuch fucceffor, and recent of these king- most dutiful regard to what your majesty doms, until they shall attain such age ; has been pleased so wisely to recommend, with such powers and limitations, as ñhall In our deliberations on this important appear necessary and expedient for these subject, we shall think it our duty, as well important purposes.

as our effential interest, to have the fri&ert Upon this, both houses agreed, nem, and most Zealous attention to the preservacon. to the following address, viz. Ction of the pr testant succeffion, as settled

by law, in your royal family ; the numeMolt gracious Sovereign,

rous hopefil branches whereof, formed by

your instruction, and led by your example, loyal subjects, the lords fpiritual we look upon as so many pledges of the le. and temporal, and commons in parliament curity of our religious and civil rights to fuassembled, approach your royal throne, ture generations. with hearts filled, at the same lime, with May it please the divine Providence to the deepest sense of gratirude to your majelly, and with the most serious and anxi. D grant your majesty such cor.firmed health,

and length of days, as may render those ous concern for the future weliare of our provifions, which your wisdom harh rug. country.

gested to us on that occalion, unnecessary To return your majesty our thanks for in the event ; that we may very long enjoy your most gracious message, falls infinitely the benefits of your gracious government ; thort of those sentiments, with which the and your majesty the dutiful and affectio. subject of it inspires us. It excites in us nate returns of a most obliged, loyal, and the most sensible feeling of all those blessings, grateful people. which we have enj yed, during your au. E Which address was next day presented 1picious and glorious peign; of the mildness

by both houles, and his majesty returned a and benignity of your government ; and of most graci us answer, which see that constant protection, which your ma- Magazine for April laft, p. 188. jelty has always extended to our religion, In pursuance of this message and address, laws and liberties; which you have demon. the duke of Newcalle presented to the Strated by your conduct, as well as declared house of lords, May 7, a bill to provide by your royal words, to be most dear to for the ar ministration of the government, you. Happy would it be for all your faith. F in case the crown should descend to any of ful subje&s, if heaven in mercy to these the child:en of his late royal highness the kingdoms, would graciously permit a reign, prince of Wales, being under the age of 18 fo distinguished with cvery mark of good- years, and for the care and guardianihip of mers, that can endear a British monarch to their persons ; which bill was then read a his people, to be prolonged beyond the or- Brst time, ordered to be read a second time dinary date. To look forward to its period, the next day, and the lords to be summonanticipates a gries, which no words can ex- ed. Accordingly it was next day read press. Your majesty's greatness of mind, second time, and committed for Friday thewn in your meliage, has called upon G the roth, and the lords to be again fum. us, and let us the example, to enter into moned to attend. In the mean time a mer. fuch confiderations, as the high impor- sage was delivered from his majesty, recomtance of the occasion requires.

mending to their confideration the settle. Not content with being the great inftru. ment of such a council of regency as now ment of our happiness, during your own slands eftablished by the act ; and on the


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1751. Summary of the last Session of Parliament.

413 joth the house went thro' the bill in the ing that the bill might not pass into a la'y ; committee, and read the bill a third time and on the 28th there was presented to the and pailed it on the 13th ; when it was sent house and read a petition of the feveral mer to the commons, where it was that day chants, traders, and others residing in or read a first time, and ordered to be read a near the city of London, whose names second time the next morning, having the were thereunto subscribed, setting forth the same title as above, only the name Frede. advantages of a general naturalization, and rick inserted before prince of Wales. A praying that the bill might pass into a law;

Tuesday the 14th, the bill was accord. and it being ordered that the names of the ing to order read a second time, and or- subscribers might be read, Mr. Sydenham dered to be committed on the Thursday moved, that the clerk might read each following, when Mr. Chancellor of the Ex. man's name, as near as he could, as it was chequer being in the chair, a long debate pronounced in the language of the country ensued, whether any council of regency

the subscriber came from, or belonged to ; hould be appointed or no, in which de. whereupon it appeared, that many, if not bate the principal speakers for appoint.

most of the subscribers were foreigners, or ing a council of regency were,

Mr. C. B of late foreign extraction ; after which the Yorke, Mr. Attorney-general, Mr. Soli. bill was read a second time, and a motion citor-general, Mr. Harding, Mr. Martin, made for its being committed, on which a Mr. W. Pitt, Mr. Secretary at war, and long debate ensued, the principal speakers Mr. Nugent ; and the principal speakers

for the commitment being, Mr. Proby, against it were Mr. Prowse, Sir Roger Mr. Harding, Mr, Lyttelton, Mr. Chan. Newdigate, Mr. Fazakerly, Mr. Speaker, cellor of the Exchequer, Mr. H. Walpole, the lord Strange, Sir John Barnard, Mr. sen. Mr. W. Pitt, Mr. Nugent, and Sir T. Pitt, Sir John Hynd Cotton, the lord c William Yonge ; and the principal speak. Cobham, and general Oglethorpe. But ers against it were, Sir John Barnard, Sir upon the question's being put, it was car. Roger Newdigate, Mr. Secretary at war, ried in the affirmative, and next day the the earl of Egmont, Mr. Morton, Mr. J. bill was gone thro' with some few amend. Lee, and general Oglethorpe ; but upon ments, and ordered to be reported on the the question's being put, it was carried in Monday following, when Mr. Beckford the affirmative by 146 to 81. spoke against agreeing to the appointment Next day a petition was presented against of a council of regency, and for recommit. the bill from the borough of Thetford, and ting the bill; and was answered by Mr. D March 4th ewo petitions were presented in Chancellor of the Exchequer, and a mort its favour, one from the mayor, burgeffes, reply made by Mr. T. Pitt ; but no questio and commonalty of the city of Bristol, unon being put for recommitting, the amend. der their common seal ; and another from ments were all, with an aimendment to one the master, wardens, affisants, and com. of them, agreed to by the house; and then monalty of the society of merchants adventhe bill was read a third time, passed, and curers, within the city of Bristol ; and on sent to the lords for their concurrence with

the 8th the house resolved itself into a comthe amendments; which their lordships e mittee on the said bill, and after several dedid accordingly concur with ; and on the bates went thro' the fame, and made seve. 22d the bill received the royal assent. ral amendments, which they ordered to be

As to the bills brought in last session, reported on the Wednesday following, when which had not the good fortune to be paff- there was presented to the house and read ed into laws, the first we shall take notice a petition of the merchants, principal in. of, was that unfortunate bill called the na. habitants, tradesmen, manufacturers, and turalization bill, which was moved for, artificers of the city of Bristol, whose names Feb. 5, by Mr. Nugent, and his motion were thereunto subscribed, setting forth, feconded by Mr. Proby and Mr. alderman F that there were not more than 40 individu Baker, and after some debate, the questi- al perfons consenting to both the said peti. on being put, it was carried in the affirma. tions from that city in favour of the bill ; tive by 152 10 69, whereupon they were and that the petitioners, who were some of ordered to prepare and bring it in ; and it the most confiderable merchants, trades. was on the 14th presented by Mr. Nugent, men, and artificers within the said city, then read a first time, and ordered to be were no ways consulted thereon, or privy read a second time. On the 20th there thereto ; and that they conceived, that was presented to the house and read, a pe. Ghould the bill pass into a law, it would be tition of the lord mayor, aldermen, and prejudicial to the trade and commerce of commons of the city of London, in com. this kingdom, by preventing is being in mon council allembled, setting forth the the power of many industrious artificers to danger and the inutility of a general nalu. procare a fufficient support for themselves ralization of foreiga protestants, and praye and families, and of consequence increafing


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414 Historical Account of COMMERCE.

Sept. the four rates ; that the introduâion of in trade, and even courted by the contenluch a number of forcigners, instead of be. ders for the empire ; tho' they themselves ing a support to the present happy establith. were of no capacity, by reason of their ment, might endanger the subversion of intestine divifions, and the little native our contitution, and that, inhead of in- power which they respe&tively possessed, ta creating our manufa&uros, it would in the invade the general liberty. end tend greatly to their diminution, as In the 12th century, another trading peo. miny foreigners would come and rejde a- A ple began to appear in the world, by the mongst us for a time, in order only ta in. name of the O Easterlings : There were the form themselves in the nature of the seve- inhabitants of several little maritime towns ral methods and managements of our ma- in Germany, who, to defend themselves oufacturers and artificers, and after having against the frequent piracies, with which made themselves masters thereof, return the northern seas were then inserted, alagain into their native countries, and there sociated themselves together; and, in that carry on, or aflift in carrying on, many. fatuation, became so confiderable, that they factures of the l.ke kind; therefore they continued to the latter end of the 15th prayed that the bill might not pass into a century, the sole arbiters of peace and was law.

B in the north, and were, indeed, greatly However, tho' the bill was upon the re. considered by all the princes and states in port warmly opposed, and several divitions Europe ; tho' their remote fituation, and happened, yet the question was always divided interests, rendered them but little carried in favour of the bill by a great ma- formidable to the liberty of the world. jority ; and on the 15th it was ordered to But, about the latter end of the 15th be ingrofred, and to be read a third time century, the trade of the world suffered a on the Wednesday morning following, be. greater revolution than it ever had done be. ing the 20th ; but the unfortunate death of C fore, and that part of it, which was added the prince of Wales happening that very to the power of Spain, made all Europe day, the 3d reading of the bill was put off tremble. For, about this time, the Por. till the 22d ; and from thence to April the tugueze found out a way to the East-Indies 36th ; and in the mean time petitions hav. by the Cape of Good Hope, and made ing been presented against it from Rocher. Lifbon the staple of all those commodities, fer, Southampton, Oxford, Salisbury, which the hither world was formerly supReading, and Gloucester, our ministers plied with thro' the ports of the Mediter. probably did not think fit to infift upon ranean, About the same time, the new having such an unpopular bill paffed into a D world was also discovered by the Spaniarde law, at such a critical conjuncture; there. under Ferdinand ; when gold and silver, fore on that day, when the order of the which till then were only to be acquired day was read, and a motion made for read. by long and painful applications to induftry, ing the bill the 3d time, the question was came in Miploads, from the conquered carried in the negative; on which it was kingdoms of Peru and Mexico, into Spain. ordered, that the bill should be read a The Dutch had, in their infancy, se. third cime on that day two months ; and veral dificulties to struggle with ; yet, on cho' the session continued till after that day, E the other hand, so many things conspired the bill was no more heard of.

to raise their power, that in a more time (To be continued in our next.]

they surmounted them all. The misfortunes

of Portugal, the severities of the inquifition From tbe Weltminster Journal, Sept. 14.

thro' all the dominions of Spain, the per

secution in France, and the troubles in EngMr. Touchit baving in two former Papers Jand, all happening at, or very near the

expatiated on ebe Inbumanity of plundering same time, made Holland an asylum for Sbipwrecks, and ebe Detrimext our Trade

all the trading and opulent people in Euand Navigation must suffer from ibat bar. F

rope : They proceeded intent upon trade barous and Savage Practice, proceeds, in only ; engaged in no wars on this fide the ebis, to give a port biftorical Account of world, but such as were for their preserCommerce, as follows.

vation, and even those within their own MRADE, which, thro' the perpetual country : They kept the confumption of

wars and calamities that attended the their poor free from exorbitant taxes, diffolution of the Roman empire, was at a time when their neighbours were almost lost in the world, began to revive under heavy debts ; and by this means again among the Italians in the sith century;G continued the price of labour at a moderate and, divided as they were into several petty pitch : But, above all, economy and temprincipalities and commonwealths, we perance were the usual recommendations Call find them, however, grow very con- to places of trust and power in the state : liderable in general, from thoir acquisitions This begot an universal parsimony in the




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LETTER to a Member of Parliament:

415 people, and suspended those evils which broad ; and to this circulation of comsometimes grow from excessive riches, and merce it is, in reality, owing, that the which some of their neighbours already Atrength of Britain is so much greater, its began to feel in an increasing luxury and lands so much more valuable, and its inprofufion.

trinfick wealth fo much increased as they The trade and navigation of France was are fince the reign of Q. Elizabeth. abandoned before the middle of the 17th The encouragement given to the woollen century; for their commerce never four. A manufactures of England was the foundatia, ed but from the 1660, when Lewis XIV.“ on of its fourishing commerce, which was encouraged and raised it to the meridian foon- extended to Archangel in Russia, to glory it afterwards acquired, Notwith all the matitime towns of the Mediterrane. standing former ages gave great monarchs an, and to the coasts of Africa, Alia, and to the crown of France, none equalled America. this Lewis in provisions for, and a good He concludes with observing, that what. management of, trade and navigation ; ever affifts, promotes, and extends the as also in armaments by sca and land. By commerce of Britain, is confiftent with its there he acquired, and a long time main. B national interest ; and whatever diminith Cained, the sovereignty of the sea, defeat es, or circumscribes it, is repugnant thereing the powerful and united feets of Eng. to : From whence may be derived a true land and Holland in the year 1690 ; and notion of the interest of Great Britain, he lo improved and advanced navigation with respect to the other European powers; and commerce, chat, by these two power- and also an opinion formed when that ina ful aids, he was enabled, without impove. tereft is really pursued, and when it is eirithing his subjects, to raise and maintain, ther neglected or abandoned. for many years, above 300,000 well dir- c ciplined troops, including 80,000 very fine A LETTER to a Member of Parliament, horse ; while at the same time, he fitted

fbewin! ibe Necefity and Practicability of out above 100 capital faips of war, and 40 extending Courts of Conscience, and County gallies : He also furnished above 100 strong Courti, to obe Narion in general; and of garisons with stores and ammunition; por. regulating Proceedings in Law. setsed several fine ports in both seas; and found supplies for all the extraordinary de

London, Aug. 5, 17513 principal powers of Europe.


legiNature primarily to consider, and England has been always remarkable for impartially to promote the prosperity of a commercial country ; its trade and ma- the whole community, with as little prenufactures have always been considerable ; judice as poflible to that of individuals, by and Le Blanc observes, that this nation, extending to the nation in general, thore without being more fertile than the adja. Jaws, which, by long experience, have, cent countries, is inhabited by richer men; been found useful to a parc.thereof. that, wanting wood, it covers the sea with To a demonstration, which admits not its ships; and, tho'it produces few things, e of contradiction, it hath been evident, that: has a flourishing trade with all the wo id. the court of conscience, established in However, the commercial interest of Eng- London, by charter or patent, in the reign land was but faintly underflood till the of James I. and Gince confrmed by sundry reign of Q. Elizabeth, who not only esta- acts of parliament, has answered all the blished the woollen manufactories on the ends of its inftitution, by preserving debtors, ruins of those of the Netherlands, but also as well as creditors, from ruin, thro' need promoted the navigation and com nerce of less expences, and preventing the litigious her subjects ; opening a patrage for them from devouring the unwary and unthinking, into both the Indies, and exciting that spi


From whence, on a rational principle, ic rit, which afterwards induced them to make follows, that the erecting such courts in each settlements in the most diftant parts of the great trading town in this kingdom, would globe. This princess, by a wise and hap. be a common benefit, by estabi.ning a py conjunction of the labours of her peo- speedy and easy circulation of justice, and ple, boch at home and abroad, formed the securing the peace and prosperity of the. extension of the national weal h and pow. inhabitants ; feeing that the aggregate of er, without the least diminution of the peo- several small debis, speedily and easily ple, contrary to the effe&ts of plantations G received, may relieve and re-instate an inmade from other countries, which have digent, but industrious creditor, and exsuffered at home, by aggrandizing them- cite industry and frugality in an indolent selves abroad, and especially the Spaniarde : and extravagant debtor, and hinder the Whereas the domestick power of Bricain is drone, or epicure, from preying upon the constantly augmented, in proportion to the labour of the industrious bee. advantages derived from its settlements a.


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416 COURTS of CONSCIEŃC I recommended.

Sept. It is a wise maxim in government, that debts are supposed to appertain to men of the subjects persons and properties be as ability to bear the expence of recovering, well fecured, and both as lirele oppressed by or a disappointment by detaining them. their lovereign as possible ; and that a great, Great disputes among rich people, which but weak part of the community, be not are often lo perplexed as to make litigainjured by a less and more powerful. tion necessary, by having them traversed,

If that naturally must be allowed, then, and argued, will bear the expence (tho consequently, it follows, that the extraor. A even fuch are become almost intolerable) dinary expence of recovering small debts but it rarely happens, that the lower peofhould be reduced, that the labouring peo- ple have any disputes, but what a man of ple might be obliged to pay, and their cré.. common understanding may readily decide, ditors enabled to recover their just debts, without any other skill or learning than without being liable to destruction, by of knowing the difference between .plain little follies and indiscretions, tending to right and wrong. As matters now ftand, oppress the mean and indigent, who are the inferior courts, in general, are so many Jeait able to bear the expence of litigation. inquisitions to torture the common people,

All mankind are not equally strong in B and to keep them in a perputual wrangle their rational faculties, to distinguish how amongst themselves. far their own resentment, or the infinuations Why may not a decree, or judgment, of incendiaries over-run their intereft ; given by 3 difcreet persons, properly chosen, neither are they all alike of honeft princi- for 405. be just and equitable, without a ples : But every wise state will consider jury? To this it may be objected, that which are the most natural means to guard a minor number is eafier biassed than a the weak from ruin, and do the injured major : The answer is plain, that the juhtice : For when one subject is permitted C minor, chosen by the parishioners, are to ruin another, it alienates his affections judges of their own electing, esteemed ca. from him that effe&s it, and from that pable and inculpable ; but the major, fum. state which did not prevent it.

moned by a mercenary bailiff, sometimes Amongst the many conveniences re. are men of little penetration, prudence, or fulting from courts of conícience, is one principle, who therefore may ignorantiy or fingularly remarkable, that the creditor wiltully err in judgment (tho' to try by ju. and debtor have liberty (as in Denmark, in dicious, and impartial juries is one of the cases of greater confequence) to state their excellencies of our constitution.) More. own cafe ; and if injuftice or contumacy D over, let it be noted, that an error for a appear in an able debtor, the commissioners small fum is not so dangerous as that for a have power to grant execution against his great one : Tho' it is granted, that the person or effects : But, in case of inability, former may more affect the poor than the occafioned by loffes, fickness, or other latter will the rich. adversity, in another, they may decree pay. As the borough of Southwark, and the ment by gales, or by composition, with- cities of Westminster and Lincoln, were out committing him to prison for what he Jately favoured with courts of conscience, is not able to pay, and without depriving E and the counties of Middlesex and Lincoln his family of fubfiftence by his labour, or with courts for the same, to the other the publick of an useful member.

trading lowns and counties in this kingdom Another conveniency of such courts is, have a proportionable occafion for them ; that in some places they are held twice a and, upon proper application, are as juftly week, and in the vicinage of debtor and entitled to them. creditor ; and those for counties about fix If a solution to the question proposed times a year, and at different places alter- by an able penman, be necessary, and nately, for the accommodation of the inha. must be decisive, respecting the good or bitants in each district; the expence of the F evil resulting to the nation in general,

by the former being about 35. 4d. and of the lat- practice of the law, viz. Whether the ter 38. gd. except upon execution against numbers of the raised or ruined are greater person or goods, when it is 2 or 38. more. a difficulty will attend such solution, with

Debts under 405. are more numerous out an ample scrutiny thro' the courts and than those above it, and, consequently, counties, which will be a work of time ; the quick and easy payment, or tedious but supposing them, and the circumstances and expensive detention of such sums, ex. from and to which one number is raised, hilarate or distress greater numbers of a G and from and to which the other is reduced, lower class and less ability, than those of be equal, would not a proportionable adgreater value do such who are interested vancement, in another manner, to such therein : For as the aggregate of debts or numbers who cccafioned ruin, and the pro. credits increase in value, fo the debtors or sperity of those who probably might have woeditors are not so numerous ; which been ruined, prove a great national advan.


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