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goodness, will know that every work of with us, how would it comfort and fup:
his hands was intended to be happy ; and port us in our virtuous pursuits, how top
he who feels the sense of his beneficence, our career in ill! Hypocrily would fade
and the care of his over-ruling providence, and die away under its influence ; and
will rest in security, amidst a thousand that open honesty which we found it
dangers, under the wing of fo powerful a our business to profess before God, would
Protector ; but more than all, it is our in. render us honoured and happy among one
terest to be eternally mindful of his omni. A another.

We are not to pretend an ignorance of This, of all his attributes, is the most the will of our Creator ; nor thould wo immediate source of good, the most pow. dare to do it if only sensible as we ought to erful guard against ill, to him whose eyes be, that he is about us, and condemns us are open to it. How little will he wish to for diffimulation in the pretence. Let the have witneffes to the worthy actions he man who is going to engage in any action performs, who is assured that he, whom he does but suspect (and there is no ill that alone it is his duty to please ; he who 'a- the conscience suffers us to execute without lone is to reward, is witness to them! B such a suspicion) alk himself this short And how infinitely ought the man, who is question, Will what I am about to do be about to do an ill thing, to dread the con.

pleasing to him who sees all my actions ? fequences of it, while conscious that the and he will find a monitor within, that Being, to whom he is to be accountable for will never fail to give him truth in answer, it, is present while he perpetrates it! The If the applause of the world, or the man who sees himself and his Creator in dread of infamy from it, can encourage this liglat, will not only be secure from ill, or deter us in our intended actions, how but from the very means of ill ; not only C much more trongly would a conscious. his actions, but his inclinations will be free ness of the presence of that Being, whose from all tendency to it. He will be at all acceptance or whole censure of them is times senfible that the great Being, wbo is all that is worth our care, answer the same about his parb, about bis bed, and spierb out' purpose ? a!! bir ways, lees to the dep!h of all his most The bands of society are nothing, unless secret resolutions : He will remember, that deduced from this original principle ; and God sees the heart, as men the faces of one it is not easy to say, to how exalted a another, and he will do all that the frailty D pitch, this mutual love to one another of his nature will admit, to drive from might be carried, were the several indivithence every thought that cannot stand the duals duly sensible of that which first efta. test of such an inspection.'

blished their union. Men, without a con'Tis ealy for us to deceive a parcel of sciousness that their actions all lie open to creatures mort-fighted as ourselves ; our the immediate inspection of Heaven, would intentions are hidden from them ; our ac- be more infidious and destructive, more tions only come under their cognizance ; dangerous to one another than brutes, and if we find it impossible to bring into by as much as they are more cunning; execution a crime of which our soul is ful. E nor have I ever been more struck with the ly guilty, we are out of the reach of pu. juftnefs of an apprehension from others, nishment. To this is owing the daring re- than in the instance of that of the patriarch curity of offenders, while they argue that in Gerar, when he gives it for his realon, if the deed succeeds, it pays them for the The fear of God is nie in obis place, On the consequences ; and that if it does not, the contrary, when a sense that the immediate altempt is in oblivion : But 'tis not so with eye of a Creator and a Judge is over all the him who knows our thoughts ; his tribu- actions, is impressed, as it ought, in the nal is what we ought infinitely more to p several individuals, every man finds those dread than that below ; and this is a feat about him his friends and brothers. of justice, at which acts not committed Our connection with the Divinity is fuch, may be arraigned : He sees the very prin. that he ought never to be ablent from our ciples on which we proceed, the contri. thoughts. We cannot, indeed, be always vances which we are forging in our breasts" praying, always employed in acts of external for the bringing them into execution, and worship to trim, but we may for ever relain the ends at which they are aimed. He him in our hearts: Every object that occurs will not impute to us that innocence which to us affords a theme on which to piaise we may boast from our ill intents being G him : And to remember him as we oughé frustrated ; but will require us to account in all our actions; and to pay him this trifor crimes we had determined, as rigour- bute in ail our occurrences, is to give what oully, as if we had effected them.

he more effeems than the hifting up of Could we arrive at a constant sense, that hands, or the bending of knees, a continued our Creator and our Judge is always prelent woichip oi the mind; an adoration worthy


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1751. Of HERRINGS, and their amazing Shoals. of its nobleft ardour.' This kind of life this expression may be allowed) I mean also establishes that peace within, which only moft beyond the reach of figures. They tan arise from the testimony of a good con. come up, as we may lay, on the breadth science : This prevents all all, and inspires of the ocean : And it is thought that the all good that is in our power : This gives bulk of the shoal may be more in extent us that serenity of mind, without which all than the island of Great Brilain. other pretended pleasures lead to remorse : 'Tis said, that they are greatly Atraitned This is the health of the soul ; this diffuses A in their progress southward, by their being that universal satisfaction, that uninter- obliged to pass between the shores of rupted chearfulness, over it, that gives its Greenland and the North Cape ; which (to relich to the highest enjoyments : This, them) may be a strait, tho? 200 leagues while it inspires the soul every moment to broad. renew the commerce with him who form: Advancing forward, and their amazing ed it, gives a convi&tion of the greatnes body meeting with an interruption, trom of its origin ; and while it urges it on to the situation of Great Britain, il necessarily approaches, though at an infinite distance, divides them into two parts ; whether to the resemblance of the Divinity, con B equal, or unequal, cannot be known. vinces it that it is a ray of that eternal Sun. One part of them Ateer weit or south

Security in the possession of what we welt; and, bearing the Orkneys and Shet. all good, is the only means of perfect en. land to the left, pass on towards Ireland ; joyment of it ; but a certainty of every where meeting with a second interruption, change that can happen being yet far bet. they divide again, when part of them keepter than the present, is an improvement ing to the coast of Great Britain, pass a. upon that security : This can be only por. way south, down St. George's, or the ressed by him who knows his Creator for C Irish channel ; and thus advancing, bea his friend ; wbo remembers, as the Psalmift tween Great Britain and Ireland, they gloriously expreffes it, tbat God is bis rock, enter the Severn sea, where they meet and obe bigb God bis Redeemer.

with part of their former companions.

The other part, edging off, for want of A curious Account of ebe Herrings, their

room, to the west and south-west, as be. Sboals, &c.

fore,) rove along the Irish, or Western A

BOUT the beginning of June, eve. Ocean ; and still keeping upon the coast,

ry year, the Shetlanders discover, proceed to the south more of Ieland'; and by several figns in the air and on the fea, Dhen Ateering fouth-east, meet with their a vaft and incredibly amazing shoal of companions, who came down the Irish herrings, advancing from the north. The channel. place were they breed, their numberlers The other part of the first grand division multitude, their manner of coming, and made in the north, parting a little to the especially, their regular, annual progress, east and south-east, come down into the are quite wonderful. With regard to the German ocean ; they then pass by Sherplace they come from, and in which they land, and make the point of Buchannels may be said to inhabit, breed and increase; E in Scotland, and the coast of Aberdeen, All we know is, that it is far north. That filling, in their progress, all the bays, they are almost infinite in number, may be firths, creeks, and rivers, with their in. sopposed from what we fee of them and credible multitudes ; as tho' purposely die yet these (it may be concluded,) are bot as reded, by Heaven, to offer themselves for the (warm to the hive ; a certain number the relief and employment of the poor, of fupernumeraries, detached from the fill and the benefit of commerce. Hence far greater multitude of inhabitats who coming away south, they pass by Dunbar ; remain behind, and fent abroad (as it Were) every year, to seek their food in

and rounding the high fhores of Berwick, F

are seen again off Scarborough, and not other places ; as tho' there was not room before : They are not discovered in bulk, for them, in the countries inhabited by till they come to Yarmouth roads, and their ancestors. These fith do not return, thence to the mouth of the Thames ; ffo far as we can perceive,) to their native from whence, proceeding along the Bria place, there to breed a farther supply for tish channel, they are seen no more. next season ; but, on the contrary, come The ingenious author of Spectacle de la from home big with their prolifick spawn, Nature, expatiates thus, in his figurative when every fith produces many thousand G tive manner, on the subject in question : others. This spawn they cait in those “ Many kinds of fish come in Moals to feas; the herrings coming full to us, and our coasteSome are always with us, being Thotten and empty long before they and others swim yearly to us in vast muldepart. Their number may be reckoned citudes. 'The Reason of their passage, as among the infinites of finise nature (if well as the track shey take, are well known; December, 1751



4 B

562 - Curious OBSERVATIONS ON B E E S. Deca and the greatest advantages are reaped from is formed in the hec, from the crude wax, that knowledge. To inttance only in her. or fariaa (so far I agree with him) : But rings. The capital of their nation seems by his observations, he says, after digeftion to be between the points of Scotland, Nor. it is discharged upwards by the mouth ; way and Denmark., From thac ftuation whereas, by my observations, it is the the Danish colonies take their progress an- læces, husks, or mells of the farina or nually ; traverting, at different cimes, the crude wax, after digestion, discharged by channel ; and pasting by Holland and A the anus. Flanders. But these are not a troop of As to the first, I have frequently follow, banditti, who coast about at random: Their ed a bee loading the farina, bee. bread, or tour being prescribed, and their annual crude wax, upon its legs, thro' a part of march regulated, with the utmost exact. a great field in flower; and upon whatness. The whole body begin their march foever flower I saw it firt alight and gather al the fame time ; when none of them the farina, it continued gathering from that ftraggle out of their proper Irack ; none kind of flower i and has passed over many defect to commit depredations ; but they other species of flowers, tho very numerous continue their progrels, from coalt to coast, B in the field, without alighting upon or till the appointed period.

loading from them; tho the Aower it They are a numberless people ; they chole was much (carcer in the field than perform a long voyage ; and, when the the others : So that if it began to load body of the army is paffed by, they are all from a daily, it continued loading from gone ; and none of the same species make them, neglecting clover, hopeysuckles, their appearence, till next year. Attempts violets, &c, and if it began with any of the have been made to discover, what it is others, it continued loading from the same chat induces the herrings to undertake fuch C kind, palling over the daily. So in a gar. ' Jong voyages, and tripires them with the den upon my wall-trees, I have seen it policy they obferve. The English, French load from a peach, and pass over apricots, and Dutch fishermen declare, that the plums, cherries, &c. yet made no dir. channel seems, every year, with an incre. tinction becwixe a peach and an almond. dible number of worms and little fish, on Now M. Reaurnur, in his memoir upon which the herrings feed. The coast of our the bces making honcy, nientions Aristotle's inand is very rich, the soil of it breeding observation of bees loading or gathering a sullidge or surf that swims near it, and from one species of flower without changon which all Aoating fith, such as macka. D

ing ; nor quieting a violet to gather from rel, pilchards and herrings, feed. This a cowslip i which he says is not juftly food draws the fish to us, and keeps them founded ; for he has observed frequently about our inand and no other country. a bec on a large border gathering from This sustenance may be considered as a kind Mowers of different species, If M. Reaumur of manni, which these fish come, at fta. only meana, that, when the bee gathers ted periods, to gather up. And, after hav. honcy, it takes it indifferently from any 'ing cleared the seas, in the northern parts fower, I can say nothing against it; but, of Europe, during the summer and autumn, E if he intends it to mean the bee's loading they proceed towards the south, whither the farina upon its legs, then my obserthey are invited by a new stock of providi. vation directiy contradicts it. ons : But, if these fail, they advance for. What further confirms my observation, ward with greater swiftness, in order to is this, that each load upon the legs of accomodate themselves elsewhere." a bee is of one uniform colour throughout, Concerning B ? Is, and tbeir Merbod of or a green, and is not upon different parts

as a light red, an orange, a yellow, a white, garbering Wax and HONEY. In a Letter from Arthur Dobbs, Elg; to

of the load of a different colour ; To that as F

the farina of each fpecies of Aowers, when Charles Stanhope, Esq; F. R. S. Ex-1

colle&ted together, is of one uniform colour, trafied from tbc Philosophical Transac

the presumption is, that it is gathered cions, No 496, just publisbed.

from one species. For, if from different HE only two things in which I differ kinds, part of the load might be of one co

from M. Reaumur, are, that I ap- lour, and part of another. prelend he rays, the bees range from Another observation to confirm the same flowers of one species to those of another fact is, that bees, in the height of the fesspecies, whilst they are gathering one load ;G lon, relurn to the hives with loads of so that the farina, or crude wax, loaded very different magnitudes, fome having upon their legs, is from different species loads, as great as small shot, whilft others of A-wers ; which is contrary to what I have very fmail loads; it cannot be conhave onlerved. The other thing that I ceived that this difference is from the indiffer with him in, is, that he says the wax activity or Noth o! she bee in colleaing its 3





Curious OBSERVATIONS on BE E S. 563 load, but rather from the scarcity of the It feems therefore highly reasonable to Aowers, upon which it first began to load, believes that different kinds of farina may

Now, if the facts are ro, and my ob- have differene physical qualities : So that, fervations true, I think that Providence by making collections of the same kind in has appointed the bee to be very inftru. each cell, they may have proper remedies mental in promoting the increale of vege- for themselves against ailments we have no tables ; but oiherwise, might be very de. knowledge of, which otherwise they wouid trimental to their propagation; and at A not have, if they were filled at random the same time they contribute to the health from all kinds of Aqwers. These further and life of their own species.

advantages, directed to them by Provin From the late improvements made by dence, Icem to add weight to my observa. glasses, and experiments made, in ob'er tions, and ale, a presumptive procf that ving the works of nature, it is almost de. they are true.

monflrable, that the farina upon the apices The only thing, besides the former, of Aowers is the male seed; which en- wherein my oblervations differ from M. tering the pillillum or matrix in ihe flower, Reaumur, is in the manner the wax is impregnates the ovum, and makes it pro. B made and emitted by the bee. He, from

lifick. It is often necessary to have wind : his observations, forms his opinion, that and dry weather to wait this farina to the after the bee has fed upon the farina, or

pirtillum, and from fowes 10 flower, bee.bread, and it has palied ibro' The first to make the feed prolifick : And we find in Romach, (which is the reservoir where the wet sealons, that gran, nuts, and fruit, honey is lodged, from whence it is dit. are less prolifick, by the farina's not being charged upwards by its mouth into the cells) properly conveyed to the pistillum ; and it is conveyed into the second ftomachi allo in very hot dry weather, from clammy C and yet, when there, great part of honey.dews, or, more properly, sweet ex- tinues in its (pherical or oval form, fill fudations from the planis themselves, which undigested and consequently muß he clogs the farina, and causes blafts and mil. conveyed further, before it be thoroughly dews. Now, if the farina of specifically digelted, and the particles broke ; yet this different powers should take the place of he supposes is reconveyed upwards thro' its own proper farina in the pisillum, like both the Nomachs, and is emitted by its an unnatural coition in the animal world, mouth, either no generation would happen, or a What makes me disagree with him, is monstrous one, or an individual not capa.


from the remarks I have made, that the ble of further generation,

fæces of the bee discharged by the anus, Now if the bee is appointed by Provi. after the farina is digested, is the true wax. dence to go only, at each loading, to now- We may with truth believe, that the fari. ers of the same species, as the abundant fa- na, which is the male feed of all vegetables, rina often covers the whole bee, as well as confifts of a spirit or moving principle, what it loads upon its legs, it carries the floating in a sweet oil, surroonded by an farina from fower to power, and by its exterior coat or Mell, in which is that mo. walking upon the pistillum and agitation of E nade that impregnares the grain os fuit, its wings, it contributes gready to the fari. and makes it prolifick ; that upon separatina's entering into the piltillum, and at the on or digestion, this spirit and sweet oil same time prevents the heterogeneous mix. becomes the nourishment of the hee ; Cure of the farina of different flowers with which spirit is of the same nature with the ht; which, if it Arayed from Aower to animalcules in femine masculino of animals, flower at random, it would casry to flow. and becomes the animal spirits in the bee ers of a different species,

and other animals ; and perhaps che true Besides these viâble advantages,. it may honey is the sweet oil included in the fari. be of great benefit to their own species and na : And as all vegetables abound with society ; for, as this farina is the natural these vivifying atoms, so the true hi ney and constant food of the bees, during one breaking thro' jrs Mell by great heat, ochalf of the year, and from this digested, as casions those honey-dews cbserved in hot it is accurately observed by M. Reaumur, weather upon the leaves and powers of is the bouilée and jelly formed ; which is moft vegetables ; which is no more than lodged for the food of the young bees, un. an exsudation from the leaves and bloff ms til they become nymphæ : It is also neces. of these vefsels thas break with the heat ; sary that stores of it should be lodged in the G befides chose that appear on the apices of cells adjoining to the honey, for their win- Aowers, which afterwards impregnate the

provision ; without which, M. Reau. fruit. mur observes, they would be in danger of dying of a loolesels, their molt dangerous [Tbe roll on this curious subje&, we pall málady.

give in our APPENDIX.)



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On! Phillis, mame on you to serve a (wain ro, You promis'd lakt

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cere !



I lik'd the fweet lay, for I thought it finTrue, Damon, I promis'd, I own it what then ?

But why does Pastora fo oft drop a {cat ? My mind has finçe alter'd how faithless Why, why so oft drop a tear ? are men !

[day You'vow'd to be constant, and yet t'other

DAMON, Who swore, that young Lucy was (weer From my heart let me tell thee, I as the May ?

proudly effay*
Sweet, sweet, was sweet as the May. To conquer each beautiful infolent maid;

The garlands they wreath'd, at thy feet
were refign'd;

(unkind, When Phillis grew coy, when the left me This, this was my pride, thien is Phillis forlorn,

[thorn, And was finging to Colin', beneath the green

Then, then, then is Phillis unkind. Mad, jealous, and fretting, pray, who

PHIL IS. was to blame,

[fame? How frail the disguise a fond lover would If with Lucy I Atrove to make Phillis the


[would belye! Strove, frove, to make Phillis the fame. How weak the thin snare, that the soul

Hence, hence, with suspicion ; away frora

the grove,

(upon love. Like the bee, that goes roving to ride : 'And prove at the church, that truth waits the spring

Prove, proye, truth waits upon love. You pip'd to each damel, tu me you would

[ling ;

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