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HISTORY of ihe STADTHOLDERSHIP. 503 industriously employed ; and managed un died in 1647, and was succeeded by his fon der all the parithioners inspection ; in the William II : It was with him the states, most frugal as well as honelt manner. Ad. or rather some ambitious members of the vantages which would entirely be loft in republick, began their quarrels, which such rambling and overgrown places as they were the better able to manage, county work houses,

fince, by the military virtues of the princes lortead, therefore, of destroying and of Orange, they had triumphed over ail setting aside this laudable inftitution of pri their enemies, and were acknowledged as

A vate or parochial work-houses, it ought to a free ftate : But, before these broils were be made universal as much as poffible, and totally composed, the prince died, and, parishes ought to be encouraged to set them 7 days after, the princess Mary his widow, up : But to compel them, I think, is not who was the eldeft daughter of Charles I. consistent with our conftitution,

of England, was brought to bed of Wil. [Wbat our correspondent furiber mentions liam III. prince of Orange, afterwards on ibis fubje&t, will be very accepłable ; and king of England. In 1654 the states geEbe sooner we bave ir, sbe better.]

neral made a treaty with Oliver Cromwell,

B by which they engaged to exclude the From obe Westminster Journal, Nov. 2. young prince from all employments; and

soon after they made a law to abolish the History of ebe Stadtholdership : Occafioned office of ftadtholder, with the posts of

by ibe Dealb of bis late Serene Highness captain general and admiral, which was ibe PRINCE OF ORANGE *

called, Tbe a&t of Exclufion : But in the N

peace concluded between Charles II. and monarchy, as the readiness in sub. the stares general, in 1668, it was agreed, jects of republicks to have recourse to some. that when the prince of Orange was at age, thing like it, whenever their affairs were in


he should enjoy the posts of captain genea dangerous condition : This happened ral and admiral : Whether this was really frequently among the Grecian states, and intended, or not, is uncertain ; however, also in Rome, were they had a legal provision when the French, in 1672, invaded their for that purpose, by which, when the very provinces, the states found the neceffary conftitution of the state was declining, quotas for levying troops were denied by they invested a certain person with absolute several of the cities, until a captain genepower ; as Agamemnon, Leonidas, and ral was nominated ; and the people Philip of Macedon among the Greeks, D having assassinated and core to pieces ihe who prefided over their confederate armies; De Wits, whom they suspected to be in and as in Rome, under the title of dictator, the French intereft, compelled the states who was to take care that the common not only to declare the pince of Orange wealth suffered no detriment. This evinces stadtholder, but to send deputies to release that they perceived the necessity of yield. him from the oath he had taken never to ing to that goveroment for certain reasons, accept of that employment : The prince tho they provided for the abolition of it was elected captain general and admiral as soon as that neceffity was over : Which of the United Provinces, as alío governor

E example was followed by the Dutch, of Holland and Zealand, whereby he was when they revolted from the Spanish mo. restored to all the posts and honours, which narchy, and chose William I. prince of his ancestors had exercised so much to the Orange for captain general and readtholder welfare and reputation of the republick: of the United Provinces. This prioce was He found his country in a melancholy fi. principally concerned in promoting the tuation, invaded, on th: ee different sides, union of the 7 provinces, and, happily for by the armies of France, Cologne, and his countrymen, defeated all the attempts Munster ; molefied at fea by the English ; of the duke of Alva, the Spanish general, F and distracted by intestine commotions ; for reducing the provinces to the obedience yet the young prince nonly ench untered and of Philip II. who was so exasperated at overcame the difficulties that surrounded che conduct and popularity of the prince, him. As the people were for removing that he hired Balthazar Gerard to affaf. several magistrates, his highness rent cirfinate him, which was executed on July cular letters to all the towns, declaring 10, 1584, in his own palace at Delit. that the calamities of the fate proceeded The states immediately conferred all his chiefly from the treachery and coward ce honours and employments upon his fon, G of the governors, citicers, and soldiers apprince Maurice, who held his authority pointed to defend the frontier places : The till 1626, when he was succeeded by his prince put himielt at the head of the Dutch brother Frederick Henry, under whore ad forces ; he disappointed the attempts of ministration the Atates began to flourish marshal Luxemburg ; he drove the French in a confiderable light. Frederick Henry from Naerden, in the province of Holland;

and . See an account of bis dearb, marriage, ilue, &c. in eur luft, p. 473, 474.

504 Of the late STADTHOLDER. Nov. and obliged them to abandon their con. ftates, wherein he acquainted them, “ That quests in the provinces of Utrecht, Guel. his zeal for the publick welfare, his love derland, and Overyffel : He also fent ad. for his country, the blood from whence miral Ruyter with a strong squadron, to he descended, and the name that he bore, drive the French out of the Caribbee inands; did not suffer him to reje& fo unanimous and tho' it was an ineffectual attempt, yet a request t." The utility of this resolution the prince recovered the reputation and of the states of Zealand was apparent to the territories of his country, procured A all the inhabitants of the United Proan honourable peace, and retained his vinces ; the city of Rotterdam followed dignity to his death ; after which the form the example, the whole province of Holof government, that had fubfifted before land concurred, and all the other provinces he was made ftadtholder, was resumed. were so desirous of purfuing the fteps of William III. appointed John William the province of Zealand, that the prince Frizo, prince of Nassau Diets, for his of Orange, on May 2, 1947, was apsuccessor to the hereditary pofTeffions of the pointed, in the afsembly of the states ge. house of Orange ; who was elected here. neral, Nadtholder, captain general, and ditary ftadtholder of Frieseland, but was B admiral in chief of the United Provinces ; accidentally drowned in paffing a river and, on the 4th, his serene highness was in Holland, on July 14, 1711, leaving his installed into the dignity of stadtholder, to late ferene highness William Charles Henry the universal joy of the republick: For Frizo, his only fon (by Maria Louisa, daugh the administration of the government was ter of Charles, Landgrave of Heffe.Caffel,) then, in a great measure, invested in the who was born on the very day he was prince of Orange, partly as stadeholder, drowned, for his fucceffor.

and partly as captain general and admiral The authority of the princes of Orange, C in ch ef: The states alone had the power as it must be acknowledged to have had a of making war or concluding peace, of enmost effential part in the firft frame of the tering into foreign alliances, railing of Dutch government, and in all the fortunes taxes, and coining of money ; but the thereof, during the whole growth and pro. prince had the disposal of all military comgress of the state : So, has it ever preserved mands both by land and sea, in time of a very stronx root, not only in fix of the war by his own commission, in time of provinces, but even in the general and po. peace by that of the states ; as fladtholder pular affections of the province of Holland


or governor, he represented the supreme itself, whose states have formerly endea civil magistrate, in which capacity he par. voured to suppress, or exclude it.

doned offenders, and nominated magis. The successiul invation of Dutch Bra. trates ; the towns presented him the names bant, in the late war, by count Lowen. of three, out of which he chose one : dahl, the French general, and the clamours In him refided the dignity of the state ; he of the people against the venality and cor had a palace, a court, his guards and all ruption of their governors, obliged the re. other marks of external grandeur incident publick to have recourse to the same means to princes : To him foreign ministers paid as proved their preservation in 1672, by E their court, as did every one who was in. electing a ftadtholder. The late prince of clined to serve his country in the fileet or Orange sent a letter to the states of Zealand, army ; in the council of state he had a offering to their noble mightinetles, to seat, and a decisive voice, but not in the whom he had the honour of being a vassal, assembly of the states general; tho' nohis person and services for their defence ; thing could be transacted there without his being ready to risk with joy, and with the knowledge, or against his con ent. It is same zeal that his ancestors had the very certain, from the exercise of this of. his life and fortune for the publick good 3

fice in the United Provinces, that the

F for that he would repair where they should power of the republick was never at a think fit, to contribute, at his own charges stand, till the office of Stadtholder was laid and expence, without any to the province, atide ; and, in the opinion of the judici. every thing in his power for their com ous and impartial people, the commonmon defence The states of Zealand, wealth has been declining ever Gince : Of upon receipt of this letter, unanimously this the republick was also thoroughly lenconcurred in a resolution, which was Gible, and in such a manner that, on the pafted on April 28, 1947, whereby their 2ift of November following, the dignity of noble mightineffes nominated the prince G ftadtholder of the province of Holland, of Orange stadtholder, captain general, was made perpetual in the prince of Orange, and admiral of the province of Zealand : and his issue, whether male or female i ; Which reiolurion was immediately notified which example was also'followed by the rest to the prince, who lent another letter to the of the provinces : But this dignity was never

. See London Magazine for 1747, po 287.

+Ibid. p. 218.

Ibid. p. 519.


505 to be possessed by any king or ele&tor, nor midable, than when their forces were by any prince that did not prosess the entire, and the French at a distance from protestant religion, as by law established

their frontiers : An example demonftrative in the republick ; and in case the stadthol. of the neceffity of the ancient syfem, dership should ever descend to a prince or which supposes a strict alhance, and an princess under age, they were to be educated inseparable union, between Great Britain within the province of Holland ; and this

and the republick ; a maxim fo sacred, fettlement of the succession on the de'cen- A that on it are dependent the afety and dants of the female issue was not to take

prosperity of two posent people, who have place, unless the female heirs married

so olien defended, and with lo much fucwith the especial consent and approbation cers, their own liberty, and that of the of the states. And it was likewise enaĉied rest of Europe : Therelore, that the illur by the states, that in case the said dignity trious family of Nassau may be perpetuated Thould devolve on a princess, the should to latest posterity, is, or ought to be, the enjoy it with the title of governante, and prayer of every one who wishes the con. have her seat in the lates, and in all the

linuance of peace, or is animated with the colleges, in the same manner as the stadthol.


love of liberty. ders ; And as he was to be invested with But, alas? all mankind have lost a all the authority annexed to the dignity of friend in this excellent prince ; commerce captain and admiral general, lhe was to seems expiring at his tomb; while poor appoint, in time of war, an able com. Batavia links beneath her cumberous load mander, of the protestant religion, but of affliction : Nor can Britain be insen. of no kingly or electoral dignity, to head fible of the blow ; ic pierces home to her the troops in her fiead, who was to take

heart ; and brings frem to her soul the an oath to follow and obey the instructions C memory of her royal Frederick, the bethat should be given him by the ftates, loved patron of arts, and encourager of And as the stadtholdership might devolve science. to a minor, then the princess luis mother Thould, during his minority, act as a guar On be DEATH of bis late Serene dian, with the title of governante, and Highness, tbe PRINCE of ORANGE. enjoy all the privileges annexed to it, 0

the die, or marry again, then the ftates were Ot raging royalıy, and tyrant pride : to supply that guardianship, in the manner D To lure coy freedom to her lov'd recess ; they should think most advantageous. Be And with tranquillity mankind to bless : sides these honours, the Atates general also To teach wide. Spreading commerce how presented his ferene highness with a di.

(exchange : ploma, constituting him hereditary stade And make whole provinces one grand holder and captain general of Dutch Bra To guard religion sacred in her fane ; bant, Flanders, and the upper quarter of To tame rash France, and scourge imperious Guelderland, a dignity never enjoyed by Spain : any of his predeceffors ; and the Eart. E To Melter merit ; induftry to chear ; India company of the chambers of Am. And make the role.Wreath'd plenty crown sterdam and Delft, also appointed him director and governor general of their trade For these blent purposes, did heav'n design and settlements in the Indies.

Each hero of the great Nassovian line : This alteration in the government of Europe has often seen some brave Nassau the United Provinces was productive of Keep the bare tyrants of the world in awe; the most beneficial consequences to the While bleeding from the heart, poor Belgia sepublick, its allies, and all Europe : For, ftocd,

[hlood ; by the vigilance of the stadtholder in aug. F Her lands' defray'd, her cities bath'd in menting the forces, the French

Chear'd by the eye of Orange, soon the obliged to address themselves, at length, rore,

[foes. to the maritime powers for peace; who And pour’d vindi&ive vengeance on her then answered there advices in the only Oh! may the nobleline ftill Aourish long; proper manner, that is, in concert with Sull merit and obtain the muses fong : themselves ; a method that had all ima The muse on freedom ever did attend, ginable success, fince it occafioned the And shed a tear when freedom lost a friend. procuration of peace, at the very time G The virtuous pearl now trenibles in her eye, when the French were at the gates of the For, hark! her lov'd Van Haaren swells republick ; for as soon as England and the United Provinces kept the same language, Pays the last gentle tributary due, and combined in the same views, they Lan.ents the prince, the friend, and patriot rendered themselves infinitely more for. November, 1751,


cili the minor was of age ; but if the mould To Nay the barb'rous hand ; to check

to range,

the year :


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Some arch DEBATES on the New STILE,

The loving husband, and the tender fire ; is. Suppose a woman made pregnant in out
To all he sweetly tunes his mournful lyre ; present way of reckoning, and the doctors
Weeps o'er the great good man ; tor and midwives are positive the must be de-
here he found,

(bound, livered on the 14th of September next, A miracle ! La prince to honour mult the not miscarry, if they tell truth A courtier, truth and honesty had and here is danger of murder; or if her crown'd!

delivery was fixed for the 8th, she must not А

be delivered at all, or at least till the year Extra&t of a Letter from a Gentleman in the

following; and here is more danger of mura Country to bis Friend in Town: Contain.

der. Or suppose by an old patent a fair is ing ebe Opinions of some WISEACRES upot

to be held on the gih, and the patentee sets on sbe Alteration of ebe STYLE.

his customs for so much yearly, muft noc

the tenant lose a fair, and yet pay his rent? VER since we heard of the intention very hard indeed, and mere murder ! But E

of the parliament to make us reckon after all, what end will this answer, canby the new style, various and strange have not matters remain as they were ? To been the opinions of our country philofo- B which it was answered, that it would make phers, who are very numerous ; fur every us agree with our neighbours in our reck man you meet has an opinion to maintain, oning, and reform our calendar and almaand something to say upon this subject. nacks. Ay, replied the other, if it would Wherefore, whenever I get into company, promote a general and lasting peace, I I throw the ball amongst them. Mention Thould like it very well ; but, instead of being made, that next year was to be II that, I fear it will promote an inteftino days shorter than the prelent, one of the war among ourselves. What will become company wisely observed, that he did not c of interest money for 11 days ? How much like the project, for by this means, laid he, must be lost there? But as to our calendar, we must pay our rent 11 days before it have you any thing to object to it? Was is due, servants must be paid for time they it not made at the reformation ? And did do not serve, bonds will become due before you ever see a better almanack than Wat. their time, with many other hardihips, too son's in all your life? Does he not foretel tedious to mention. But still I would be eclipses, Sundays, holidays, festivals, fairs, glad to know, what will become of these veftries, quarter-feffions, nay, the times 11 days, which you say are to be discard people ought to go to church in Dublin, ed in September. Now if 11 days must be D left they should quite forget it, with the vea turned off, or dropt, I think it would be ry names of the churches ? which is more much better to take them from about mid than ever Whalley or his predecessors dido Summer, when there is scarce any night at Indeed he says nothing of the weather or all, and add them to the winter days, which the aflizes, which if he did, we could mawould Morten the nights, increase labour nage our farms the better, fix our races, without doors, and save candles. Nay, the mending our girths and faddles, buye said another, that will never país, for, to ing new cloaths; and iron to Moc our hor. be sure, the chandlers, the play- houses, the E res, and not have too many things, with a taverns, and the masters and lovers of all process or two, come upon our backs at entertainments by candle.light, who are once, as it sometimes happens. One who three parts in four of the nation, would had been listening all this while, like a fow petition against it.

But I will tell you in the beans, said, none of you gentlemen what may be well done with them, they have yet satisfied me, as to the manner of may be sent to the north, where they have dropping these days. I can no more so much need of them in a night of fix believe that September the 4th shall be Sepe months long. And who knows but the tember the 15th, than I can believe transub.

F Streamers or Aurora Boreales, observed of ftantiation. Can an act of parliament late years, are the ghosts of some days dife cause an eclipse of the fun for 11 days ? carded in another country, and wandering Or is day-light to be arrested and confined about to look for a place of residence, in a dark dungeon so long? Or are all his which ye: they have not found. I do not majesty's fubje&is to take such a dose of know, said another, how that may be, opium on the ad at night, as will set them but this I know, that many inconveniences to seep till the 14th in the morning. Or (as my neighbour said) must arise from this is there another Jupiter to come and beget Icheme ; for example, fuppole a man is G Hercules's for u days ? Satisfy me in these condemned on the 2d of September next, points, and then I shall submit. But I do and is to be hanged on the 14th, why, ty not think that an act of parliament can dethis scheme he is hanged next day; and if prive me of my senses and reason, any more harging a man ni days before his time, be than the council of Treas, Rot murder is a fierist, Ilinow not what



1751. Of the NATURE of the SOUL. 507

with a quality or power of self or volunTo be AUTHOR of tbe LONDON cary motion. This, as to myself, I must MAGAZINE.

grant; but I can no more demonstrate to

another man, that I perceive in myself SIR,

such a power or quality, than I can deHe immortality of the soul having monstrate to him, that I feel pain when

my finger is in the fire, or that I see St. the negative, or rather the mortality or an- A Paul's church at noon-day, when my eyes nihilation of the soul attempted to be prov. are open, and the church full in my view. ed philosophically, tho' the author's argu. For his knowledge or perception of this ments are very unphilosophical and absurd; power or quality, therefore, I must refer yet left they should impose upon weak him entirely to what he feels or perceives minds, I think, you should insert something within himself ; and if he Mould take it by way of answer ; and if you have no. into his head to deny, that upon refle&tion thing better, I hope, you will give a place he feels or perceives such a quality or pow. to what follows,

er wiihin himself, I should no more undera In order to judge whether the soul be B take to convince him of it, or rather to immortal or no, it is absolutely necessary make him acknowledge it, than I would to form as adequate an idea of it as we undertake to convince him, or to make can during its union with the body ; and him acknowledge, that he feels pain when in order to this, we must examine how we bis finger is in the fire, or that he fees St. first came to form or acquire the idea of Paul's church at noon-day, when his eyes what we call our soul. For this purpose I are open, and the church full in his view, cannot do better than to give some extracts The attempt would be ridiculous in the one from a little tract. I met with about ten C case as well as the other. years ago, for proving the immateriality In the next chapter, the author goes on and free-agency of the soul ; because it is as follows: Thorter, and better adapted to the capaci Sect. 1. After having, as mentioned in ties of the unlearned, than Mr. Baxter's the foregoing chapter, convineed myself, enquiry into the nature of the human soul, that I am indued with a self-motive power

The author, after having thewn veryjna. or quality, I consider that every power or turally, and I believe truly, how we re. quanty must exist in or belong to fume suo. ceive or form our ideas, particularly those of space, matter, substance or being, qua

fiance or being, therefore this quality muit D

exist in my body, or proceed from the molity, divifibility, &c. comes next to examine dification of the parts of my body, or it our idea of motion, and how we come to must not ; which of course leads me to distinguish between what we call necessary consider, whether this quality can exist in motion, and what we call voluntary moti matter, or proceed from any modification

Which chapter he concludes thus. of the parts of any material substance. Sect. 5. My idea of self or voluntary Sect. 2. That the quality which we call motion, being of great consequence in my a felf-motive power, does not, nor can Search after the true nature of things, there. E exist in any rude mass, or atom, (which is fore it is absolutely necessary to form a clear only a minute rude mals) of matter, I am and diftin& idea of what we call volunta. upon the very first reflection convinced ; ry motion ; for which reason, and in order for from our idea of matter every man to determine, whether or no it be a motion must conclude, that no rude mass or atom that is originally produced in any part or of matter can of itself begin to move, or parts of my body, without the affistance to move in any new direction. Therefore, of an impulse from any part of matter, 1 if this self-motive power te a quality that fay, for this end, I try to walk from one exists in my body, it must be the result of, end of the room to the other, or to move or proceed from a certain modification of my right or left hand, my thumb or little the parts of which my body is composed. finger ; whereupon I clearly perceive, by Se&. 3. From anatomy I know, that my refle&tion upon what I feel within myself, body is a machine, or a modified piece of that I have a power to move my body matier, confifting of several different and when and as often as I please from one end heterogeneous parts ; and that every new of the room to the other, or to move ei.

motion of my foot, hand or finger, or any ther my right or left hand, my thumb, or

other member of my body, is produced or little finger ; or finally to move neither of G impelled, and directed, by those parts of them, just as I please. This power, I say, my corporeal machine, which we call I plainly perceive, I am as much convin. nerves, muscles, &c. But then I know ced that I feel or perceive it, as I can be that those nerves and muscles, before they convinced that I feel pain when I put my begin to move, or before they begin to finger into the fire ; therefore with respect move in any direction different from to myself, I must grant, that I am indued Sss 2



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