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That the SOUL is Immaterial. Nov. the immediate preceding, which they must we call voluntary or self motion, or of do, in order to produce this new mo. that quality or power which we call a selftion, or new direction, in my foot, hand, motive power, and which every man fo or finger, must he put in motion, or re evidently feels or perceives himself to be ceive a new direction from something else; indued with. Therefore, I must at last and if it be from any material part within conclude, that the atom, or primary conme, such as the blood, or what we call the fiquent part of my body, which firit beanimal fpirits, which, by beginning 10 A gios to move, or to move in any new di. move, puts my nerves and muscles in mo. rection, must be moved, or moved in that tion, or by beginning to move in a new new direction, by some substance or being direction, gives my nerves and muscles that is not material ; and consequently, that that new direction, by which the new dia the quality which we call the self motive rection of my foot, hand, or finger, is power, is a quality which does not exist in produced, then that material part, be it my body, nor proceed from any modificawhat it will, must have been moved by, tion of the parts of which my body is or must have received that new direction composed ; but that it is a quality, which from, some other material part beginning B exifts in or' belongs to some immaterial subto move, or beginning to move in a new di.

Atance or being. reflion, within my body ; so that at last I Sect. 5. Being thas fully convinced, that must come to the fiult atom, or primary the quality I find myself indued with, conftituent part of the matter, of which which we call the self motive power, or my body is composed, which began to the power of voluntary motion, is a quamove, or which began to move in that lity that cannot exift in my body, or proparticular direction, and by which my foot, ceed from any modification of the parts of hand, or finyer, was by the intermediate C which my body is composed ; and consematerial causes, impelled and directed to quently, that it is a quality which cannot move as it did.

exist or inhere in matter, however modi. Sect. 4. Of this atom, or primary con. fied or organized ; but that it must exist or ftituent part of my body, which first be. in here in some substance or being that is gins to move, or which fist begins to not material ; therefore I must from this move is a new direction, I must either say, quality perceive and be convinced, that that it moved itell, or that it was moved there is an immaterial being or substance, by an imperceptible impulse from some which is indued with a quality or power of part of matter without iny body, or that moving some internal part, or some of the it was m ved by some substance or being internal parts of my body, perhaps what that is not material. That a rude mass or we call the animal spirits, and by their arom of matter should of itself begin to

means, of moving my body, and several of move, or chat it Mould of itself begin to the members thereof, when and which way move in any new direction, is what I

it pleases. Then by abAtracting this immaknow I cannot suppose ; therefore I must terial being from the quality by which I either say, that it began to move, or to perceive it, I form that idea which I call move in that new direction, by an imper. E my soul ; and from thence I afterwards ceprible impulse from some part of matter form that abstract general idea, which we without my body ; or I must say, that it

call spirit. was moved, or began to he moved in that Sect. 6. Having sewn how we come at new direction, hy fome substance or being the knowledge of the existence of that be. that is nor material. II Mould say, that ing which we cail spirit, let us compare jt began to move, or to move in that new this knowledge with the knowledge we direction, hy an impercept ble impulse from have of that subfiance which we call mat. fome part of matter without my body, F ter, and we shall find that we arrive at that part of maller in:ust have begun to both in the same way, and that the knowmove, or 10 move in a new direction, ledge we have of spirit is as certain as the hy means of an impulse from some other knowledge we have of matter. We know part of matter, and in in infinitum ; confe. nothing of the substance called matter, no quently everysgew motion or dire Etion of more than we do of the substance called my tool, hand, or nnger, muft depend Spirit ; we neither know, nor can know upon, and procced from an infinite chain any thing of either, but by its qualities, of causes or motiens, every one of which, that is to say, by:he ideas it communicates as it proceeds from a material impulse, G to our minds and as to the method of must be necessary; therefore every mclion acquiring or coming at the knowledge of of my ino!, hand, or finger muit be ne. spirit, it is the very same with that by currirvard rot voluntary; and consequent. which we acquire or come at the know. Ty no such motion could communicate 10 ledge of matter. By my sense of feeling, me the idea of that sort of motion, which I discover that quality of matier, which we


name matter.

." That the SOUL is Immortal.

509 call resistance : This quality, I know, In order to elude this argument, a late must exist or inhere in something, and author has erected power into a being or upon comparing this quality with what substance ; whereas, if we refie&t never so we call space, I find it cannot pollibly ex little, we must conclude, that it is only ift or inhere in that existence which we one of the qualities of a being ; and concall space ; therefore I am convinded, sequently it is ridiculous to say, that bethere mult be in some parts of space, cause a powerful being ceases to act upon another fort of existence, to which, in a A any particular piece of matter, or in any general and abstract sense, I give the particular manner, therefore that being Again, by reflection I dir.

ceases to be. God Almighty has for a cover in myself that quality which we call time lo connected the soul with the body, the self-motive power, or the power of and, il I may lay so, confined its power, that voluntary motion : This quality I know during this conne&tion it cannot act upon muft exist or inhere in some substance or any other part of matter but by the being, and upon comparing this quality means of that body, nor exert any of its with what we call matter, I find it can

other faculties but by the paris of that not possibly exist or inhere in that sub. B body ; nor can it actuate the body any ftance which we call matter, however longer than the body remains fit to be modified or organized ; therefore I am actuated, according to those laws which convinced, there must be another fort of he has prescribed ; but as the soul is in fubftance or being, which, with respect itself an active heing, and matter in it. to myself I call my soul, and which, in self absolutely palive, we must conclude, a general and abstract sense, I call spirit. that if it were not for this restraint laid

The author afterwards Mews, how we upon it by its Creator, it might act upon come at the knowledge of many other Cany other part of matter, and exert all its qualities or faculties of the foul, such as other faculties without having any thing to perceiving, contemplating, comparingideas, do with any part of matter; and Mall we and volition, all which he news to be say, that its being freed from this restraint, qualities of the foul only ; and in his last puts an end to its existence ? Can any chapter he answers all the arguments that man be so blind as not to see the ridiculourare brought for supporting that ridiculous ness of this conclusion ? doctrine of our being necef'ary agents : I It is true, we cannot, in our present say, ridiculous, because the very terms are ftate, conceive how the soul, when re. contradictory ; for nothing can be an parated from the body, can act upon any agent unless it be a free agent : No one part of matter, or how it can receive the will say, that the spring of a watch is an idea of any external object without the agent, or that the stone that falls from organs of sensation ; but are we therefore

house and kills a man, is an agent ; for to conclude, that it cannot ? We now tho' material substances often produce ef know that it does act upon some part of fects upon one another, that which pro. that matrer of which our body is comduces the effect is no more an agent, than posed, we know that it does receive ideas that on which the effect is produced, if E of external objects, and we know that we speak philosophically, and make use of both these qualities are peculiar to the no term but in irs proper and genuine foul only : Why should we then suppose signification ; which, indeed, we rarely that the soul will lese either of these quado ; and from hence proceed most of lities, when direncumbered from the body ? the errors and disputes we are led into, Is it not more reasonable to suppose that particularly that about the mortality of both will be more perfe&t ? And that the the human soul.

soul will then perceive, and have a thorough From what is premised every man may r knowledge of external objects that are form a pretty distinct idea of his soul; and purely spiritual, as well as those that are tho' we cannot account for that connection material or mixt? which at present subfifts between the soul If people would consider this seriously, and the body, yet we must conclude, that they would have more reason to rejoice at it is a being of a quite different nature, and death, than to be afraid of it, provided it consequently distinct from the body, which came without any fault or negleat of their it now actuates and directs. If so, it may own. But as few men can bring them. cease to actuate the body, when the body

felves into an abstract way of thinking becomes unfit to be actuated, but it can G upon this subject, I shall suppose a curious not cease to be ; for, surely, it cannot put complicated machine composed of an in. an end to its own being, and whoever finite number of levers, wheels, pullies, affirms that God Almighty will put an screws, and wedges, all governed by a end to its being, must prove what he af. circulating Auid, kept in motion, as the firms; which, I am very fure, it is impof. fire engine is, by the successive rarefaction • lible for any man to do.


e D

T the

510 Strength of several MINERAL WATERS. Nov. and condensation of the air : Suppose tirat of their hopes, and to diveft the wicked a man placed in this machine should by of their fears, with regard to a future flate. means of some part of this fuid be able to

I am, &c. move several parts of it, which way he pleased, and the whole whatever way he

An Examination of the Strengtb of several inclined to move it on the surface of this

of rbe principal purging Waters, espe. globe : Suppose the machine of such a,

cially of rbat of Jessop's Well. By Dature, that he could make it very useful A ibe Rev. Stephen Hales, D. D. and so himself, to mankind and and to the

F. R, S, Society, or on the contrary : And, lastly, fuppose him placed in the government of HE several quantities of sediment it by a superior power, with directions to preserve it as long as he could, to make following purging waters, evaporated a. use of it for his own advantage so far as way to driness, in Florence flaiks, cut confitent with the good of mankind and to a wide mouth, were thus, the fociety to which he belonged, and never


Marybon. Fields near London 24 grains, to risk its deftruction but for the good of Peterftreet brew- house, Westminster, markind or the society ; and these direc. 27 gr.mEbsham 34 gr.--Scarborough 40 tons enjoined under levere penalties, and gr. -Dog and Duck, Lambeth, 401 gr. with promises of a high reward.

Kilburn, 4 miles from London, in the This machine and the man placed in it to way to Edgwar 43 gr.-Acton 44 gr. govern it, may be considered as a sort of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, 60 gr. representation of the body and soul. The Dr. Short says this is the best and strongest body is the machine, and a very wonder nitro-calcarious water in England, very ful one it is, the soul is the man who go. C bitter, having only a little subtil impalpable verns it; and from the human passions and earth mixed with its salt.-Cobham-Well, affections I could new, that the soul has a mile south of Church Cobham, Surrey, guit such directions from our Creator, as I once 68 gr. another time 60.-Jetrop'shive mentioned. The destruction or the Well, on Stoke-Common, in Mr. Vincent's diffolution of the body no more implies the manor, about ; miles Southward of Claredestruction or annihilation of the soul, mont, Surrey, Sept. 11, 1749, after long (for ditt ived it cannot be, as it does not dry weather, 82 gr. in a pound of the consist of parts) than the defruction or dif- Dsurface-water. Od. 16, after a considefolution of this machine would imply the rable quantity of rain, the surface. Water destruction or death of the man that go. yielded but 60 gr. Nov. 21, 65 grains. verned it. On the contrary he would be This great inequality of the frength of freed from his care, and punished or re the surface water put me upon trying whe. warded in proportion to his conduct. ther the water at the bottom of the well,

To this I thall only add, that God near the springs, were stronger than the Almighty has establifhed a more intimate surface water. And in order to this, I pro. connection between the body and soul, cured, Dec. 17, a bottle of the water near than can be supposed between any machine E the bottom, which was ten feet below and the man who governs it. The soul the surface of the water ; which was done not only feels pain from any disorder in by tying an empty bottle to the end of the body, but cannot fully exert even its a long pole, with a line fixed to the cork, own molt peculiar faculties, until the to pull it out when at the bottom, for body be compleatly formed for its purpose, the water to fill it : And I had at the same or after the body is disordered or decayed ; time another bottle full of the furface-water. but as those faculties neither depend on, The lower water yielded 8. grains, and por can proceed from any modification


the surface water but 48 grains; and it was or organization of matter, we must con. the same upon a second evaporation of clude, that this impotency in the soul is

those waters. Hence we see how much owing flely to that connection which

stronger the water near the bottom is, God Almighty hɔs established between it than at the surface ; even when the preand the body; and this connection he has ceding rains have been but moderate ; established to make the soul the more care. for they had not as yet been sufficient to ful of the body committed to its charge. raise the springs in this country much.

What I have said will, I hope, be ma Hence we fee, that the stronger lower eurely conüdered by those, who apply all Gwater may easily be come at by means of the faculties both of their body and soul a pump; as also, that the upper lando the destruction of mankind, and the springs, soon after rains, make the water sonfufion of the society, to which they be. near the surface weaker : But, in long dry long i tor fuchs I must look upon all chore weather, where there are no land.springs, the to be, who endeavour to deprive the good surface water, and that at the bottom, are



Of Jessop's-Well Water.

511. nearly of an equal strength : For it re.

pass the filter before evaporation, but not quires time for the faline mineral virtue

after it. This was the realon which into be equally diffused thro' a mass of that

duced me to examine, by various repeated depth of water, whose upper part is incel

trials, and to give :3 account of the fupesantly weakened by a land-Spring of fresh

rior Itrength of Jesp's. Well water, above

all others that I have examined or heard of, Hence we see how adviseable it is, in

When Jessop's well was cleaned, oa. order to keep out the land-Springs, to


16, 1749, afer a considerable quantity of dig a narrow trench some feet depen, round

rain, after about half a foot depth of black the well, to be filled with stiff clay well

muddy filih was taken out, then the natu. rammed.

ral fat sandy-coloured clay.bottom appeare The mineral virtue in this water seems ed

; thio' several parts of which the wito be much like that of Cheltenham, in

ter ouzed up at the rate of 160 gallons in its Thooting into very bitter, regular, oblong 24 hours. chrystals, which are, on that account,

The water which then came fresh from called nitrous, tho' they are not a true the spring gave a weak blush with galls i nitre ; for neither there, nor those of B but when put into bottles it did not do lo Chelcenham, will deflagrate or flash in next day ; a lign that there is some degree touch paper, nor on burning charcoal, as

of feel in it. true nitre will do ; some of which till It was very observable, that the man retain their form and firinness for 17 months

who food about 3 hours bare-legged in fince they were chryftallized; whereas

this well. water to clean it, was purged the chrystallized (alts of several other

so severely for a weck, that he said he purging waters have crumbled, and in a

would not venture, on any account, thus a great measure wasted away in much c !o clean the well again, And it was the less time: A greater proportion of the same with another man, who cleaned the salts of Jeisop's-Well, noot into oblong same well about 12 years since.' And I am chrystals than those of Cheltenham ; and

credibly informed by a merchant, that, jrs water also gives a stronger green tin being in a warehouse in Egypt to see fenna cture, with violet flowers. The purging baled up, it had the like purgative effect on quality refides chiefly in these chryftalline him. salts, and a small proportion of common In order to get a satisfactory account of salt ; some of which there is in all these the efficacy of these waters, 1 delired Dr. mineral waters.

D Adee of Guildford, who has long preforib. The propostion also of its earthy calca.

ed them to his patients, to give me his carious matter, is but riz part of it ; opinion of them ; which he has done in which, like that of Cheltenham, is but the following letter, viz. little, in comparison of the much greater

Guildford, March 14; 1749. quantity of it in other purging waters : It

SIR, is also soft and impalpable, like that of Cheltenham, and not harsh and coarse, as HAVE found very advantageous and it is in some other purging waters. E uncommon effects from the use of the

And as the quantity of purging falt in waters of Jeffop's well. Some of my pathis water is considerably greater than in tients, who have drank them steadily and any other, so it is found by experience, cautiousy, have been cured of obstinate that, proportionably a less quantity of it

fcurvies. As I had a long time ago reason fuffices, which makes it fit the better on to think there was a fine volatile spirit in the stomach. It is also observed to exhi. them, I therefore obliged some to drink larate thore who take it.

them for a course of time at the well as an It was observable of the sediment officer F When Y have ordered them as a purge,

alterative, with very happy consequences. veral of these waters, that, when dried, and while hot, there ascended plenty of in. they have worked very fmartly, but have vifible volatile falc fumes, lo pungent that noc dispirited. I am glad to have it in my the nose could not bear them. Hence we power to confirm your sentiments by my may reasonably conclude, that the waters own observations; and am fatisfied chefe which abound most with purging Sales, such waters, if continued a proper time, and as those of Jessop's. Well, should be pro taken in a proper manner, may be rendera portionably preferable to weaker waters, ed very beneficial to mankind, according which are stregthened by boiling half away; G to the best opinion that can be formed by, whereby not only the more subile active

SIR, parts are evaporated ; and those that are

Your mof faithful humble servant, left are decompounded, and formed into new groffer combinations ; as are also the

SWITHIN ADEE, calcarious particles, which are lo fine as to


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Solutions of a SURVEYING QUESTION. Nov. Solution of the Surveying Question in the Mag. for Aug. laft, P. 370. B

UT AD= 40 = a, BD=60 b

and draw BE CO bisfect the angle DBC, and call DE=x. Then (by Eu. 3.6.) 6:0::*: Put Led, then dx=EC, and (by Lemma,

6 A DE

Page 238, of Mr. Simpson's algebra) bc-dxx =BE. Now (ty the aforesaid proposition) *:a::vbr-dx2: Vbc=dx? = A B. Then (by the Lemma) bbtax= V bc — ax"

bb be Xóraxx; hence xxtatad* = 174

; folved x=37,41786 ; whence AC=158,48989, and AB=73,87347 ; whence the area may be


UT s and z for the fine and cofine

of the < ABD, then 25% and 222-1 will be the fine and cofine of the DBC, and 4522-s the fine of the ABC ; AD==40, BD=6= 60, and BC=d=130 ; then as c:::: bs

bs -the BAD, and as cb:

:d:: A D

de 4522–5:

= AC, and DC=V2 -- 4dbz? + 2db + b2 = 6

Put 176x1=n, then 16d2c2z+ – 8dcnztx' = d?b? b 4db3x2 + 2063 +64 ; then by transposition and division z+ + 4bz?

16dca d262 +2db3 +64-2 ; xz2 =

whence z = .8409, the natural fine of 570

1642 (2 -14', AB=73.81, DC=118.5, and area 4747-2505 square poles.

John Boucher Hodges. We gave an Account of the tragical Affair of impannelled to inquire into the Cause of the

Miss Blandy in our Mag. for Aug. laji, Deatb of Francis Blandy, Gent, now lying P. 379; wbicb was mentioned again in our dead. laff, p. 475. And as ebis bas been ibe Subject of mucb Conversation, and likely NTHONY Addington of Reading, fill to be more so, we judged be following

A D. ; bigbly proper to be inserted

that Mary Blandy, daughter of Francis

Blandy, gentleman, deceased, acknowledged Town of Henley up-2 To wit, Depositions to this deponent, that she received of the on Thames, in the of Witnesses and Exa. Hon. William Henry C-n, a powder

County of Oxford. Sminations taken on which was called a powder to clean the Oarbebe Igrb Day of August, 1751. before stones or pebbles, which were sent to her Richard Miles, Gent. Mayor and Coroner the same time as a prelent ; and that of ibe fuid Town ; and also before obe Jury Monday the sth instant me mixed part of


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