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1751. Defects in the Execution of the Poor-Laws. 501 maintained in such houses, he, the, box, with a hole in the lid, should be or they so refusing, shall not be in- deposited in the vestry, or near the titled to ask or demand relief or door of every parish church, into collection."

which any aggrieved person might From these few extracts, it most privately thruit a paper, containing plainly appears, that our laws have his complaint, and denoting who is amply provided, that the vast sums A not equally rated with himself : And raised for the use of the poor, should to these complaints proper regard be expended, not on their mere main- ought to be had, when a new rate is tenance only, but on their employ- made. Or if there should not, upon ment :- That there is great care a proper application to the justices, taken in them, that the children of the rate ought not to be confirmed, the poor should be educated in habits till the aggrieved person has obtained of industry, by being bound appren

B redress. tices :- That tho' many parishes are

2. Another defect in the execution too small separately to raise a stock, of the poor-laws is, that the overfufficient wherewith to employ their seers too readily distribute the parish poor, yet they may unite for that money, without consulting the rest purpose.

of the parishioners, or even their felSuch are our laws ; and, there- low-overseers or church wardens: fore, what must be thought of the C They frequently distribute it to im. mighty bustle lately made upon this proper objects, to lewd, drunken, subject, as if it had been entirely clamorous, or idle wretches ; acneglected by former parliaments ? cording to favour or affection ;

It appears, then, upon the least ex- to relations ; to customers to their amination, that the defects complain- shops, &c. ed of do not proceed from the want Statutes 3 Will. & Mary, c. 11. $. of good laws, but from a bad execu. D 11. and 9 Geo. I. §. 1, 2. forbid intion of them.

deed such partial and audacious proAnd from fact, and repeated expe- ceedings, but lay no penalty on the rience, it is found, that the defects offenders : Whereas any officer pre. in the execution of the laws relating suming to act in that manner, ought to the poor, are the following ; to pay the inoney out of his own which may easily be redressed, and pocket. call indeed for redress.

E And to prevent the like inconve. 1. The rates are partially and un. niences for the future, it should far. equally made *. The leaders, who ther be enacted, that in order to are generally the wealthiest and most provide for occasional poor (such conliderable men in parishes, screen poor as are not in the workhouse, or themselves too much, and lay the in the standing yearly lift) the pa. burden on the middling and inferior rishioners should stay at church every inhabitants. And these cannot open. F Sunday, after sermon is ended'; ly complain, or loudly remonstrate (which would be the most convenient against it, without much hurting in country parishes, where the houses themselves, and perhaps entirely are scattered about and at a distance.) losing their business, which for the Or elfe, that they should meet weekly, most part depends on the others. at a certain place and hour, and re

Now, to remedy this inconve- lieve occasional objects, who should nience, it hould We enacted, that a G then appear, or else make an order


Lord chief justice Hale long ago observed, ibal Tradesmen, nst enduring ibeir personal fates should be cbarged, brow rbe wbole load on tbe rents of lands and boufes, wbicb alone are not sufficient to raise a pack, - And I bar or I be overseers being paribioners 480 www.

sw.berg ** .barge itemsives, or displeje ibeir neigblours."

502 Of tbe Project for County Work-Houses. Nov, for that purpose, entering it into a book, produce their accounts, revised and approv. and subscribing it with their own hands. ed by the parishioners, (as the archdeacons And that each parish should keep an ac- fummon churchwardens to exhibit their count or counter-part of these occasional presentments) and to fine them upon their reliefs, to be a comptrol against the over. negled or refusai. roers accounts. Such frequent meetings A Such are the usual and most fagrant de. are the only method to keep a parish's af. feats in the execution of the poor-laws. fairs in good order.

II. But, now, if we consider the pro. As for accidents and misfortunes, the un- posed alterations, by county work-houses, happy objects ought immediately to be tak. and common funds, very far will they be en care of by the officers of the parish where found from remedying those and the like the accidents happen, under a great penal. defects. ty; if the persons cannot be removed with For, let any impartial person, that ever the utmost safety: Adding, however, this B had the leaft notion of human nature, provision, that the parents or masters of judge, whether there will not be the utmost the unhappy sufferers (if able) should be room for partial and unequal rates, when at half the expence of the cure and main. all the inhabitants of the parith they are tenance of the said sufferers : Which half, imposed upon, are not present, or even or proportion of expence, should be ad. consulted, at the making of them ; or judged and set by two neighbouring jul. even can be, without the utmost trouble tices.

and charge. 3. A third defect in the execution of the Suppole, the making of the rates should, laws relating to the poor, is, the over. C for a while, be left to the overseers of the secrs neglecting to account ; some even for respe&tive parishes, they would (I affure two or three years, or more. The act of them) frequently be called upon to enlarge 17 George II. hath indeed made an excel. their afferments : Aud the power of afferlent provision against this neglect, by or. ing themselves would soon be taken from dering, that “the church wardens and over- them, upon some pretence or other ; and feers of the poor Mall yearly, within 14 double of what they had ever paid before, days after other overseers (hall be nominat. if not more, would be exacred from them ed and appointed to succeed them, deliver D with the utmost rigour. This has been ibe unto such succeeding overseers, a just, true, case in most places where corporation workand perfect account in writing, fairly en. houses have been erected. tred in a book or books co be kept for that Again, what ample room will there be purpose, and figned by the laid churchwar. for wasting and m (applying the vast sums dens and overseers, of all fums of money. laid and raised upon the parishes? How Mail by them received, or rated and affefied and parishioners know, whether their own par. not received ; and also of all goods, &c. ticular poor are well and honestly taken that mall be in their hands ; and Mall also


care of ? Must parishioners travel to or pay and deliver over alt fums of money, perhaps 20 miles, to observe and take care goods, &c. as shall be in their hands, unto of those things ? What trouble and what fuch succeeding overseers of the poor ; charge would that occafion? Who can have which said account thall be verified by oath. .fo much time or money to spare, as to fub.

And in care such churchwardens and mic thereto ; at least for any continuance? overreers shall refuse or neglect to make and And as for such endless and con plicated yield up such account, &c. it shall be law. accounts as muft neceffarily be kept ; ful for iwo justices of the peace to commit what able accomp’ant will undertake that him or them to the common goal, until F burden ? How will the respective par:thes they shall have given such account.

know, whether their money is honestly But you will say, vilio cares to be so se. and fairly laid out? And whoever pays vere upon his good neighbours ? If, indeed, money for such publick (ervice, has a right so much over-complaisance, or such a {pi. to know and observe with his own eyes in rit of indolence, reigns in parishes, an ad- what manner it is best wed. dition ought to be marie to this ftature, to So that, in a word, no method can be compel them by large fines (which mould contrived fuller of glaring absurdities ; or be levied by warrant of justices for the use


that would open a wider door to all the of the poor) to bring their ove seer's regu. cheats and impofitions imaginable. larly to account, in pursuance of the said Therefore the best, the safest, and the facute ; and that upon the complaint of most rational means, is to continue, with. any one inliabitant.

out alteration, the commendable method To which may be added, that the jur. which many parishes are come into, of ticos. or their clerks, thould be authorized erecting diftinct work houses, I mean one to call upon the overseers of every parish in every parish of any tolerable bignels s at Easter, when others are appointed, to Where the poor are well looked to ; kept


HISTORY of ihe STADTHOLDERSHIP. 503 industriously employed ; and managed un- died in 1647, and was succeeded by his fon der all the parithioners inspection ; in the William II : It was with him the states, most frugal as well as honelt manner. Ad. or rather some ambitious members of the vantages which would entirely be loft in republick, began their quarrels, which such rambling and overgrown places as they were the better able to manage, county work houses,

fince, by the military virtues of the princes lortead, therefore, of destroying and of Orange, they had triumphed over ail setting aside this laudable inftitution of pri- their enemies, and were acknowledged as

A vate or parochial work-houses, it ought to a free ftate : But, before these broils were be made universal as much as poffible, and totally composed, the prince died, and, parishes ought to be encouraged to set them 7 days after, the princess Mary his widow, up : But to compel them, I think, is not who was the eldeft daughter of Charles I. consistent with our conftitution,

of England, was brought to bed of Wil. [Wbat our correspondent furiber mentions liam III. prince of Orange, afterwards on ibis fubje&t, will be very accepłable ; and king of England. In 1654 the states geEbe sooner we bave ir, sbe better.]

neral made a treaty with Oliver Cromwell,

B by which they engaged to exclude the From obe Westminster Journal, Nov. 2. young prince from all employments; and

soon after they made a law to abolish the History of ebe Stadtholdership : Occafioned office of ftadtholder, with the posts of

by ibe Dealb of bis late Serene Highness captain general and admiral, which was ibe PRINCE OF ORANGE *

called, Tbe a&t of Exclufion : But in the N

peace concluded between Charles II. and monarchy, as the readiness in sub. the stares general, in 1668, it was agreed, jects of republicks to have recourse to some. that when the prince of Orange was at age, thing like it, whenever their affairs were in


he should enjoy the posts of captain genea dangerous condition : This happened ral and admiral : Whether this was really frequently among the Grecian states, and intended, or not, is uncertain ; however, also in Rome, were they had a legal provision when the French, in 1672, invaded their for that purpose, by which, when the very provinces, the states found the neceffary conftitution of the state was declining, quotas for levying troops were denied by they invested a certain person with absolute several of the cities, until a captain genepower ; as Agamemnon, Leonidas, and ral was nominated ; and the people Philip of Macedon among the Greeks, D having assassinated and core to pieces ihe who prefided over their confederate armies; De Wits, whom they suspected to be in and as in Rome, under the title of dictator, the French intereft, compelled the states who was to take care that the common- not only to declare the pince of Orange wealth suffered no detriment. This evinces stadtholder, but to send deputies to release that they perceived the necessity of yield. him from the oath he had taken never to ing to that goveroment for certain reasons, accept of that employment : The prince tho they provided for the abolition of it was elected captain general and admiral as soon as that neceffity was over : Which of the United Provinces, as alío governor

E example was followed by the Dutch, of Holland and Zealand, whereby he was when they revolted from the Spanish mo. restored to all the posts and honours, which narchy, and chose William I. prince of his ancestors had exercised so much to the Orange for captain general and readtholder welfare and reputation of the republick: of the United Provinces. This prioce was He found his country in a melancholy fi. principally concerned in promoting the tuation, invaded, on th: ee different sides, union of the 7 provinces, and, happily for by the armies of France, Cologne, and his countrymen, defeated all the attempts Munster ; molefied at fea by the English ; of the duke of Alva, the Spanish general, F and distracted by intestine commotions ; for reducing the provinces to the obedience yet the young prince nonly ench untered and of Philip II. who was so exasperated at overcame the difficulties that surrounded che conduct and popularity of the prince, him. As the people were for removing that he hired Balthazar Gerard to affaf. several magistrates, his highness rent cirfinate him, which was executed on July cular letters to all the towns, declaring 10, 1584, in his own palace at Delit. that the calamities of the fate proceeded The states immediately conferred all his chiefly from the treachery and coward ce honours and employments upon his fon, G of the governors, citicers, and soldiers apprince Maurice, who held his authority pointed to defend the frontier places : The till 1626, when he was succeeded by his prince put himielt at the head of the Dutch brother Frederick Henry, under whore ad- forces ; he disappointed the attempts of ministration the Atates began to flourish marshal Luxemburg ; he drove the French in a confiderable light. Frederick Henry from Naerden, in the province of Holland;

and . See an account of bis dearb, marriage, ilue, &c. in eur luft, p. 473, 474.

504 Of the late STADTHOLDER. Nov. and obliged them to abandon their con. ftates, wherein he acquainted them, “ That quests in the provinces of Utrecht, Guel. his zeal for the publick welfare, his love derland, and Overyffel : He also fent ad. for his country, the blood from whence miral Ruyter with a strong squadron, to he descended, and the name that he bore, drive the French out of the Caribbee inands; did not suffer him to reje& fo unanimous and tho' it was an ineffectual attempt, yet a request t." The utility of this resolution the prince recovered the reputation and of the states of Zealand was apparent to the territories of his country, procured A all the inhabitants of the United Proan honourable peace, and retained his vinces ; the city of Rotterdam followed dignity to his death ; after which the form the example, the whole province of Holof government, that had fubfifted before land concurred, and all the other provinces he was made ftadtholder, was resumed. were so desirous of purfuing the fteps of William III. appointed John William the province of Zealand, that the prince Frizo, prince of Nassau Diets, for his of Orange, on May 2, 1947, was apsuccessor to the hereditary pofTeffions of the pointed, in the afsembly of the states ge. house of Orange ; who was elected here. neral, Nadtholder, captain general, and ditary ftadtholder of Frieseland, but was B admiral in chief of the United Provinces ; accidentally drowned in paffing a river and, on the 4th, his serene highness was in Holland, on July 14, 1711, leaving his installed into the dignity of stadtholder, to late ferene highness William Charles Henry the universal joy of the republick: For Frizo, his only fon (by Maria Louisa, daugh- the administration of the government was ter of Charles, Landgrave of Heffe.Caffel,) then, in a great measure, invested in the who was born on the very day he was prince of Orange, partly as stadeholder, drowned, for his fucceffor.

and partly as captain general and admiral The authority of the princes of Orange, C in ch ef: The states alone had the power as it must be acknowledged to have had a of making war or concluding peace, of enmost effential part in the firft frame of the tering into foreign alliances, railing of Dutch government, and in all the fortunes taxes, and coining of money ; but the thereof, during the whole growth and pro. prince had the disposal of all military comgress of the state : So, has it ever preserved mands both by land and sea, in time of a very stronx root, not only in fix of the war by his own commission, in time of provinces, but even in the general and po. peace by that of the states ; as fladtholder pular affections of the province of Holland


or governor, he represented the supreme itself, whose states have formerly endea- civil magistrate, in which capacity he par. voured to suppress, or exclude it.

doned offenders, and nominated magis. The successiul invation of Dutch Bra. trates ; the towns presented him the names bant, in the late war, by count Lowen. of three, out of which he chose one : dahl, the French general, and the clamours In him refided the dignity of the state ; he of the people against the venality and cor- had a palace, a court, his guards and all ruption of their governors, obliged the re. other marks of external grandeur incident publick to have recourse to the same means to princes : To him foreign ministers paid as proved their preservation in 1672, by E their court, as did every one who was in. electing a ftadtholder. The late prince of clined to serve his country in the fileet or Orange sent a letter to the states of Zealand, army ; in the council of state he had a offering to their noble mightinetles, to seat, and a decisive voice, but not in the whom he had the honour of being a vassal, assembly of the states general; tho' nohis person and services for their defence ; thing could be transacted there without his being ready to risk with joy, and with the knowledge, or against his con ent. It is same zeal that his ancestors had the very certain, from the exercise of this of. his life and fortune for the publick good 3

fice in the United Provinces, that the

F for that he would repair where they should power of the republick was never at a think fit, to contribute, at his own charges stand, till the office of Stadtholder was laid and expence, without any to the province, atide ; and, in the opinion of the judici. every thing in his power for their com- ous and impartial people, the commonmon defence The states of Zealand, wealth has been declining ever Gince : Of upon receipt of this letter, unanimously this the republick was also thoroughly lenconcurred in a resolution, which was Gible, and in such a manner that, on the pafted on April 28, 1947, whereby their 2ift of November following, the dignity of noble mightineffes nominated the prince G ftadtholder of the province of Holland, of Orange stadtholder, captain general, was made perpetual in the prince of Orange, and admiral of the province of Zealand : and his issue, whether male or female i ; Which reiolurion was immediately notified which example was also'followed by the rest to the prince, who lent another letter to the of the provinces : But this dignity was never

. See London Magazine for 1747, po 287.

+ Ibid. p. 218.

Ibid. p. 519.


505 to be possessed by any king or ele&tor, nor midable, than when their forces were by any prince that did not prosess the entire, and the French at a distance from protestant religion, as by law established

their frontiers : An example demonftrative in the republick ; and in case the stadthol. of the neceffity of the ancient syfem, dership should ever descend to a prince or which supposes a strict alhance, and an princess under age, they were to be educated inseparable union, between Great Britain within the province of Holland ; and this

and the republick ; a maxim fo sacred, fettlement of the succession on the de'cen- A that on it are dependent the afety and dants of the female issue was not to take

prosperity of two posent people, who have place, unless the female heirs married

so olien defended, and with lo much fucwith the especial consent and approbation cers, their own liberty, and that of the of the states. And it was likewise enaĉied rest of Europe : Therelore, that the illur by the states, that in case the said dignity trious family of Nassau may be perpetuated Thould devolve on a princess, the should to latest posterity, is, or ought to be, the enjoy it with the title of governante, and prayer of every one who wishes the con. have her seat in the lates, and in all the

linuance of peace, or is animated with the colleges, in the same manner as the stadthol.


love of liberty. ders ; And as he was to be invested with But, alas? all mankind have lost a all the authority annexed to the dignity of friend in this excellent prince ; commerce captain and admiral general, lhe was to seems expiring at his tomb; while poor appoint, in time of war, an able com. Batavia links beneath her cumberous load mander, of the protestant religion, but of affliction : Nor can Britain be insen. of no kingly or electoral dignity, to head fible of the blow ; ic pierces home to her the troops in her fiead, who was to take

heart ; and brings frem to her soul the an oath to follow and obey the instructions C memory of her royal Frederick, the bethat should be given him by the ftates, loved patron of arts, and encourager of And as the stadtholdership might devolve science. to a minor, then the princess luis mother Thould, during his minority, act as a guar- On be DEATH of bis late Serene dian, with the title of governante, and Highness, tbe PRINCE of ORANGE. enjoy all the privileges annexed to it, 0

the die, or marry again, then the ftates were Ot raging royalıy, and tyrant pride : to supply that guardianship, in the manner D To lure coy freedom to her lov'd recess ; they should think most advantageous. Be- And with tranquillity mankind to bless : sides these honours, the Atates general also To teach wide. Spreading commerce how presented his ferene highness with a di.

(exchange : ploma, constituting him hereditary stade- And make whole provinces one grand holder and captain general of Dutch Bra- To guard religion sacred in her fane ; bant, Flanders, and the upper quarter of To tame rash France, and scourge imperious Guelderland, a dignity never enjoyed by Spain : any of his predeceffors ; and the Eart. E To Melter merit ; induftry to chear ; India company of the chambers of Am. And make the role.Wreath'd plenty crown sterdam and Delft, also appointed him director and governor general of their trade For these blent purposes, did heav'n design and settlements in the Indies.

Each hero of the great Nassovian line : This alteration in the government of Europe has often seen some brave Nassau the United Provinces was productive of Keep the bare tyrants of the world in awe; the most beneficial consequences to the While bleeding from the heart, poor Belgia sepublick, its allies, and all Europe : For, ftocd,

[hlood ; by the vigilance of the stadtholder in aug. F Her lands' defray'd, her cities bath'd in menting the forces, the French

Chear'd by the eye of Orange, soon the obliged to address themselves, at length, rore,

[foes. to the maritime powers for peace; who And pour’d vindi&ive vengeance on her then answered there advices in the only Oh! may the nobleline ftill Aourish long; proper manner, that is, in concert with Sull merit and obtain the muses fong : themselves ; a method that had all ima- The muse on freedom ever did attend, ginable success, fince it occafioned the And shed a tear when freedom lost a friend. procuration of peace, at the very time G The virtuous pearl now trenibles in her eye, when the French were at the gates of the For, hark! her lov'd Van Haaren swells republick ; for as soon as England and the United Provinces kept the same language, Pays the last gentle tributary due, and combined in the same views, they Lan.ents the prince, the friend, and patriot rendered themselves infinitely more for. November, 1751,


cili the minor was of age ; but if the mould To Nay the barb'rous hand ; to check

to range,

the year :


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