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ato be able to cope with us at sea; may build fhips, they may even ex-
and they ímžite? To severely in the ceed us in number and ftrength
lalt war, that I believe, they will of hips, as the Spaniards did in
take care not to come to a rupture queen Elizabeth's time ;, but unless
with this nation, till they think they have expert and able feamea to
themelues a: l-aft a match for us at navigate and fuht those frips, they
fer. If ever they should grow so A wil, in case of a war, only serve to
vain, I hope, they will find them- adorn our naval triomphs. So far
felves miltaken ; elpecially, if we therefore from being afraid of the
take care to preserve a powerful al. French efforts towards establithiog a
liance upon the continent, ready to superior naval power, I think, we
attack them by land, if they should ought to be glad to hear of it, be-
ever venture to attack us by sea ; cause it is an attempt in which they
and for this purpose nothing can be B can never succeed ; and the expence
so effectual as that of securing the they are at in this way, will render
internal quiet of Germany, by get- them the less able to defend them-
ting a king of the Romans cholen. selves againit our confederates at
If by a few subsidies we can do this, land, in cale of a new war.
it will be money as well laid out as I hope, Sir, I have now allayed
any that was ever expended by this gentlemens fears of the growing
nation ; for France will be cautious C maritime power of France : I hope
of disturbing the tranquillity of this I have shewn, that 8000 seamen will,
kingdom, or of Europe, unless they for this next year at least, be fully
have a well-grounded hope of be- fufficient for all necessary purposes ;
ing able to flir up a civil war in and as to the saving by the reduction,
Germany; and I am sure, it is not I shall grant, it will not be so confi-
our biliness to provoke France to a derable as I could wish ; but as the
rupture, which some gentlemen seem D wear and tear, and sea ordnance, do
to be aiming at, by endeavouring to not cost near so much when ships are
create jealousies and misunderfiand- laid up, as when they are in com-
ings between the two nations. million, the saving will be more con.

No gentleman, surely, Sir, sup- fiderable than the Hon. gentleman
poses that we can send to France, to who spoke laft, was pleased to reck-
enjoin them not to build any more on. Something, 'tis true, muft be
ships of war, or not to increase E added to the ordinary of the navy
their marine, under the pain of our on account of the ships that are to
declaring war against them, if they be laid up; but it will not amount
did. All Europe would confederate to 40,000l. nor half the money ;
against us, should we assume any and a saving of above fourscore
such dictatorial power. All we can thousand pounds, cannot be looked
do therefore is, to take care to be on as a trifle in our present circum-
equal, if not fuperior, to France in F stances. As to the difference of ser-
naval streng'h. How is this to be timents, which he was at such pains
done ? Not by squandering our mo- to point out to us, it is a difference
ncy upon useless armaments in time which I cannot yet discover : His
of peace, but by saving as much as majesty is not, surely, to repeat every
possible, and encouraging our com- year the same thing in his speech
merce, our fisheries and our plantati- from the throne; and when he does
ons. If we do this, we have got so G not mention the fieet, we cannot pro-
much the start of France, and have perly take notice of it in our address;
such an advantage from our situatia but I can take upon me to say, that
on, that it will never be in their his majelty and all his servants have
power to come up with us. They now the care of the fleet as much at

heart,

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1751.
Three Classes of POOR.

549 heart, as they had two years ago, or plain with regard to the poor, I shall at any preceding time : As a proof divide them into three classes, and of this, all our ships are now in per- confider who are commonly chargefect order, a very few excepted, a able, viz. 1. The old, lame, and very large sum has been this last year

infirm. 2. Those that are burdened laid out in buildings, rebuildings with a fick or numerous family. 3. and repairs of the navy, and I be. A Those that reduce themselves to lieve, gentlemen will' find, that a beggary, by a drunken, vicious, considerable sum will this year be and lewd course of life. alked, and, I hope, granted for the To dispatch these lait in the first fame purpose. In short, Sir, our

In short, Sir, our place, I thall observe here concernnavy cost us this last year above a ing them, once for all, that they million fterling, which is more than ought to be confined to hard labour, can be raised by a land tax of 25. B in Bridewells or publick work houin the pound ; and notwithstanding ses, (and for them only there ought to the reduction proposed, it will, I be such) and kept from all Itrong believe, this next year cost us near liquors ; on purpose to try whether 850,000l ; both which articles of they can be reformed. And if, upexpence I highly approve of, because on a trial or two, they will not a. I Thall always be for reducing the mend, but perlift in their drunken number of seamen in the pay of the C or vicious course, then they ought publick, rather than to neglect keep- to be transported to places where ing our ships in compleat repair; for they can be doomed to perpetual from our commerce and fisheries, work. For, indeed, they deserve both which will, I hope, increase little or no compassion, being only every day, we may have seamen a burden upon the earth, and the when we want them, but can no pests of society. where have ships unless we have them D But to the other two sorts of poor of our own, and ready for service. the utmost compassion is due. For this reason, Sir, and because I And towards them it is most pardo not think that, during the course ticularly exerted, in relieving them of this year, we can fland in need parochially ; either by a moderate of more than 8000 seamen, I shall weekly allowance ; or by taking be for concurring with the noble them into a work-house erected in lord in the motion he has been pleaf. E each parih, and there employing ed to make.

them according to their kill and a. [This JOURNAL to be continued, bilities. ana this DEBATE concluded in our I say, in relieving them parochialAPPENDIX.]

ly. For, if they are old, lame, and

infirm, they generally have the adContinuation of the Remarks on Pro

vantage and comfort of living with posals lately made for repealing F fome of their children, who use most of the Poor Laws, and for them with filial tenderness, and conerellingCOUNTY WORK-HOUSES. tribute some share towards their (See p. 499.)

support and maintenance. And be. III.Y NOW come to thew, that ing in places where they are well

the making the proposed al- known, if their behaviour has been terations in the laws relating to the tolerably honest, inoffensive, and re. · poor, and erecting county work-G gular, they get a great deal of houses, will be attended with very comfortable relief, either in alms or burdensome and cruel circumstances, victuals, from their charitable and both with regard to the poor chem- well-disposed neighbours. By which delves, and to parilhes.

means they are content with an al. In order to make the case quite

lowance Lowance comparatively small ; but, under chial work houses ; but which would be their circumstances, sufficient. All which quite intolerable in the supposed and imaadvantages would absolutely he loft, by ginary vast county ones? burrying them away from all their friends Perhaps, this would but little affe& the and relations, and confining them in places bold, the impudent, and the vicious poor, extremely disagreeable at best ; where no who (if they cannot have a plentiful allowregard would, or could be had to chcir ance, to 'pend in their own way, not inpait good behaviour.

A deed a very honest one ; which is what all Belides, a poor old person, as his health such creatures covet, out of, and without permies, with his little weekly ailowance, a work-house) do in general little regard may earn somewhat, by picking up stones, where they are placed, provided they are or tuch easy employments. But if he is not killed with work, and have their bela lodged in one of these carties in the air lies well filled. (county work-houses) unused as he is to But how deeply, how ler fibly, how the works there generally carried on, spin- grievousy, would it affc& the honest, the sing or the like ; it is not one nailling, or

B

Bber, and the modeft poor ! For fear of perhaps two, or three, a week, that can being fent thither, they would undergo any maintain him there. All which, besides liardships, rather than apply for relief ; the loss of his work, is lo much lols to and I may affirm with great truth, that the stock of the communiły.

thousands and ten thousands of the better As to the younger fort of poor, thore furt of poor would, by that means, yearthat are burdened with a lick or numerous Ty Burve and perish in the nation. And if family; they are empioyed by the respec. any persons can be lo inhuman as to drive tive parishes to which they bulong, in hur- the poor, our fellow-creatures, and fellow. bandry, or other suitable works ; and, C christians, to such dreadful' alternative, when that is not fufficient, they are other. they must have lost all compation. No wile provided for, in the most frugal and tender mind can really think of so wild judicious manner. Perhaps, Gx-pence a and cruel a project, all the circumstances week to pay a poor family's house-rent, of it considered, without horror. It willz a few additional Milings in case of would indeed keep away the poor, and illness, enables them to live with comfort: leften their number, but it would be by But if you take a man, and lus family, of, Narving of them. In a word, it would perhaps, 4 or 5 children, into one of the be doing a visible evil, that good may

D Sepposed county work-houses ; how much come of it. larger an expence, and consequently how From what has happened in places great an injury will that bc to the commu. where work house corporations, including nity? And in every family so taken, there many parishes, have been set up, these ill would be always several too young to do consequences would inevitably follow : the least work,

For human nature is always and every To which must be added this very ma. where the fame. terial confideration, that the allowance The poor in general would be nasily which the several and respective parishes E kept, and the old and ir.firm, especially, make to their own poor, either in money, over-run with vermin, and very much or in parochial work houfes, is spent again meglected; their great number not admila amongst ebemselves; whereas, according to ting of a better care. the ill-concerted project of county work- They would be pinched every way, and houses, many of the parishes that would a6 much as possible got from them by their be forced to contribute towards their main. inspectors. And the best and moft careful tenance, could not reap the least benefit guardians in the world couid not by any from them,

F

means prevent it, unless they were always But, to proceed to shew what further to live with them, and see them served burdensom and cruel circumstances the with meat, drink, &c. ere&ing of county work-houses would be For, let the most fanguine promoters attended with, both with regard to the of this airy design be assured, that it is ex. poor themselves, and to parishes :

tremely difficult to get honest and suitable To the poor themselves, they would be governors, even of parochial and small cxtremely uncary and vexatious. For, work-houses, much more of larger,or coun. uw grievous must it be to every human ty ones : Where the care and confinement creauie, to be torn, and banished at once, G must be fricter, and the temptations and from the right and comfort of all their opportunities to make great gains, and friends and relations; and to be con. consequently to dishonesty, much greater. rined in a place disagreeable enough in it. Such governors may be good for a little self for the french, the hurry, and the while, or appear so : But the air of those B0112, unavoidable even in mall and paro. places is intectious. Most of those that any real

1751. Of SETTLEMENT's and CERTIFICATES.

551 have come into them with a fair reputa. age, when all publick virtue, and publick tion, have loon been tainted. And, indeed, {pirit, are too much disregarded. done but needy persons would undertake I must add this further observation, that that tatk, and with a view to make a it would not be so easy a matter to get penny of it. For, who that do not employment for the armies of poor conwant it, would take that monstrous and fined in county work-houses, as gentleinexpressible trouble upon themselves ? A men seem to imagine. That point appears new generation therefore must arise, before A to be the least in their thoughts, whicha

or lasting good could be ex- Thould really be one of the chief, In counpected from county work houses, or their ties where manufactures are carried on, keepers.

poffibly some employment might be got With regard to parishes, there is one for these work-houses ; tho' in such places great, or rather intolerable burden, which the work is generally so ill done, and in so I have not yet mentioned, and which coarse and Lovenly a manner, that good need be but just mentioned ; so evident it tradesmen do not care to employ theme is. And that is, the most enormous ex- But in counties where there is no manufac. pence that would be laid upon the whole B eure, or where husbandry is the sole emkingdom, and every diftinct parilla (kere. ployment, what sort of buliness can you in *, for the building of such large edifices, employ them in ?-In picking straws ?-or rather little towns, as would be ne- Ah, say you, we will get a stock, and ret ceffary for the accommodation, and em- them to work. Lut how will you dispose ployment, of several hundreds of poor of their work ?-Moft manufactures arc gathered togeiher. In the account of already overstocked. And any one that which ought to be taken, the dishonesty you could set up, would presently be over. and the various and numberless impofitions c Atocked. So that it would be employing of workmen, usual and almost unavoidable the poor in vain. in all publick works.

As a great deal hath been said by some Perhaps you will say, that great care gentlemen, against the pieient meth d of will be taken by persons of quality and settlements and certificates; it will be fortune t, to prevent all frauds and im- proper to close this paper with a few positions. To which I anfwer, so it will, words upon that subje&t. Upon due conperhaps, for a little while.

A present lideration it will be found, that, instead publick-spirited generation may do so : of opening that door wider, it ought really And, by that means, such a project might D to be made narrower. Let any gentleman potiibly turn to account for a few years. but fi: down cooly, examine the point, But I can safely affirm, it would be but and make proper enquiries about it; and for a very few years. For gentlemen will he will soon be renfible, chat a general lifoon be tired to attend, if no emolument berty for poor persons to wander at plea. follows : And especially, if such atiendance fure, and fix themrelves wherever whim or soo much interferes with their necefiary fupposed conveniency leads them, would business, or diversions, as I afrue then make most of the towns in this kingdom from experience it very much would. In E in!ufierable, and drive away from thence such a care, it would unavoidably happen, al reputable inhabitants, and those of any as it hath done before in work-house cora substance. For, who are those vagrant porations and other large work. houres I: workmen, for whom 100 many mistaken That is, the care of them devolves upon a gentlemen express such an ill-timed and set of interelled, and generally of the unreasonable corcern || ? They are, in gelowest and most despicable, 'vretches; who neral, such whom Their crimes, or ill attend only on purpose to put off their bad belaviour force to fly from their legal ha. wares, at an exorbitant, and a double bitations. Whatever their professions are, price, from what they could honcstly fell F the parishes they belong to would be glad them to comm in cuftumers.

to keep them, if they have any honesty or Things of a publick nature are always ingenuity. And in order to judge, how neglected. What is every body's bufiness, few are necctheated to remove out of their is no body's bulinefs ; at least in this lelish

• See Remarks on the Laws relating to the Poor, p. 43, by wbich it appears, ibaribe faid monftrous expence is to be raised by a tax on the people. Compare Considerations on several proposals lately made for the better maintenance of the poor, by ar ingenicus member of ibe House of Cosins.

+ See tbe of refaid Remarks on the Laws relating to the Poor, p. 71, 72.

I A very remarkable flance of this bappened even in ebe great pasif of St. Lumes's, WiAminfer. Tby bod a work.boufe, wbicb, wbile iaken care of by ibe beller fore of people, fuse ceeded weil ; but at laf it fell into orber bands, and a carpenter, or joiner, among obers, being sbasen overfier, and not obinkiug be bad been gainer enough by bis office, before ibe «xpiratlsa of is, be sent into the work baufe fcurfcope comis, for faturs un

See Reorirks on the Laws relating to the Poor, poli, &c,

own

own parish for the sake of employment, or you want knowledge, and in wanting that, a maintenance, eximine every parish, and

want every thing? Your banishing me, the number will appear extremely (mall * I look upon as a favour, and value your Instead therefore of such a general liberty

threats ro litlle, löat I had rather be acas some plead for, all perfons that come

culed, than applauded by you. In a word, to inhabit in a parish where their legal set

I would chure to be a vagabond all over dement is not, thould bring a certificate

the earth, before I would consent to live with them, and deliver it immediately,

a wealthy, but unknown citizen of Sis.ope.

Farewel, or within a week, to the officers of the A parish, or else be commitred to the house of

The same, to MEGASTHENIS ; cequairting correction. And to render the getting of

bim bow be bantered and converted a Victor, certificates easier, or effcctually to supply

in bis Return from tbe Olympick Games, the place of them, this method Mould be

FTER the games at Olympia were ofed : f poor person, upon his coming A , into a parish without it, thould be taken

when by the way meeting one Cicermus, up and examined upon oath, as is now

a f Pancratian wrestler, who had obpra&ised : A copy of this examination of

tained a victor's crown, and was then bis should be fent, by the post, to the parish which he has sworn his settlement B upon bis return homeward, accompas

nied by a great number of his friends, to be in ; and if the officers of the fame

I taking bim by the hand accosted, and return no answer to it, or do rot make it

thus laid to him, Friend, lay afde all this appear that his settlement is elsewhere, both within a month, then a proper me.

pride, and go modestly home to thine

house, let the occafion of thy so great morandum, or certificate, of the fact,

rejoicing be what it will. But, proceeded hould be figned by two neighbouring,

I, what can be the cause of all this ova. justices : Which, to all intents and purposes, should answer the end of a certina C up ? What is the meaning of this crown

tion? How comeft thou to be thus puffed cate, and be as vald, authentick, and

on thy head, this palm branch in thy binding.

hand, or of all this hair brain'd mob's To be entertaining and infiruclive Letters of following thee? To which he replied, Diogenes, ubick we bave already inserted,

There are all tokens of my success at the (see p. 323, 361, 409, 455.) zvé pall Olympick games, where I have conquered bere edd i be iwe following.

every body. How, quoth 1, what didit The Cynick Philosopher, DIOGENES, Poebe Dthou conquer Jove, and his brothers ?

Not so neither, answered le. I suppose, People of Sinope ; ridiculing tbem for ba.

continued I, you, did not challenge all nishing bim.

that stood about you. No, replied le. OU have banished me, my country. How then, argued I, could you be faid

to conquer all ? I fancy, pursued }, you you may be confined at home ; for «hile had the good luck to have these conquefts you inbabit Sinope, I live at Achens.

alligned you by bot, which others tad You spend your time with none but mer. cenary traders, while I converse daily with E feis; he owned it was.

gained for you ; was it cotro? Can.

Then I proceeda philofophers. You deal in nothing but ed to ask him, whether they were men vile merchandize, while I continually read only who contended at these games. He both men and books. Pity me not then,

answered, No, fume were boys. I warbut rather envy me, in that, being re- rant you made fire work with them, moved from you, I lead a much happier

pursued I. Not at all, quoth he, for life than when I was with you. I then

they were not my march. Did you then wallowed in all kinds of noth ard luxury ;

conquer all that were your match? Yes, I now am obliged to labour for my living : F And were all those that contended wil I then lived at large, but now am con- you men? Yes. And are not you a man ned to rules. What then hinders me likewire ? Undoub'edly. Did you then from commiserating your condition, men

conquer yourself ? No. How then could of Sinope, in that having to great wealth,

you In a parish now under my eye, bere are 63 familie refiding ebtrein with certificates from biber parishes; and yit, upin iboe clolift for ating and examination, it most plainly appears, 1636 not abive 14 of bole families are neceffitated to reside in ebal parif, for ribe sake of bufiness, get employmene from mafiers, by living in absir boufes. Many of them are tbe a left and me Broublelare of people, and set cart.at be removed vid ebey become ebargeable. If ever it fonuld be erated, bar families of poor could festle bemselves in parifhes at pleafure, tbe befi ibirgrbar parifes abounding uib collages or jmal! termenis, opesially in coeurs, I could do, would be to buy 26.ma, and pullibem down ai fi asrbeyculd, ie ibeir own defence: Wbiet God forbid t

7 Ore that wrified and boxed or be fame simi,

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