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The Life ond Chara&ter of Dr. JONA- unless to turn 'hem into ridicule. The Au.
THAN Swift, late Dean of St. dies which he followed were history and Patrick's, Dublin : Exiracled from tbe poetry : In these he made a great progress; Letters of obe Rigte Honourable John Earl but to all other branches of science he had of Or RE: Y, juft publishea.
given so very little application, that when R. Thomas Swift was he aypeared as a candidate for the degree vicar of Goodridge near
of bachelor of arts, he was set aside on ac. Ross, in Herefordshire, A count of insufficiency : However, he at last M where he enjoyed a pa.
obtained his admiffion ex jpeciali graria ; a ternal estate, which is phrase which in that university carries with still in poffeffion of Deane it the uimost marks of reproach.
Swift, Esq; his great Jonathan was full of indignation at this grandson, Thomas died in 1663, leaving treatment, and therefore resolved to pur. fix sons, the faith of whom, named Jona
sue his ftudies at Oxford ; but that he thon, married Mrs. Abigail Erick of Lei- might he admitced ad eundem, he was ob. cestershire, and settled at Dublin, where liged to have a fimonium of his degree
B he had by his wife a daughter, and a son,
from Dublin college, which his uncle Wile the latter born, November the zoch, 1667. liam Swift, whom he calls the best of his The father died two months before the birth relations, got for him. At Oxford they ei. of this son, who was by his mother named ther were not acquainted with what was Jonathan, and became afterwards the fa- meant at Dublin by the phrase ex speciali mous dean of St. Patrick's. His mother gratia, and concluded that it signified a de. put him to nurse at Dublin, and his nurse gree conferred in reward of extraordinary being obliged to go over to England, was learning, or they judged better of the gero fond of her nurse-child, that, unknown C nius and knowledge of the candidate ; for to the mother, the carried him with her they immediately admitted him ad eundem, to Whitehaven in Cumberland, where the and he entered himself of Hart- hall, now kept him three years, before the returned Hartford college, where he refided till he with him to Ireland.
took his degree as master of arts in 1691, In the mean time, the mother, who during which time he was chiefly fupported had been left in narrow circumstances, re- by Sir William Temple, to whose lady his turned to her relations in Leicestershire, mother was related, which gave birth to having committed the care of her two chil. D William's, without any ground; because
the report of his being a natural son of Sic dren to her husband's eldest brother God. win, who generously undertook the charge, Sir William was employed as a minister aand sent the son, when fix years old, to
broad from 1665 to 1670. (chool at Kilkenny in Ireland, where he After Jonathan left Oxford, he lived continued eight years, and was then ea.
with Sir William Temple at his house at tered a student of Trinity college in Dublin.
Moore park, where he was thrown into a At college young Jonathan lived in per.
long and dangerous illness by a surfeit of fe& regularity, and under an entire obedi. fruit, to which he always ascribed that gid. ence to the statutes ; but the moroseness of E diness in his head, that with intermiffions his temper often rendered 'him very unac.
pursued him till it seemed to compleat its ceptable to his companions, ro that he was conquest, by rendering h m the exact image little regarded, and less beloved : Nor were of one of his own Struldbruggs. As soon the academical exercises agreeable to his ge.
as he was a little recovered, he went, by niu He held logick and metaphyficks in
the advice of his physicians, into Ireland, the utmost contempt, and he scarce confi. to try the effects of his native air, which dered mathematicks and natural philosophy, soon restored him, and he returned to Sir November, 17510
484 Life and CHARACTER of Dean SWIFT. Nov. William Temple, now settled at Shecne any other of his a&ions. He often went near Richmond, where he had frequent in a waggon, but more frequently walked opportunities of conversing with king Wil. from Holyhead to Leicester, London, or liam, who then offered to make him a cap. any other part of England. He generally tain of horse, but as he had resolved to lift chore to dine with waggoners, hoftlers, himself under the banner of the church, and persons of that rank ; and he used to and as his resolutions, during his whole lie at night in houses where he found writ. life, were, like the decrees of fate, immov. A ten over the door, Lodgings for a Penny. abie, he declined the offer, tho' he often He delighted in scenes of low life. The afterwards seemed sorry to have refused it. vulgar dialect was not only a fund of hu.
Thus determined, he again went over to mour for him, but acceptable to his nature; Ireland, where he took orders, and hav. otherwise we cannot account for the many ing been recommended by Sir William filthy ideas, and indecent expressions, in Temple to lord Capel, then lord deputy, point of cleanliness and delicacy, to be he was preferred by him to the firft vacan- found throughout his works. cy, a prebendary, worth about 1ool. a This rambling difpofition occasioned to year, which he soon after resigned to a B him the loss of the rich de anry of Deriy, friend, being naturally averse to folitude which become vacant and was intended for and retirement. Upon this he returned to him by loid Berkeley; but Dr. King, then Sheene, where he lived domestically as usu. bishop of Derry, and afterwards archbishop al, till the death of Sir William Temple, of Dublin, remonstrated lo strongly against who, besides a legacy in money, left to him on this account, that he was set aside, him the care and trust of publishing his and another appointed. pofihumous works.
In 1701, he took his doctor's degree, These works Mr. Swift dedicated to king C but I must not omit, that whilft he was William, but the dedicator as well as dedi. chaplain to lord Berkeley, his only fitter, by cation were neglected by his majesty, who the consent and approbation of her uncles never took the least notice of him after Sir and relations, was married to a man in William Temple's death, nor ever perform- trade, whose fortune, character, and fitu. ed a promise he had made, to give Mr. ation, were esteemed, by all her friends, Swift ihe first vacancy that should happen suitable for her in every respect. But, the among the prebe ds of Westminiter or Can. marriage was entirely disagreeable to her terbury, which, probably, occasioned that D brother, who grew outragious at the bitterness towards kings and courtiers, so thoughts of being brother-in-law to a universally dispersed throughout his works. tradesman, and utterly refused all reconci.'
After having long follicited for a perfor. liation, tho' his mother made a journey to mince of this promise in vain, he accepied Ireland, on purpose to bring it about. of an invitation from the earl of Berkeley, Upon queen Anne's acceffion the doctor (appointed one of the lords justices in Ire. came cter to England, and soon attached land) to attend him as his chaplain and pri. himself operly to the tories, which was vate secretary ; but the last of where offices the cause of his continuing without any he was foun divested of by the artifice of E publick notice, except as an auther, until one Bum, whom the car) appointed recre. the year 1709 ; when his peculiar talents tary in hi; room. However, his lordship of levelling his writings to the lowest, and gave him two livings in Ireland, Laracor, fattaining their dignity to the highest capa. worth about :col, and Rathbeggan, worth city, recommended him to the notice of the about Ecl. a year,
At the first he went to carl of Oxford, who adopted him as a reside, and gave publick notice, that he particular friend and companion; and from would read prayers on every Wednesday that time the doctor became a champion for and Friday. Accordingly, the subsequent
the tory ministers, whose cause he itrenu. Wednesday he attended in his desk, when ously maintained in pamphlets, poems, and after having late some time, and find. weekly papers. It is thought, that the ing the congregation to confill only of queen intended an English biloprick for himself and his ciek Roger, he began him, as he always most ardently defired a with great composure and gravily, Dearly settlement in England; but by Dr. Sharpe, bilived Roger, obe firipture moveib you and archbiMop of York, and by a lady of the 622 in fundry places, & c. and ro proceeded highest rank and character, he was repre. icgularly through the whole service. sented to her majesty as a person who was
A strict relidence ar Laracor, was not in G not a christian, which he resented as long the left suitable to his difpofition. He as he lived, and tho he kept himself with. was perpetually making excurfions, not in fome tolerable hovods when he spoke of ody to Dublin, and other parts of Ireland, the queen, yet his indignation knew no libut also into England, to see his mother at mits, when he mentioned the archbishop or lurilier, or his friends at London. his manner of travelling was as fingular as
1751. Life and CHARACTER of Dean SWIFT. 485
Thus, notwithstanding his great services it beneath him to acknowledge as fuch the to the ministers, he remained without any daughter of a man who had been a ferpreferment, until the year 1713, when he vant, tho' The had been well educated, and was made dean of St. Patrick's, in Dublin, had icool. left her by Sir William Temple, which he only look'd on as an honourable on account of her father's faithful services, and profitable banishment ; and perhaps After marriage they lived separately as be. they designed it as such ; for his spirit was fore : He at the deanry, the in lodgings on ever untra&table : The motions of his ge. A the other side of the river Liffy ; and tho' nius were often irregolar : He assumed they often visited, yet nothing ever appear. more the air of a patron, than of a friend; ed beyond the limits of platonick love ro and affected rather to dictate than advise ; that it would by difficult, if not impoffible, which made them with him happily and to prove they had ever been together with properly promoted, at a distance.
out some third person. Tho' the lovely The doctor went presently over to Ire. Stella never shewed the least sign of refentland, to take poffeffion of his deanry, at ment, yet this treatment, probably, sat hea. which he had little reason to rejoice ; for vy on her mind for the began to decline upon his arrival, he found the violence of B in her health in the year 1724, and after a party raging in that kingdom to the highest lingering illness expired towards the end of degree. The common people were taught to January, 1727-8. In all probability her look upon him as a Jacobite, and they pro- death occalioned great regret, if not receeded so far in their detestation, as to morle, to the dean ; for he never after. throw dirt and tones at him when he paff. wards mentioned her name without a figh. ed through the streets. The chapter of St. Thus perished the virtuous and patient Patrick's, like the rest of the kingdom, Stella ; but I must not forget a corresponreceived him with great reluctance : They c dence the dean had in his younger years thwarted him in every point that he pro- with another lady, which gave birth to his posed : He was avoided as a pestilence : poem intitled Cadenus and Vanessa, dated He was opposed as an invader : He was in 1713. Vanessa's real name was Enher marked out as an enemy to his country. Vanhomrigh, daughter of a Dutch merFewer talenıs, and less firmness, must have chant, who soon after the revolution was yielded to such an outragious opposition, sed appointed one of the commissioners of the contra audentior ibat ; and he soon reduced revenue in Ireland, and died worth 160col. to reason and obedience his reverend bre. the whole of which, but much impaired, thren, the chapter, fo much that not one D center'd at last in Vaneffa, who, having member of that body offered to contradict pafled some years of her youth with her him, even in trifles. Having succeeded mother and fifter at London, became there in this he returned to England in the begin- acquainted with Dr. Swift, and as she was ning of 1714, where he found all things in herself ambitious of being esteemed a wit, confusion, the ministers disunited among The not only admired the doctor's wit, but themselves, the queen declining in her became enamoured of his person, and was health, and distressed in her situation, even proud of being reputed his concubine. while faction was exerting itself, and ga. E The mother and two daughters having thering new strength every day. He ex. wasted a confiderable part of their fortune crted his utmost to reconcile the ministers
; at London, were obliged to return to Ire. but finding his pains fruitless, he retired to land, and the mother and fifter dying at a friend's house in Berkshire, where he re- Dublin, Vanessa retired to Selbridge, a mained till the queen's death, which put a (mall house and estate that had been purfinal period to all his views in England, chaled by her father, within ten or twelve and made him return, as fast as possible, miles of Dublin. Here she was often visitto Ireland.
ed by the dean, and entertained hopes that The dean now resolved, it seems, to set. F he would marry her ; but her patience beo tle in Ireland, during the remaining part ing at last worn out, she writ him a very of his life; and having, while he lived with tender epiftle, insisting peremptorily upon Sir William Temple, contracted a love, or his immediate acceptance, or absolute rerather friendship, for Miss Johnson, the fusal of her, as his wife. The dean carri. daughter of Sir William's steward, whom ed the answer himself, which contained not he has often celebrated under the name of only an absolute refusal, but some severe Stella, he was in 1716 privately married to reproaches ; and throwing it down upon her, by Dr. Ale, then bishop of Clogher. G her table, with great paffion haftened back This lady, both in mind and person, was to his horse. Pride, disdain, guilt, and one of the most amiable of her sex, and remorse put an end to her life, not many excellently well accomplished ; yet notwith · days after ; but during this interval of hor. Standing all her perfections, the dean ror, me was sufficiently composed to can. would never openly own her as his wife ; cel a will The had made in the dean's favour, because, perhaps, his pride made him think
486 Count Tessin's Speech to the Dyet of Sweden. Nov. and to make another, by which the left her were directed towards power ; and his whole estate co Dr. Berkley, now bishop of chief aim was to be removed into England; Cloyne, and Mr. Marshall, one of the but when he found himself entirely disapking's serjeants at law, whom the appoint- pointed, he turned his thoughts to oppofied executors.
tion, and became the patron of Ireland, From 1714 to 1720 nothing else remark. in which country he was born. able happened with regard to the dean; but His lordship, in another letter, talking of in the year 1720, he re-assumed the cha- A the abovementioned pamphlet in defence of racter of a political writer, and published ebe Irish manufsetures, says, that the pama small pamphlet in defence of the Irish ma. phlet is written in the Atyle nf a man, who fufa&ture, which gave a turn to the popu- had the good of his country neareft his Lar tide in his favour, so that he now be- heart, who saw her errors, and wished to gan to be distinguished by the title of THE correct them; who felt her oppreffions, Dean; and the letters he soon after pub. and withed to relieve them ; and who had lihed, commonly called The Drapier's Let. a defire to rouze and awaken an indolent ters, against what were called Wood's balf. nation from a lethargick disposition, that pence, establithed his character to such a
might prove fatal to her conflitution. And degree, that he became the idol of the in another of these letters his lord hip ob. whole people of Ireland. In this Atato he ferves, that the character of being a friend continued, without any other remarkable to liberty, and an enemy to tyranny and incident, until he entirely lost his senses in oppreffion in any shape whatever, was the the year 1742, when he was seized with an character which the dean aimed at, and the outragious sort of madness, which after- character which indeed he deserved, wards funk him into a quite speechless idi- This will fuffice to give the reader some ot, in wh'ch helpless fituation he dragged C idea of the life and character of the famous out the remainder of his life to the latter dean Swift ; but the letters from which it end of O&ober, 1745.
is extracted ought to be read by, and canFrom this short sketch of the dean's life, not fail of being entertaining to, every a great part of his character will appear ; person in the kingdom. but the earl of Orrery has, in his first let. ter, drawn it up in a concise and masterly At tbe Opening of be general Dyet of tbe manner, as follows : “ His capacity and States of Sweden, (see p. 479.) Count strength of mind, says his lordship, were TESSIN barangued ibem in a very long
D undoubtedly equal to any task whatever, Speecb, wbicb be concluded in tbe following His pride, his spirit, or his ambition, call
HE more thorny but his views were checked in his younger years, and the anxiety of that disappoint. that its governors be firmly united, and act ment had a vible effect upon all his acti- in concert. The principal objects which ons. He was four and severe, but not ab. the king has always had, and will ever solutely ill. natured. He was sociable only have in view, are the honour, the safety, to particular friends, and to them only at E and the grandeur of the Swedish nation ; particular hours. He knew politeness and his majesty is persuaded, that on all more than he practised it. He was a mix. occafions, where this invaluable treasure ture of avarice and generofity : The for. may be at stake, his descendants will tread mer was generally prevalent, the latter fel. in his sleps with an ardent and difinterested dom appeared, unless excited by compassi. zeal. He has proposed to himself to be on. He was open to adulation, and could tain by lenity what cannot be got by force, not, or would not distinguish between low namely, the free love of his subjects, an fattery and just applause. His abilities
entire confidence on their part, with fine rendered him fuperior to envy. He was cere obedience, and constant and inviolable undisguised, and perfectly fincere. I am fidelity. He is convinced, that by means induced to think, that he entered into or. of this confidence which he desires, they ders, more from some private and fixed re. will chearlully aid him to support the solution, than from absolute choice : Be weight of government, especially in impor. that as it may, he performed the duties of tant affairs. the church with great punctuality, and The king is firmly resolved to maintain with a decent degree of devotion. He read religion in its purity, to consolidate the prayers rather in a strong nervous voice, G peace subfifting with the neighbouring powthan in a graceful manner ; and altho he ers, to provide for the necessities of the has been often accused of irreligion, nothing poor out of his own savings, to place his of that kind appeared in his conversation glory in proie&ting his subjects, to take ad. or behaviour. His caft of mind induced vice and execute all wholesome counsels, him to think and speak more of politicks to be kind to those who have their duty than of religion. His perpetual views
NECESSITY of a prudent DISTRUST. 487 more at heart than their fortune and pri. stroy persons of honour, and lay fnares for vate interest, and in fine, to prefer the true patriots ; in fine, woe to them, who publick good to his own private satisfacti.
Ihall favour foreigners at the expence of on : His majesty being convinced it is by their country. His majesty detests and ab. these means that a prince, who governs a hors them! people, and knows how to subdue his para A new harmony, a perfe&t union, plenfions and circumscribe his power, is truly ty in the kingdom, and constant peace, happy in this world; whereas, he that A will be the fruits of a new regency. The gives a loose to all his defires, the more country has already a foretaste of what is power he has, lo much the more miserable
to be expected from this dyet, to which is he.
his majesty willhes all imaginable happiness, The name of father of the country is and recommends the states of the kingdom much more pleasing to his majesty than to the divine protection, assuring them of that of sovereign. The hours wherein his his favour and good. will. majesty Mall see joy and satisfaction fit on
From the RAMBLER, Nov. 19. the brows of his subjects, will always be extremely delightful io him ; whereas, in. B TONE of the axioms of wisdom which
recommended the ancient sages to tolerable to him will be the days, when he Mall perceive them agitated with fears, and veneration, seems to have required less their countenances darkened with care and knowledge or penetration thao the remark
of Bias, that ós Thémres nexài, the majority anxiety.
His majesly expects that the states here are wicked. assembled will proceed in their general de. But, perhaps, the excellence of apho.
risms confifts not so much in the expreffi. liberations with perfect harmony and uni. on ; that truth and candour will be the ba- con of some rare or abstruse sentiment, as
in the comprehension of some obvious and fis of their resolutions, and that they will
useful truth in a few words. We frequente make a proper use of their power to enact new laws, which has been committed to ly fall into error and folly, not because the them by the fundamental laws of the king
true principles of action are not known,
but because, for a time, they are not redom, by the royal authority, and by the form of regency.
membered ; and he may therefore be juftThe prosperity and glory of the country,
ly numbered among the benefactors of and the immunities of the nation, are to
mankind, who contracts the great rules of be the subjects of your deliberations :D life into mort sentences, which may be They are inseparable from your own inte
easily impressed on the memory, and taught rests. The present generation are answer.
by frequent recollection to recur habitually able to pofterity for their a&ions : Our
to the mind, whenever occasion calls them
However those who have passed thro of those, who, tafting hereafter the fruits
half the life of man may now wonder that of our labours, will be fincerely thankful,
any should require to be cautioned against and bless and praise us for them? e corruption, they will find, that they have Let the states of the kingdom cast their
themselves purchased their conviction by eyes on the tender branches of the antient many disappointments and vexations, stock of their kings, and then let them
which an earlier knowledge would have consult their hearts : His majesty is con
spared them, and may see on every fide vinced they will be di pored to prepare for
fome intangling themselves in perplexities, them an easy career and pleasant days.
and some finking into ruin, by ignorance The folclude of the Swedish nation to
or negle&t of the maxim of Bias. encrease the glory of the country and pro. Ftion or the reason, is so well recommended
Virtue represented Gngly to the imaginacure it real advantages, will have a great influence on the young men that shall suc
by its own graces, and so strongly support. ceed us in the posts we now hold, as we
ed by arguments, that they who are yet have succeeded the preceding generation :
ignorant of the force of passion and inte. They will redouble their efforts for the wel.
reft, nor ever observed the arts of fedu&tifare of the kingdom, and then the nation
on, tho contagion of example, the gradual will abou..d with joy and blessings. Woe
descent from one vice to another, or the to them, who, for the sake of filthy lucre,
insensible depravation of the principles by fall facrifice the liberties of posterity ; G loose conversation, naturally expe&t to find woe to them, who Thall turn the dwellings
integrity in every bosom, and veracity on of their fathers into horrid desarts : Wue
every tongue. to them, who shall wrest from their coun
Credulity is the common failing of unex. trymen the root from whence they draw
perienced virtue, and he who is spontanetheir nourishment, and by intrigues, ftra.
ously suspicious, may be juftly charged lagems and machinations, Aalt seek to de.
with radical corruption, If he has not