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650 Arguments against County Work-Houses. Deci lowance comparatively small; but, under chial work houses ; but which would be their circumstances, sufficient. All which quite intolerable in the supposed and imaadvantages would absolutely be loft, by ginary vast county ones ? burrying them away from all their friends Perhaps, this would but little affect the and relations, and confining them in places beld, the impudent, and the vicious poor, extremely disagreeable at best

where no who (if they cannot have a plentiful allowregard would, or could be had to their ance, to 'pend in their own way, not inpait good behaviour.

A deed a very honest one ; which is what all Beldes, a poor old person, as his health such creatures covet, out of, and without permics, with his little weekly allowance, a work-house) do in general little regard may earn somewhai, by picking up stones, where they are placed, provided they are or such easy employments. But if he is not killed with work, and have their bele lodged in one of these castles in the air lies well filled. (county work-houses) unused as he is to But how deeply, how ser fibly, how the works there generally carried on, spin. grievously, would it affect the honest, the sing or the like ; it is not one Milling, or rober, and the modelt poor ! For fear of

B perhaps two, or three, a week, that can being fent thither, they would undergo any mainiain hion there. All which, besides hardships, rather than apply for relief; the loss of his work, is so much loss to and I may affirm with great truth, that the stock of the community.

thousands and ten thousands of the better As to the younger sort of poor, those fort of poor would, by that means, yearChat are burdened with a rick or numerous Ty Barve and perish in the nation. And if family ; they are empioyed by the relpec. any persons can be so inhuman as to drive eive parishes to which they belong, in hul. the poor, our fellow-creatures, and fellow. bandry, or other suitable works ; and, C christians, to such dreadful alternative, when that is not sufficient, they are other. they must have lost all compatton. No wile provided for, in the most frugal and tender mind can really think of so wild judicious manner. Perhaps, six-pence a and cruel a project, all the circumstances week to pay a poor family's house-rent, of it considered, without horror. It with a few additional shilings in case of would indeed keep away the poor, and illness, enables them to live with comfort: leffen their number, but it would be by But if you take a man, and lus family, of, Narving of them. In a word, it would perhaps, 4 or 5 children, into one of the be doing a visible cvil, that good may

D fupposed county work-houses ; how much come of it. larger an expence, and consequently how From what has happened in places great an injury will that be to the commu. where work house corporations, including mity? And in every family so taken, there

many parime have been set up, these ill would be always several too young to do consequences would inevitably follow : the least work,

For human nature is always and every To which must be added this very ma- where the fame. terial confideration, that the allowance The poor in general would be naftily which the several and respective parishes E kept, and the old and ir firm, especially, make to their own poor, either in money, over-run with vermin, and very much or in parochial work houfes, is spent again neglected ; their great number not admite amongst ebemselves; whereas, according to ting of a better care. the ill-concerted project of county work- They would be pinched every way, and houses, many of the parishes that would 26 much as possible got from them by their be forced to contribute towards their main. inspectors. And the best and most careful tenance, could not reap the least benefit guardians in the world could not by any from them.

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means prevent it, unless they were always But, 10 proceed to shew what further to live with them, and see them served burdensom and cruel circumstances the with meat, drink, &c. creding of county work-houses would be For, let the most sanguine promoters attended with, both with regard to the of this airy delign be assured, that it is ex. poor themselves, and to parishes :

tremely difficult to get honest and suitable To the poor themselves, they would be governors, even of parochial and small extremely uncary and vexatious. For, work-houses, much more of larger,or counhuw grievous muft it be to every human ty ones : Where the care and confinement creature, to be torn, and banished at once, G must be stricter, and the temptations and from the right and comfort of all their opportunities to make great gains, and friends and relations ; and to be con- consequently to dishonefly, much greater. roed in a place disagreeable enough in it. Such governors may be good for a little self for the french, the hurry, and the while, or appear so : But the air of those Boile, unavoidable even in Imall and paro. places is infectious. Mof of those that any real

1751. Of SETTLEMENTS and CERTIFICATES.

551 have come into them with a fair reputa. age, when all publick virtue, and publick tion, have loon been tainted, And, indeed, {pirit, are too much disregarded. aone but needy persons would undertake I must add this further observation, that that tatk, and wich a view to make a it would not be so ealy a matter to get penny of it.

For, who that do not employment for the armies of poor conwant it, would take that monstrous and fined in county work-houses, as gentleinexpressible trouble upon themselves ? A men seem to imagine. That point appears new generation therefore must arise, before A to be the least in their thoughts, which

or lafting good could be ex- should really be one of the chief. In coun. pected from county work houses, or their ties where manufactures are carried on, keepers.

poffibly some employment might be got With regard to parithes, there is one for these work-houses ; tho' in such places great, or rather intolerable burden, which the work is generally so ill done, and in so I have not yet mentioned, and which coarse and flovenly a manner, that good need be but just mentioned ; so evident it tradesmen do not care to employ them. is. And that is, the most enormous ex.

But in counties where there is no manufac. pence that would be laid upon the whole B ture, or where husbandry is the sole em kingdom, and every diftinct parilt there- ployment, what sort of business can you in *, for the building of such large edifices, employ them in ?--In picking straws ?-or rather little towns, as would be ne- Ah, say you, we will get a stock, and rec ceffary for the accommodation, and em- them to work. But how will you dispose ployment, of several hundreds of poor of their work ?-Most manufactures are gathered together. In the account of already overstocked. And any one that which ought to be taken, the dishonesty you could set up, would presently be overand the various and numberless impofitions c stocked. So that it would be employing of workmen, usual and almost unavoidable the poor in vain. in all publick works,

As a great deal hath been faid by some Perhaps you will say, that great care gentlemen, against the pielent meth d of will be taken by persons of quality and settlements and certificates ; it will be fortune t, to prevent all frauds and im- proper to close this paper with a few positions. To which I anfwer, so it will, words upon that subje&t. Upon due con perhaps, for a little while.

A present fideration it will be found, that, instead publick-spirited generation may do so : of opening that door wider, it ought really And, by that means, such a project might D to be made narrower. Let any gentleman polibiy turn to account for a few years. but sit down cooly, examine the point, But I can safely affirm, it would be but and make proper enquiries about it; and for a very few years. For gentlemen will he will soon be sensible, that a general lifoon be tired to attend, if no emolument berty for poor perfons to wander al pleac follows: And especially, if such attendance fure, and fix themselves wherever whim or 800 much interferes with their neceffary fupposed conveniency leads them, would business, or diversions, as I alwe them make most of the towns in this kingdom from experience very much would. In E in!utierable, and drive away from thence such a case, it would unavoidably happen, a) reputable inhabitants, and those of any as ic hath done before in work-houle cor- substance. For, who are those vagrant porations and other large work-houres I: workmen, for whom 100 many mistaken That is, the care of them dovolves upon a gentlemen express such an ill-timed and set of interested, and generally of the unreasonable cor,cern 1? They are, in gelowest and most despicable, wretches; who neral, such whom Their crimes, or ill attend only on purjole to put off their bad behaviour force to Ay from their legal ha. wares, at an exorbitant, and a double bications. Whatever their professions are, price, from what they c-uld honestly sell F the parimes they belong to would be glad them to common cuftumers.

to keep them, if they have any honesty or Things of a publick nature are always ingenuity. And in order to judge, how neglected. What is every body's business, few are neceificated to remove out of their is no body's bulinels ; at least in this selanh

. See Remarks on the Laws relating to the Poor, p. 43, by tubicb it appears, ebaribe faid monftrous expence is to be raised by a tax on the people. Compare Confiderations on several proposals lately made for the better maintenance of the poor, by an ingerieus member of sbe House of Commons

it Sicibe afursfaid Remarks on the Laws relating to the Poor, p. 71, 72. | A very remarkable infiance of this bappened even in i be great parish of St. James's, Wifimimfter. Tboy bad a work-boule, wbicb, bile taken care of by be better fort of people, fute cerded well ; buc ai lof it fell into obor bands, and a carpenter, or joiner, among orbers, being sbasen overfcer, and not obinkiug be bad been goiner enougb by bis office, before the expiratha of ii, be sent into até swork baule fcurfcare commons, for future wojen

See Remarks on the Laws selating to the Poor, P 11, &c.

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Dec, own parish for the sake of employment, or you want knowledge, and in wanting ihat, a maintenance, examine every parim, and want every thing? Your banilhing me, the number will appear extremely (mail * I look upon as a favour, and value your Instead therefore of such a general liberty

threats so little, that I had rather be acas some plead for, all perfons that come culed, than applauded by you. In a word, to inhabit in a parish where their legal let.

I would chure to be a vagabond all cver tement is not, Mhould bring a certificate the earth, before I would consent to live with them, and deliver it immediately,

a wealthy, but unknown citizen of Sirope.

Farewel. or within a week, to the officers of the

А parish, or else be commitred to the house of

MEGASTAEXIS ; cequainting correction. And to render the getting of

bim bow be bantered and converted a Victor, certificates easier, or effcctually to supply

in bis Return from the Olympick Games, the place of them, this method should be ofed : 1. poor person, upon his coming

FTER the games at Olympia were into a parish without it, should be taken

over, I determined to go thither ; up and examined upon oath, as is now

when by the way meeting one Cicermus,

a f Pancratian wrestier, who had obpracised : A copy of this examination of

tained a victor's crown, and was then bis should be fent, by the post, to the parith which he has sworn his settlement B upon bis return homeward, accompas

nied by a great number of his friends, to be in ; and if the officers of the fame

I taking him by the hand accosted, and return no answer to it, or do not make it

thus taid to him, Friend, lay aide all this appear that his settlement is elsewhere, both within a month, then a proper me.

pride, and go modestly home to thine

house, let the occasion of thy so great morandum, or certificate, of the fact,

rejoicing be what it will. But, proceeded Mould be figned by two neighbouring,

I, what can be the cause of all this ova. justices: Which, to all intents and purposes, should answer the end of a certif: C op ? What is the meaning of this crown

tion? How comeft thou to be thus puffed cate, and be as valid, authentick, and

thy head, this palm branch in thy binding.

hand, or of all this hair brain'd mob's To be entertaining and infruflive Letters of following thee? To which he replied, Diogenes, which we bave already inserted,

There are all tokens of my success at the (see p. 323, 361, 409, 455.) zvé fhall Olympick games, where I have conquered bere edd i be iwe following.

every body. How, quoth I, what didit The Cynick Philosopher, DIOGENES, potke D thou conquer Jove, ar.d his brothers ?

Not so neither, answered he. I suppose, People of Sinope ; ridiculing tbem for ba.

continued I, you, did not challenge all mihing kim.

that food about you. No, replied he. OU have banished me, my country. How then, argued I, could you be said

to conquer all ? I fancy, pursued I, you you may be confined at home ; for while

had the good luck to have these conquefis you inbabit Sinope, I live at Athens.

atligned you by lot, which others tad You spend your time with none but mer.

gained for you; was it rot lo ? Con. cenary traders, while I converse daily with E leís ; he owned it was. Then I proceeds philosophers. You deal in nothing but od to ask him, whether they were men vile merchandize, wlule I continually read only who contended at these games. He both men and books. Pity me not then, answered, No, fume were boys. I war. but rather envy me, in that, being re- rant you made fire work with them, moved from you, I lead a much happier

pursued I. Not ai all, quoth he, for life than when I was with you. I then

they were not my march. Did you then wallowed in all kinds of both ard luxury ;

conquer all that were your match? l'es, I now am obliged to labour for my living : F And were all those that contended wide I then lived at large, but now am con- you men? Yes. And are not you a man fined to rulcs. What then hinders me likewise ? Undoub'edly. Did you then from commiserating your condition, men conquer yourself ? No. How then could of Sinope, in that having to great wealth,

you • In a parish now under my eye, bere are 63 familiet residing eberein wirb certificates frors uber parishes; ond ytt, upon the closifi forsting and examination, it mofl plainly appears, 1636 n01 abive 14 of bufe families are necefsitated to repide in <but parish, for rbe sake of bufiness, so get employment from masters, by living in sboir boufes. Many of them are rbo aileft and me troubleline of people, and set corret be removed vill ebey become sbargeable. If cont it frould be ca9d, rbat formalises of poor could seek themselves in parifres et pleasure, the best thing iba pa. Tip:s (abourdinę usb citrages or small cer menes, especialiy in roeurs, I could do, would be so buy 16.97, and pullibem down ai fill os obey cauld, in ibeir own defesse: Wbic God furbid ?

7 Ore tbat wrified and Loxed ai ! bfame timi.

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1751.
.
Preamble to Lord COLERANE's Will.

553 you be said to conquer every body, when according to my fortune.

And latly, you yourself have escaped ? But, proceed- about the beginning of April, 1740, I em-' ed i, tell me, prithee, were thore you ployed James West, Esq; of Lincoln's Inn, got the victory over your equals or inferiors? (who seemed to think her not averse to a My equals. If they were equal to you, reconciliation) to offer the like ample and how came you to conquer them? No, they honourable terms to the said Anne, lady were my inferiors. If so, why were you Colerane, in order to prevait on her (if not alamed to contend with them? Cease, A not determined to perfift in a constant Cicermus, to boast any further of con- violation of her marriage vow) to come quests of this nature, pursued I, and rather and live with me, govern my family, and Atrive to put-do all men in virtue, and a partake in the enjoyment of my income. good life. The victories of the mind are And to this I was not led by the lucre of thać ever the most glorious, wliereby you shall ample provision her father had left her, nor assuredly live happy, and after a long deterred from it by the obvious apprebenseries of days die so. This laid, my Pan- fons of the evils or inconveniences, that cratian began to relent, and after some few might follow on taking into my borom a more documents bestowed on him, threw B

perfon, that for so many years had en. away his crown and palm-branch, and cou aged and habituated herself to a most vowed never to contend at the Olympick obftinate, tho' undeserved hatred and congames inore, Farewel.

tempt of me.

But when the said James

Welt, E?q; (as I have it under his own Preamble to be late Lord COLERANE'S

hand) sent to alk leave to offer ample terms Will. (See bis Death in our Mag. for

of reconciliation from me, she returned 1749, p. 385.)

him word, that she had no aoswer to give N the name of God, Amen. I Henry C to such proposals, or to that effect. All Hare, Esq; baron of Colerane in the

which proceedings of the said lady Colerane kingdom of Ireland, being in a sound ftate

being well known and maturely weighed of mind, and having deliberately confidered, to and by Mrs. Rose du Plessis, spinster, how I may mort justly, gratefully, and pru. and mysell, we two did, on the 29th of dently dispose of the worldly goods, with April, in the year last abovenamed, which the divine providence has intrusted

in the presence of God, enter into a me, do make my last will and testament

folemn mutual engagement to take eachi in manner following; that is to say, First

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other for husband and wife, and perform and principally, I refign my soul to my to each other the negative and positive heavenly Father, humbly beseeching him, duties of that relation (endeavouring to that it being washed from its many fins give as little offence as we may, by our and pollutions in the blood of my Saviour living together in the life-time of the said Jesus Chrift, it may be accepted to mercy. lady Colerane.) In consequence whereof, And whereas it has been my heavy afflic. The, the said Rose, whom I esteem as my Cion, that Anne, lady Colerane, whom I only true and virtuous wife, brought me married with an affectionate and upright a daughter on the 12th day of September, heart, did, in the 3d year of our marriage, E 1745, whom I have named Henrietta Rosa about O&tober, 1720, without any just Peregrina. cause or provocation by me given, but with His lord

bip then devises bis effare to bis the encouragernent of selfish, mifinformed, said daugbier, in case the lives so arrain and ill- difpored persons, in violation of

ibe age of 21 years ; and by bis faid will, her part of the folemn and mutual covenant, confirmed by 4 codici's, be bas devised, in sale which we entered into at our marriage, of bis daug brer's deatb, bis wbole esate between utterly forsake my bed and house. And bis two neices and beir beirs, cbarged only whereas, from ther.ce forward unto the F with tbe payment of lady Colerane's jointure of year 1740, I did, by letter and message, at 1000l. a year, and of an annuity of 4001, a Tundry times, and on all the most proper oc- gear in the infani's morber for ber life, in case cafions, solicit my raid wife to return to her

fore comiisi

niisweswnmarried, and of 500l. a year for duty, and cohabit with me again, accord. ber life generally. ing to the solemn engagement made between us at our marriage, which on my Having formerly given our Readers the jpart I was ever disposed to keep and perform, Marquis of Halifax's Cbarafter of K. and for that end had for fo many years

CHARLES II. under tbe Articles of bio denied my felí all the comforts of a married G Religion, Dilimulatior, Conduftro bis Mic life, tho' very agreeable to my temper and

riflers, bis Amours, Miftreffes, &c. bis constitution ; and in my raid overtures, I

Wir and Conversarios ; we fall now add folemnly and sincerely offered to cancel all the Conclufion, wbicb is as follows. part offences, and receive, entertain, and FTER all this, (fsys the marquis) support her in a proper and ample manner,

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when some rough strokes of the penDecember, 1751.

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cid * Soc Lond. Mag. for 1750, p. 323, 164, 210, 375, 534.

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554

Reinarks on the Character of K. CHARLES II. Dec. cil have made several parts of the picture in his own defence, might the better have look a little hard, it is a justice that would the privilege sometimes to be the aggreffor, be due to every man, much more to a and to deal with men at their own wea. prince, to make some amends, and to re

pon. concile men as much as may be to it by the Subje&s are apt to be as arbitrary in their last finishing.

censure, as the most assuming kings can be He had as good a claim to a kind inter.

in their power. If there might be matter pretation as most men: First as a prince ; A for objections, there is not less reason for living and dead, generous and well-bred excuses ; the defects laid to his charge, men will be gentle to them ; next, as an are such as may claim indulgence from unfortunate prince in the beginning of his mankind. time, and a gentle one in the rest.

Should nobody throw a stone at his A prince neither Marpened by his mil. faults but there who are free from them, fortunes whilft abroad, nor by his power there would be but a Nender Mower. when restored, is such a shining character, What private man will throw stones at that it is a reproach not to be lo dazzled him because he loved? Or what prince, with it, as not to be able to see a fault in B because he diljembled ? its full light. It would be a scandal in If he either trusted, or forgave his enethis case to have an exact memory. And mies, or in some cases neglected his if ali who are akin to his vices, should friends, more than could in Krietness be mourn for him, never prince would be allowed ; let not those errors be so ar. better attended to his grave. He is under raigned, as to take away the privilege that the protection of common frailty, that (ecmeth to be due to princely frailties. If must engage men for their own fakes not princes are under the misfortune of being to be too revere, where they themselves C accused to.govern ill, their subjects have have so much to answer.

the less right to fall hard upon them, fince If he had sometimes less firmness than they generally so little deserve to be governmight have been wished ; let the kindest ed well. reason be given, and if that should be

The truth is, the calling of a king, with wanting, the best excuse. I would assign all its glittering, hath such an unreasonable the cause of it to be his loving at any rate weight upon it, that they may rather ex. to be easy, and his deserving the more to pect to be lamented, than to be envied, be indulged in it, by his detiring that eve.

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for being set upon a pioacle, where they ry body else should be fo.

are exposed to censure, if they do not do If he sometimes let a servant fall, let it

more to answer mens expectations, than be examined whether he did not weigh so corrupted nature will allow. much upon his master, as to give him a It is but justice therefore to this prince, fair excuse. That yieldingness, whatever to give all due sostenings to the less thining foundations it might lay to the disadvan. parts of his life ; to offer flowers and tage of pofterity, was a specifick to pre. lea es to hide, instead of using aggravati. ferve us in peace for his own time. It he ons to expose them. loved too much to lie upon his own down. E Let his royal ashes then lie rost upon bed of ease, his subjects had the pleasure, him, and cover him from harsh and unduring his reign, of lolling and stretching kind censures ; which, tho' they thould upon theirs. As a sword is sooner broke not be unjust, can never clear themselves upon a feather. bed than upon a table, ro from being indecent. his plieniness broke the blow of a present mischier' much better than a more imme. Tbe following Story, from ebe Rambler of diate resistance would perhaps have done. Dec. 10, may be of Use to our Lottery Ruin saw this, and therefore removed

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Adventurers, and may serve to caution hion first, to make way for further over- orbers against be like Isfatuation, turnings. If he diffembled ; let us remember,

SERVED an appenticeship to a linen. I

drafer, with uncommon reputation first, that he was a king, and that dllfi. for diligence and fidelity, and at the age of mulation is a jewel of the crown ; next, 23 opened a thop for myfelf, with a large that it is very hard for a man not to do stock, and such credit, that I could com. fometimes too much of that, which he mand whatever was imported curious or concludeth ncceffary for him to practise. valuable. For five years I proceeded with Men should consider, that as there would G success proportionate to close application be no false dice, if there were no crue and untainled integrity, so that I was pro. ones, so if diffembling is grown universal, verbially marked out as the model of young it cearein to be i ul play, having an im- traders. plied allowance by the general practice. But in this course of even prosperity, I He that was so often forced to dillemble was ont day persuaded to buy a ticket in

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