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498 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Nov. jeity's granting us an annual ship; or if never find, during the life of the prethere was any real lofs, it might have sent emperor; because by one of the arisen from the restraint former als conftitutions of the empire it is exfientists were under, as to the ports or presly declared, that no such election places where they were to import and Inall ever be made during the life of vend their negroes, whereas Our the then reigning emperor, unless it affiento company were exprefly freed A be unanimously agreed by the elecfrom any such restraint; and we can toral college, that such an election is hardly suppose, that the importers become absolutely neceflary for the could be losers, when they could immediate safety of the empire ; and fell their negroes for 300 pieces this, I think, we may be assured the of eight, which by the treaty seems present electoral college will never to be the lowest price they might ex unanimously agree to : The king of pect, and it was ftipulated, that all B Prussia in particular has for his part the duties to be paid upon importa in a manner declared against any such tion, should not exceed 33 pieces of election, and in his letter upon this eight and one third. Then as to subject seems to refer to this very con. the annual tip, I shall grant, that ftitution. from the pufillanimous conduct of a But, Sir, suppofing it possible that late miniiter, that ship and trade be. such an unanimous resolution of the came a nuisance to the nation ; but C electoral college could be obtained, if we had taken care, in our treaties I think, that our granting upon that with the court of Spain, to oblige account an annual subsidy to any one them to make full reparation for the of the electoral college, is the most unjuft seizures they made, they effectual way we can take to prevent would not have been so ready to it ; for if we grant a subsidy to any repeat them upon a new rupture ; one, every one will expect the same, and I am persuaded, that the national D and will refuse his consent until he gain upon the annual ship alone, has obtained it : And after we have would have amounted to

thus taken the whole electoral col. 100,000l. yearly, and consequently lege into our pay, they will all, for that it wonld have been well worth the fake of having the fubsidy rethe nation's while to have resumed newed and continued, put off the the trade, tho' there was, by our election, until after the death of the conceflion in the treaty of Aix-la- E present emperor ; because, should Chapelle, but four years remaining the election be once made, our reason of the term.

for granting those subsidies must It is therefore evident, Sir, that cease, and consequently they must we hould be a little more sparing in expect that our fubfidies will cease our congratulations upon th

also. clusion of this treaty with Spain, For this reason, Sir, I can which to me seems calculated for no- F way applaud the wisdom or forefight thing but to amuse the vulgar and of granting any such subsidy; and ignorant : And I can see no national if it were poflible to bring on an elecseason for our engaging to pay any tion by such means, it would, in my subsidy to the duke of Bavaria ; for opinion, give France a just season if the election of a king of the Ro. for opposing it by force of arms ; mans be said to be the reason, if becaule by the most fundamental and that be the sure foundation upon Geffential constitution of the empire, which the present tranquillity is to

the election of an emperor, or king be cstablished, it is a foundation we of the Romans, ought to be free, must dig for at a vast expence, and, which no election can be, that is in my opinion, a foundation we fall directed by the influence of corrup

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1751. PROCEEDINGS of obe POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 499 tion : Nay, in opposition to such an wise pay subsidies to their princes ; election's taking effect, the other to which let us add, that all the pro. two colleges of the diet of the em. visions for our armies, except cloath. pire would have a right to co operate ing our own national troops, muft with France in having it set aside ; come frome foreign countries, and and thus, instead of preventing, we

must be paid for by us in ready fhould precipitate an intestine war in A money. Nay, when we have been Germany, in which some of the so lucky as to penetrate into the electors, who had for years been tak enemy's country, I never heard that ing our money, might perhaps de our armies supported themselves at clare against us; for I am afraid, their expence, or that our generals that the hopes of a present addition accounted for the contributions they of territory, or a present view of the raised imperial diadem, will always be B This, Sir, Mould make us cautious more prevalent with most of the of ever calling upon any of our allies, princes of Germany, than a dif or attempting to draw them into our tant prospect of she good of their quarrel, unless we can form such a country.

confederacy upon the continent of As to his majesty's union with his Europe, as may be able to carry on allies, I thill always be glad, Sir, the war against France with a proto hear of its subsisting in its full vi. C bability of success, and without much gour, provided we never think of of our allistance ; and the forming keeping it subsisting by a sacrifice of of such a confederacy we may render the true interest of the nation ; and impossible, if we should raise among I can see no reason why we should the princes and states of Europe an pay for keeping it fubfisting, at a opinion of our officiously intermedtime when we have so little money to dling in their affairs, which may be spare ; for we may always be more Dehe consequence of our giving ouruseful to our allies than they can ever selves so much to do about the elecbe to us: In case of our having a war tion of a king of the Romans. with France, we have not one ally To conclude, Sir, there are so that can be of use to us, without in many, and such strong objections, volving us in a war upon the con against almost every part of the adtinent; and the support of such wars dress proposed, that I cannot but apwill, I fear, at lait prove our ruin ; E prove of the noble lord's motion for because it makes us neglect profecu an amendment, and therefore it ting the war by sea and in America, fhall have my hearty concurrence. and because France can always support a war upon the continent of Europe

[This JOURNAL to be continued at a much less expence than we can.

in our next.] The French armies are mostly composed of their own national troops, F*********** have less pay than our armies have,

Remarks on Proposals lately made for and generally have all their provifions from their own country, or

repealing most of the Poor. Laws, when they march to any great dis

and for erecting County Work

Houfes. tance, they support themselves at the expence of their enemies. On the EVERAL new schemes hav.

er her hand, thour enemies upon the Sing been farety ofchen forme de

continent of Europe are mostly com beiter maintenance of the poor, and posed of foreign troops, have higher resolutions taken for greatly altering pay than the French have, and be the good and wholesome laws now fides paying the troopa, we must like in being, for their relief and employ

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ment :

300 REMARKS on the Poor-Laws.

Nov. ment : And finding, upon the most unmarried, having no means to mainstrict and impartial examination, tain them, and using no ordinary and that the designed alterations tend, daily trade to get their living by : not to the amendment, but the an And also to raise weekly, or othernihilation and total repeal of those wise, a convenient stock of flax, laws, and the introducing a new and hemp, wool, thread, iron, and other confused method, highly injurious A ware and stuff, to set the poor on both to the poor, and to most of the work ; and also competent sums of parishes in this kingdom ; a few ani. money, for and towards the necessamadversions upon them are necessa ry relief of the lime, impotent, old, ry.

blind, &c. and also for the putting I must humbly premise this re out of such children to be apprenmark, that, from the projects form. tices, And the justices of peace, ed, it appears, that the contrivers of B or any one of them, are impowered them were never practically acquaint to send to the house of correction, ed with the execution of our present or common goal, such as shall not laws relating to the poor : But what employ themlelves to work, being is here faid, is from many years actu appointed thereunto, as aforesaid.” al experience, in a populous parish. The statute 7 Jac. I. c. 3. pro

I. Let it therefore be observed, vides also for the binding out of ap. that the defects complained of, are C prentices, and the well employing not in the laws themselves, but actu. the monies given for that use. ally in the execution of the laws ; By stature 12 and 13 Car. II. c. to which proper remedies may be ap 12. Corporations, or work houses, plied, as will appear by a few in are erected in the cities of London ftances.

and Weltminster, and in other towns The legislature hath provided, in and places within the weekly bills of the amplett manner, for the employ. Dmortality. ment and comfortable maintenance, And by statute 9 Geor. I.“ Church. of such poor in every parish as are wardens and overseers of the poor, able to work : And for the relief

in any parish, &c. with the consent and indulgent care of the lame, in of the major part of the inhabitants, firm, impotent, or old, who are un. assembled in vestry or other publick able to labour. So that our present meeting for that purpose, are emfyftem of laws relating to the poor, E powered to purchase or hire any is as perfect as any human institution house, or houses, in the same parish, can be : Which every intelligent and to contract with any persons for person, who has examined them the lodging, keeping, maintaining, througlont, must readily confefs.

and employing any or all such poor Bui, for the sake of those who in their respective parishes, &c. as have not had leisure or opportunity fhall desire to receive relief or collec. to look into those affairs, i Mall give F tion from the same parish. And a few extracts from the laws now in where any parish shall be too fmall to force concerning the poor.

purchate or hire such house or houses By statute 43 Eliz. the churchwar. for the poor of their own parish ondens and overseers of the poor are ly, it shall be lawful for two or more injoined to “take order, for setting such parishes, with the consent of to work the children of all such, the major part of their inhabitants, whose parents mall not by the said G and with the approbation of any jus churchwardens and overseers be sice of peace, to unite in purchasing, thought able to keep and maintain

hiring, or taking such houses. And their children ; and also for setting if any poor perlon, or persons, forall 10 work all such persons, married or refule to be lodged, kept, and

1751. Defects in the Execution of the Poor-Laws. 501 maintained in such houses, he, the, box, with a hole in the lid, should be or they fo refusing, shall not be in- deposited in the vestry, or near the titled to ask or demand relief or door of every parish church, into collection."

which any aggrieved person might From these few extracts, it most privately thruit a paper, containing plainly appears, that our laws have his complaint, and denoting who is amply provided, that the vast sums A not equally rated with himself : And raised for the use of the poor, should to these complaints proper regard be expended, not on their mere main- ought to be had, when a new rate is tenance only, but on their employ- made. Or if there should not, upon ment :- That there is great care a proper application to the justices, taken in them, that the children of the rate ought not to be confirmed, the poor should be educated in habits till the aggrieved person has obtained of industry, by being bound appren

B redress. tices :- That tho' many parishes are

2. Another defect in the execution too small separately to raise a stock, of the poor-laws is, that the overfufficient wherewith to employ their seers too readily distribute the parish poor, yet they may unite for that money, without consulting the rest purpose.

of the parishioners, or even their felSuch are our laws ; and, there low-overseers or church wardens: fore, what must be thought of the C They frequently distribute it to im. mighty bustle lately made upon this proper objects, to lewd, drunken, subject, as if it had been entirely clamorous, or idle wretches ; acneglected by former parliaments ? cording to favour or affection ;

It appears, then, upon the least ex to relations ; to customers to their amination, that the defects complain- shops, &c. ed of do not proceed from the want Statutes 3 Will. & Mary, c. 11. $. of good laws, but from a bad execu. D 11. and 9 Geo. I. §. 1, 2. forbid intion of them.

deed such partial and audacious proAnd from fact, and repeated expe- ceedings, but lay no penalty on the rience, it is found, that the defects offenders : Whereas any officer pre. in the execution of the laws relating suming to act in that manner, ought to the poor, are the following ; to pay the inoney out of his own which may easily be redressed, and pocket. call indeed for redress.

E And to prevent the like inconve. 1. The rates are partially and un. niences for the future, it should far. equally made *. The leaders, who ther be enacted, that in order to are generally the wealthiest and most provide for occasional poor (such conliderable men in parishes, screen poor as are not in the workhouse, or themselves too much, and lay the in the standing yearly lift) the pa. burden on the middling and inferior rishioners should stay at church every inhabitants. And these cannot open. F Sunday, after sermon is ended'; ly complain, or loudly remonstrate (which would be the most convenient against it, without much hurting in country parishes, where the houses themselves, and perhaps entirely are scattered about and at a distance.) losing their business, which for the Or elfe, that they should meet weekly, most part depends on the others. at a certain place and hour, and re

Now, to remedy this inconve lieve occasional objects, who should nience, it hould We enacted, that a G then appear, or else make an order

for

Lord chief justice Hale long ago observed, ibal Tradesmen, nst enduring ibeir personal fates should be cbarged, brow rbe wbole load on tbe rents of lands and boufes, wbicb alone are not sufficient to raise a pack, - And I bar or I be overseers being paribioners 480 www.

sw.berg ** .barge itemsives, or displeje ibeir neigblours."

502 Of tbe Project for County Work-Houses. Nov, for that purpose, entering it into a book, produce their accounts, revised and approv. and subscribing it with their own hands. ed by the parishioners, (as the archdeacons And that each parish should keep an ac fummon churchwardens to exhibit their count or counter-part of these occasional presentments) and to fine them upon their reliefs, to be a comptrol against the over. negled or refusai. roers accounts. Such frequent meetings A Such are the usual and most fagrant de. are the only method to keep a parish's af. feats in the execution of the poor-laws. fairs in good order.

II. But, now, if we consider the pro. As for accidents and misfortunes, the un posed alterations, by county work-houses, happy objects ought immediately to be tak. and common funds, very far will they be en care of by the officers of the parish where found from remedying those and the like the accidents happen, under a great penal. defects. ty; if the persons cannot be removed with For, let any impartial person, that ever the utmost safety: Adding, however, this B had the leaft notion of human nature, provision, that the parents or masters of judge, whether there will not be the utmost the unhappy sufferers (if able) should be room for partial and unequal rates, when at half the expence of the cure and main. all the inhabitants of the parith they are tenance of the said sufferers : Which half, imposed upon, are not present, or even or proportion of expence, should be ad. consulted, at the making of them ; or judged and set by two neighbouring jul. even can be, without the utmost trouble tices.

and charge. 3. A third defect in the execution of the Suppole, the making of the rates should, laws relating to the poor, is, the over. C for a while, be left to the overseers of the secrs neglecting to account ; some even for respe&tive parishes, they would (I affure two or three years, or more. The act of them) frequently be called upon to enlarge 17 George II. hath indeed made an excel. their afferments : Aud the power of afferlent provision against this neglect, by or. ing themselves would soon be taken from dering, that “the church wardens and over them, upon some pretence or other ; and feers of the poor Mall yearly, within 14 double of what they had ever paid before, days after other overseers (hall be nominat. if not more, would be exacred from them ed and appointed to succeed them, deliver D with the utmost rigour. This has been ibe unto such succeeding overseers, a just, true, case in most places where corporation workand perfect account in writing, fairly en. houses have been erected. tred in a book or books co be kept for that Again, what ample room will there be purpose, and figned by the laid churchwar. for wasting and m (applying the vast sums dens and overseers, of all fums of money. laid and raised upon the parishes? How Mail by them received, or rated and affefied and parishioners know, whether their own par. not received ; and also of all goods, &c. ticular poor are well and honestly taken that mall be in their hands ; and Mall also

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care of ? Must parishioners travel to or pay and deliver over alt fums of money, perhaps 20 miles, to observe and take care goods, &c. as shall be in their hands, unto of those things ? What trouble and what fuch succeeding overseers of the poor ; charge would that occafion? Who can have which said account thall be verified by oath. .fo much time or money to spare, as to fub.

And in care such churchwardens and mic thereto ; at least for any continuance? overreers shall refuse or neglect to make and And as for such endless and con plicated yield up such account, &c. it shall be law. accounts as muft neceffarily be kept ; ful for iwo justices of the peace to commit what able accomp’ant will undertake that him or them to the common goal, until F burden ? How will the respective par:thes they shall have given such account.

know, whether their money is honestly But you will say, vilio cares to be so se. and fairly laid out? And whoever pays vere upon his good neighbours ? If, indeed, money for such publick (ervice, has a right so much over-complaisance, or such a {pi. to know and observe with his own eyes in rit of indolence, reigns in parishes, an ad what manner it is best wed. dition ought to be marie to this ftature, to So that, in a word, no method can be compel them by large fines (which mould contrived fuller of glaring absurdities ; or be levied by warrant of justices for the use

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that would open a wider door to all the of the poor) to bring their ove seer's regu. cheats and impofitions imaginable. larly to account, in pursuance of the said Therefore the best, the safest, and the facute ; and that upon the complaint of most rational means, is to continue, with. any one inliabitant.

out alteration, the commendable method To which may be added, that the jur. which many parishes are come into, of ticos. or their clerks, thould be authorized erecting diftinct work houses, I mean one to call upon the overseers of every parish in every parish of any tolerable bignels s at Easter, when others are appointed, to Where the poor are well looked to ; kept

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