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1751. A Lesson for LOTTERY ADVENTURERS.
555 the lottery. The sum was inconsiderable, the of conjecture, and the inefficacy of compu. greater part was to be repaid, tho' fortune tation, I resolved to take the prize by viomight fail to favour me, and therefore my lence, and therefore bought 40 tickets, establiched maxims of frugality did not not omitting, however, io divide them restrain me from lo triding an experiment. between the even and odd numbers, that I The cicket lay almost forgotten till the might not miss the lucky class. Many contime at which every man's fare wai to be de. clusions did I form, and many experiments termined, nor did the affair even thea seem A did I try, to determine from which of those of any importance, till I discovered by the tickets I might reasonably expe&t affluence. publick papers, that the ticket next in num- At last, being unable to satisfy myself by ber to mine had conferred the great prize. any modes of reasoning, I wrote the num
My heart leaped at the thought of such bers upon dice, and allotted 5 hours every an approach to sudden riches, which I day to the amusement of throwing them considered myself, however contrarily to in a garret, and, examining the event by the laws of computation, as having missed an exact register, I found, on the evening by a single chance, and could not forbear before the Jottery was drawn, that one
B to entertain myself with the consequences, of my numbers had been turned up 5 which such a bounteous allotment would times more than any of the rest in 330,000 have produced, if it had happenned to my- throws. self. This dream of felicity, by degrees, This experiment was fallacious; the first took possession of my imagination. The day presented the hopeful ticket, a detestgreat delight of my folitary hours was to able blank. The rest came out with dif. purchase an estate, and form plantations ferent fortune, and in conclusion, I lyst 30. with money which once might have been by this great adventure, mine, and I never met my friends but IC I had now wholly changed the cast of spoiled all their merriment by perpetual my behaviour and the conduct of my life. complaints of my ill luck.
The top was for the most part abandoned Ai length, another lottery was opened, to my servants, and, if I entered it, my and I had now so heated my imagination thoughts were so engrossed by my tickets, with the prospe&t of a prize, that I mould that I scarcely heard or answered a question, have pressed among the first purchasers, but considered every customer as an inhad not my ardour been witheld by deli- truder upon my meditations, whom I was beration upon the probability of success-d in hafte to dispatch. I mistook the price from one ticket rather than another. I of my goods, committed blunders in my hesitated long between even and odd, con. bills, forgot to file my receipts, and neglidered all the square and cubick numbers lected to regulate my books. My aco in the lottery, examined all those to which quaintances, by degrees, began to fall good luck had been hitherto annexed, and away, but I perceived the decline of my ac last fixed upon one, which, by some business with little emotion, because, what. secret relation to the events of my life, ever deficiency there might be in my gains, I thought predestined to make me happy. I expected the next lottery to supply. Delay ingreat affairs is often mischievous ; E Miscarriage naturally produces diffi. the ticket was sold, and its potītsfor could dence ; I began now to seek affisance not be found.
against ill luck, by an alliance with those I returned to my conje&ures, and after that had been more successful. I enquired many arts of prognostication, fixed upon diligently, at what office any prize had another chance, but with less confidence. been sold, that I might purchase of a pro.. Never did captive, htir, or lover feel ro pitious vender ; solicited thosc who had much vexation from the now pace of time, been fortunate in former lotteries, to as I suffered between the purchase of my f partake with me in my new tickets, and, ticket and the distribution of the prizes. whenever I met with any one that had, I solaced myself, however, as I could, by in any event of his life, been eminently frequent contemplations of approaching prosperous, I invited him to take a larger happiness. At jaft the day came, my
or smaller share. I had, by this rule of ticket appeared, and rewarded all my care conduct, so diffused my interest, that I and sagacity with a despicable prize of gol. had a 4th part of 15 tickets, an 8th of 40, My friends, who congratulated me upon
and a 16th of go. my success, were very coldly received ; I I waited for the decifion of my fate with hid myself a fortnight in the country, that G my former palpitations, and looked epon my chagrin might fume away without the business of my trade with the usual observation, and then returned to my Mop, negle&t. The wheel at last was turned, and began to listen after another lottery, and its revolutions brought me a long luce
With the news of a lottery I was soon ceffion of sorrows and disappointments, gratified, and having now found the vanity 1, indeed, often partook of a small prize,
4 A a
556 Prince of Orange's Scheme for improving Trade. Dec. and the loss of one day was generally ba-, of the people of this country, we hope, lanced by the gain of the next ; but my the following extracts will be agreeable to defores yet remained unsatisfied, and, when our readers, one of my chances had failed, all my ex. His serene highness obferves, that the pectation was suspended on those which first establishment of trade in that repuba temained yet undetermined. At last a lick, was owing to three sorts of caufes, prize of goool, was proclaimed, I caught viz. fuch as were natural and phyfical, or fire at the cry, and enquiring the number, A moral and political, or adventitious and found it to be one of my own tickets, which external. We Thall take no notice of I had divided among those on whose luck I what he says of the first and last of these depended, and of which I had re:ained three sorts of caules; but as to the second, only a 16th part.
he describes them thus : You will easily judge, with what de. “ Amongst the moral and political teftation of himself, a man, thus intent causes are to be placed : The unalterable upon gain, reflected that he had cold a maxim and fundamental law, relating to prize, which was once in his pofletion. the free exercise of different religions ; and It was to no purpose, that I represented B always to confider this roleration and con to myself, the impollibility of recalling the nivance, as the most effectuat means to past, or the fally of condemning an act, draw foreigners from adjacent countries to which only its event, an event which no settle and refide here, and so become in-' human intelligence could foresce, proved strumental to the peopling of these pro. to be wrong The prize, which, tho' vinces. put into my hands, had been suffered to The constant policy of the republick, to Tip from me, filled me with anguinh, and make this country a perpetual, safe, and knowing that complaint would only ex- C secure asylum, for all persecuted and oppole me to ridicule, I gave myself up filent- preffed strangers, no alliance, no treały, ly to grief, and lot by degrees my appetite
no regard for, or sollicitation from any poand my reit.
tentate whatever, has at any time been a. My indisposition soon became vigible ; I ble to weaken or destroy ; or make the was visited by my friends, and among ftate recede from prote&ting those who them by Eumathes a clergyman, whore have filed to it for their own security and piety and learning gave him such an af. self-preservation. cendant over me, that I could not refuse Throughout the whole course of all the to open my heart. There are, said he, D persecutions and oppreffions, that have few minds sufficiently firm to be trusted in occurred in other countries, the steady ad. the hands of chance. Whoever finds him. herence of the republick to this fundamenself inclined to anticipate futurity and exalt tal law, has been the cause, that many possibility to certainty, rould avoid every people have not only fled hither for refuge, kind of casual adventure, lince his grief
with their whole stock in ready cash, and must be always proportionate to his hope. their most valuable effe&s, but have also You have long waited that time, which settled and established many trades, fa. by a proper application, would have cer. E bricks, manufactures, arts and sciences in Cainly, cho' moderately encreased your this country ; notwithstanding the fift fortune, in a laborious and anxious pursuit
materials for the said fabricks and manu. of gain, which no labour or anziety, no
factures were almost wholly wanting in it, art or expedient can secure' or promote. and not to be procured but at a great exYou are now fietting away your life in pence from foreign parts. repentance of an act, against which repen. The constitution of our form of governa tance can give no caution. Rouse at laft ment, and the liberty from thence accrufrom this lazy dream of fortuitous riches: f which the growth of trade, and its esta
ing to the citizens, are further reasons, to which, if you had obtained them, you could scarcely have enjoyed, because they blinment in the republick, may fairly be could confer no consciousness of desert; attributed : And all her policy and laws return to racional and manly industry, and are put on such an equitable footing, that conlider that which is the mere gust of neither life, estates, or dignities depend on luck, as below the care of a wise man. the caprice, or arbitrary power of any fino
gle individual ; nor is there room for any Extracts from ibe Scbeme laid before the
person, who by care, frugality, and dili. STATES GENERAL of the United Pro. Ggence, has once acquired an affluent forvinces by sbe late Prince of ORANGE, a
tune, or efale. to fear a deprivation of liecle before bis Dearb, for refto ing and
them, by any act of violence, oppression, improving the Trade of ibar Republick.
or injustice. LTH O' this scheme chiefly relates to The administration of justice in this
country, has in like manner always been veral things in it that deserve the attention
1751. Prince of Orange's Scheme for improving Trade.
557 clear and impartial, and without distincti.
which is advantageous to the republick, 10 on of fuperior or inferior rank ; whether
far as relates to navigation, he might, the parties have been rich or poor, or even with friet justice, affirm, that the same this a foreigner, and that a native : And confifts alone in buying, and afterwards it were greatly to be withed, we could at exporting, of imported foreign goods and this day boast of such impartial quickness merchandize. It is this trade, therefore, and dispatch in all our legal processes, con. which must be always had in view ; counfidering how great an influence it hath on A tenanced, facilitated, and promoted, by trade.
all methods of relief, favour, and encou. To sum up all, amongst the moral and ragement." political causes of the former flourishing And after Chewing that their trade is di. ftate of trade, may be likewise placed : minished, he adds The wisdom and prudence of the admini. “ We have already taken notice of, and Aration; the intrepid firmness of the coun. placed at the head of all the causes, that cils ; the faithfulness with which treaties have co-operated to the prejudice and dir. and engagements were wont to be fulfilled couragement of trade, the oppreffive taxes, and ratified; and particularly the care and B which have, under divers denominations, caution practifed to preserve tranquillity been imposed on trade; such as those calland peace, and to decline, instead of on- ed convoy and licent, additional laft and tering on a scene of war, merely to grati. fale money, the premium, duties, weigh. fy the ambitious views of gaining fruitless ing. money, &c. and it may juftly be said, or imaginary conquests.
that it can be only attributed to these taxBy these moral and political maxims, es, that the trade of this country has been was the glory and reputation of the repub
diverted out of its channel, and transferred Jick so far (pread ; and foreigners animat- C to our neighbours, and must daily be fill ed to place so great a confidence on the more and more alienated and thut out from steady determinations of a state so wisely us, unless the progress thereof be stopt by and lo prudently conducted ; that a con
fome quick and effectual remedy : Nor is course of them stocked this country with
it difficult to see, from these contemplati. an augmentation of inhabitants, and use. ons on the state of our trade, that the ful hands; whereby its trade and opulence
same can be effected by no other means were constantly from time to time increai.
than a diminution of all duties." ed."
When he comes to consider the methods
D He afterwards points out some of the by which their trade may be restored, he causes of the late decay of their trade, and
begins thus : concludes this subject as follows :
“ If but one point was herein to be “ Having thus briefly pointed out, what confidered, namely, what are the most were the causes and the means of establilh. proper methods to re.establish trade in ge. ing the trade in this republick ; of pro.
neral, without having regard at the same moting and raising it heretofore to ro high time, to other concerns ; the remedy a pitch of grandeur ; and having also would be soon found, by only introducing Thewn which of these causes have fince E a general free port, and reducing as many ceased, and brought about the diminution taxes as possible, whereby this affair would and falling off of our trade; we thall, in be effectually compleated. order to come nearer to the point, proceed
But there seems to be a condition, over to examine its present state : And the con. and above, not to be gainlayed or withclufion that may be drawn from thence, is; stood ; which is, that the usual revenue that the promoting the same, can only be to the colleges of the admiralty, whereof effected by a lowering of the duties, on a they fand so much in need to defray their well.concerted plan, fupported by reason f charges, must be preserved at all events. and experience."
And, on the other hand, it is incumbent After taking notice of the advantage on us to prevent the lowering of the duri. Holland reaped by the last war, he ob- es on the importation of goods, from be. serves thus :
coming any prejudice to the products, ma. “ It may not be amiss, however, to re. nufactures, and fabricks of the country, mark, how much the welfare and prospe. our East and West India colonies, fisheries, rity of the republick is advanced ; and to what a flourishing and happy crifis the And upon this head he states and an. means for the fupport of her inhabitants G fwers wo questions, as follows: are brought, from an encouragement given 1. " What goods ought principally to to the transporting of foreign goods and have the benefit of such a diminution ; and merchandize through these provinces, as what rules, in relation thereto, will be prowas the case during those wars. And in per to be observed, ort, is one would define the trade,
Mischiefs of AMBITION. Dec. 2. Wherein it must confit, and in to this sort of trade, one may promise one's what proportion it must be settled.
felf great fuccess from the diminution fo As to the first question, on what goods detired. the lowering and abatement of publick Finally, we should refled on such foreign duties should principally fall ; it has been goods, which being admitted not prejudi. observed, that principally all foreign goods, cial to our fabricks, yet, as they are prinwhich are not only brought and consumed cipally consumed in the country, tould on in our country, but also taken off our A importation pay fome duties, in order to hands by foreigners, thould enjoy this be
make the loss of the admiralties as small netit: For to put our merchants in a
as poffible. condition, to trade on an equal footing As to the second question, how far the with their neighbours, at foreign markets, fame ought to take place on such goods, a the carrying of goods through, and traf. few words will fuffice to thew; and we ficking in this country, should be made need only remark, the more these are re. as cheap and easy as can poffibly be con- lieved, the greater will be the success of the trived.
diminution. of these goods a preference should be B Having thus established fome principles given to all the prime materials, that are concerning what goods Mould enjoy the be. Terviceable in our fabricks, manufactures, nefit of a free port coming in and going handicrafts, &c. as allo the ingredients out; we may now proceed to fuch, as, necessary in the said handicrafts, manu. by their importation, are prejudicial to our factures, and fabricks. By lucht measures, faid fabricks, manufactures, and trandi. our fabricks, manufactures, and handi. Crafts ; and to the products of our country, Crafts, would be encouraged on the famo colonies, and fisheries, footing as our general trade, and no cause C As to all these last mentioned goods, it of dispute given between those pretended is agreed, that they ought, on importation, jarring interests.
not only to remain taxed; but, fo far as they All foreign goods and merchandizes, tend to luxury, to superfivities, and to use, that come here to be fifted and afforted, are thereby prejudicial to our faid fabricks, and afterwards again exported, ought like. manufactures, &c. therefore should be as wise to enjoy the beneót of this diminution heavily charged as possible ; with proper and abatement ; for these are an induce. regard, however, to our treaties; as allo, ment to the industrious trader to exercise his talents , in secting them to work :
that by too heavy impofts, we do not in. D
volve ourselves in those difficulties, of And were it requisite to enumerate in this which the list of the year 1725 produces article, all the advantages that trade reaps many instances, which have had this effect, from those assortments, even under the that the colleges of the admiralties would present heavy taxes ; we should find, that have raised and received more, had they the falling off of our trade, has thereby, in asked less ; a confideration, which ought some measure, been stopt. But when
peo- to be well remembered when we set about ple in foreign parts set about the same, a reformation of their revenues." as it is already perceived they do, it will E And he concludes with a particular ex. be then too late to guard against, or to pre. planation and examination of his scheme, vent it.
io which he annexes, 1. A lift of goods Neither can such goods, as are not which ought not to be loaded with any worked, manufactured, or sorted here ; duties on importation. 2. A list of such but re-exported in the same condition, as ought to pay some small duties, and as they were imported, be excluded from have a drawback ; and 3. A lift of fuch as this advantage, without prejudice to trade ought not to be allowed to be imported, in genera! ; for these goods, when there is f and such as ought not to be allowed to be a superfluity of them, furnith the merchants
exporied. with an opportunity to make magazines of them in this country.
To ebe A UTHOR, &c. The advantages arising from hence, and which have only relation to trade, are
SIR, the'c :
and happens, foreigners can buy these goods happy ; but the runthine is loon eclipsed, of us, at a lower price, than at the places G when ambition rushes like a lempeft o'er where they are produced ; not to mention the land ; darkening the prospect, and obmany other advantages accruing therefrom fcuring the beams of heaven.descended to this country ; and considering, that the liberty. What desolations follow in her plenty of money to be found here above steps ! what havock does the scatter in her other places, and the low interest it bears course, while learning and virtue hang in comparison to other countries, contribute
1751. Character and Fate of SEJANU S. 559 their deje&ted heads! History is full of the quitous crimes, the most barbarous tyranfatal effects of this dangerous vice ; few nics, and heaviest oppreffions, he was sudkingdoms have escaped her thocks, but denly plucked from his aspiring height, perhaps the ruled as strongly in the and given up to a death both ignominious breast of Tiberius's favourite Sejanus, or and dreadful ; molt historians agree, that (to use a modern phrase) his prime mini- the incensed people anticipated the publick iter, as many other of her proselytes; him, executioners, and tore him into a thousand as mon conspicuous, have I chosen for the A pieces. Ex co nibil superfuit quod carnifex subject of a letter to you, who are always“ traberet, Sen. And Juvenal says, it was attentive to the publick good.
in every body's mouth, Nunquam, fi quis To fatter a man in power, to praise mibi credil, muvi bunc bominem, “ Nobo. his words, approve his deeds, and pro- by can ever say he was my friend." Semote his defires, are certain steps to janus seems (lays the author of the above his favour, and almost secure his eiteem, play, in his preface) to have been marked Of the truth of this doctrine Sejanus was out by Providence, as an example to fu. fully apprized ; he was a man of good turity, of that justice which will at one address, great natural abilities, and ad. B time or other overtake the great bad man, mirable policy, which led him to study who uses his power to oppress or to curtail the humour and inclinations of his maa the liberties of his country. This reflecser : To whom, by encouraging his fol. tion is very just, the subject should live lies, and applauding his weakneses, he continually in the mind not only of a became so dear, as to obtain his entire king, but of his minifters : The one will confidence ; there was no secret hidden thence be taught how careful he should be from him, nothing done without his ad. in trufting his power too far out of his vice, and the most important transactions Cown hands, the other to avoid the shoals of the state were committed to bis care. on which Sejanus (plit, and that misused The emperor, absorpt in pleasures, dele. favours are followed by destruction. gated to him almost wholly his power, Truly happy is the prince, in whose which he used to the most destructive ends, court honest men are to be found, co the betraying of his master, the ruining his whom he may intrust the management of fellow subjects, and ensaving his country. his revenues, on which depends the honour
The throne was the point which Sejanus of his designs, the majesty of his crown, had in view, to level his way to which, D and the tranquillity of his fate. That the most impious and atrocious methods such my be always found at the head of were pursued. The ancient liberty of the the British state, is a with, in which I am republick was, by degrees, totally destroya certain you will join, ed. Riot and luxury was let loose among
SIR, the people, who were thus blinded to the
Your humble servant, chains which were preparing for them; by
PUBLICUS. inspiring them with a love of pleasure, they were brought to neglect their free- From Ibe INSPECTOR, Dec, 14. dom. Roma (lays Tacitus) ruunt in servi- E tium consules, petres, equires. And while Cuneta Deus replet, Deus eft fupra, Deus infra. they were diverting themselves in the chea
MONT. Lib 3.
E his own dependants and creatures in all
of those publick ports and employments, Deity will be one of the first pleasures which mould have been filled up by their of a future period of existence : A confree election. The author of a play, just templation of his attributes will in some published, under the name of Sejanus, f degree anticipate the glorious rapture here. gives us this picture of these times, so To dwell upon the ideas of his excellence, dreadful to liberty and Rome.
is in some measure to enjoy his presence ; " See the great mistress of the world en. and this will at once give us a taste of thac “ Navid,
["' with cares, superior bliss, and prepare us for the com"Opprefl'd with'woes, and harrass'd out pletion of it. “ While her abandon'd sons (quite loft to The greatest human fatisfa&tions must
arise from a sense of what the being is “ Who should her sacred liberty defend, that enjoys them, and what that great “ In luxury and riot spend their time, G Source of all existence, from which we de“ Become the voluntary tools of pow'r,
rive them. He who contemplates as he “ And work the chains to manacle them- ought the mercy of his Creator, will be at “ selves."
ease even under faults which he is conscie But to return to Sejanus, after 16 years Qus that he does his utmost to prevent, enjoyment of almost regal power, during or lo amend; he who is conscious of his which time he had practised the most inie