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FOREIGN AFFAIRS, 1951. 575
the great council by letters patent addrefiled Holland continue to deliberate upon to the parliament, which they immediate. the late prince of Orange's plan for re- ly ordered to be registered. The poor havę establishing commerce ; and that affair is by this dispute got some advantage ; for in pushed on with such uncommon vigour, order to gain a little popularity, his maje. that it will probably fucceed, to the great Ity has suspended the tax on bread and some benefit of the republick'; and will facilitate other sorts of provisions.-31st. A proje&t the renewal of the treaty of commerce is under confideration, for establishing in with France, which the state has not been this city a mount of piety, or charitable able to accomplish, tho' great pains have corporation, which is to lend to the poor been taken in it ever since the peace at - sums under 12 livres, without any interest, Aix. la Chapelle. These regulations will, and that fum, or any above, at 7 per cent, 'tis also believed, be disadvantageous to -We have dismal accounts both from St. the Hamburghers, and to the new compa- Domingo and Martinico of the damage ny at Embden.
done by the hurricane that happened at both Paris, Dec. 17, N. S. The parliament of in the night between the gth and 10th of Paris having retired to their separate apart. Sept. last. ments, and resolved to do no bufiness, an Madrid, Dec. 6. N.Ş. Our woollen ma. order from the king was on the 28th ult. nufactory improves every day more and delivered to every counsellor,' requiring more, by means of the great number of them to assemble next day in the chambers foreigners who come over to be employed they belonged to, and administer justice, in it. There are above fixty different on pain of disobedience. Accordingly, on places where this manufacture is carried the 29th they assembled, but as none of on ; and the court has given orders for the advocates attended, on pretence that setting up others in several places of the they had not been ordered, no business kingdom. 'Tis computed, that fince the could be done. On the ift Inst. the coun. year 1749, not le's than 5000 pieces of sellors assembled again, but the advocates cloth have been worked up in this kingdom, still refusing to appear, a new order froin a great part of which was exported in the the king was delivered to the former, re- register (hips. There is a talk of laying a quiring them to adminifter justice, and to heavy duty on the exportation of our wool, see that the advocates and attorneys did if not an absolute prohibition. Mr. Keene, their duty, on pain of his majesty's high ambassador from the king of Great-Britain, indignation ; on which a committee of has lately had anocher long conference with twelve were appointed to examine the the ministry, relating to the settlements of king's juffory letters, and to make their the Englih upon the musqueta shore, and report next day, which they accordingly the fort which they have built in the inand did, and thereupon there was a long dabate, of Rattan, in America. Our court prebut at laat it was resolved to obey his ma. tends that these settlements are contrary to jesty's orders ; for if they had not, it was the tenor of the late treaty of Aix-la-Cha. thought, they must have travelled, or per- pelle ; but on the other hand, the Britih haps the king would have put an end to court thinks it has a right to support them, their being, and appointed a new judica- by virtue of former treaties which were ture. On the 12th the deputies of the confirmed by that of Aix-la-Chapelle, parliament waited on his majesty at Ver. This incident roems to have somewhat re. Cailies, to acquaint him with their obedi- tarded Mr. Keene's negotiation concerning ence to his orders, to which he answered, a free navigation in the West Indies ; but “ My parliament could not have been too it is not doubted but that proper measures expeditious in resuming their functions, will be found out to accommodate this af. fince no motive whatsoever can justify their fair. In the mean time the court has sent interrupting them. I am fully sensible of freth orders to the commanders of places the importance of the trust committed to in America, relating to the conduct to be them, which is fufficient to diffipate their observed by our Guarda Costa's in chofe fears, I expect that by their submission, parts.--20th. 'Tis said, that our court has their attachment, and their fidelity in my actually received advice, that the island and service, they will continue to merit my be. fortress of St. Gabriel, or St. Sacrament, nevolence." His majesty has, however, in the river la Plata, has been put into the Thewed some complaisance on his fide ; for hands of the Spanish troops, detached for as soon as the parliament had obeyed, the that purpose by the governor of Buenos archbishop of Paris resigned his place of Ayres, in consequence of the treaty made administrator of the general hospital of with the late king of Portugal; and they Paris, the grant of which had occalioned fatter themselves ihat, by this step, an end this difference between his majesty and his will be absolutely put to the contraband parliament; and his majesty has fince re. trade in that part of the world. hored the administration of that hospital to
576 The Monthly Catalogue for December, 1751.
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JOURNAL of the PrOcEBDINGS and DEBATES in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from
upon that occasion of no account, The next Speech I pall give you in with regard to the strength or power
the Debate begun in your last, is of the nation, which they then say, the Substance of what was jaid by consists only in the number of men T. Potitius, as follows.
we have in a&ual pay, and subject
to the slavish rules of military law; Mr. Prederi,
A and when any one proposes a dimi. SIR,
nution of the number, they exclaim, AM really aftonished, What! will you weaken the hands
Sir, when I consider of the government? Will you disI
how inconsistent some miss those men upon whom alone gentlemen are, when you can depend for your protection? they argue for a num- But when the question comes about
ber of land forces to B the number of seamen to be kept in be kept in the pay of the publick in publick pay, they then tell you, cime of peace, and when they argue that the maritime power, or strength for a number of seamen to be kept of this nation, does not depend upin the pay of the publick in time of on the number of séamen you have peace. When the question before in the actual pay of the publick, us is about the number of land but upon the numbers that belong to forces to be kept up in time of Cthe wide extended British dominions, peace, they never once think of the tho' many of them are at all times vast number of brave landmen we' dispersed over the whole face of the have, and, I hope, always shall have globe: These you may reduce, these in this island: These are with them you may dismiss at pleasure, without TP
caposing yourselves to any danger. Appendix, 1751.
578. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. App. From this way of arguing, Sir, a great number, not only of brave would not an ignorant stranger con- , landmen, but of disciplined soldiers ; clude, that the government has no and the denying of this right to a power over the landmen of this poor Loldier, furnishes too solid a island, even in the case of an inva. ground for supposing, that our minifion, or that a man might learn to llers are resolved not to depend" for be a compleat fajlor in a few days, A their security upon the affections of but could not learn to be a compleat the people in general, but upon the soldier in a few years. One of these obedience of those they keep under conclusions an ignorant stranger would a Navish subjection to military law. certainly draw; and yet with respect I appeal to every gentleman that will to both, we know, that the cale is reflect, but a very little, if this condircally, the reverse. Upon any sequence may not be most naturally threatned invasion his majesty has as B drawn from our late condu&t. God much power over the landmen, i that forbid it should ever, under our preis to say, the militia, so far as, relates fent illuftrious family, be drawn by to the proper use to be made of the people in general; for if it them, as he has over the seamen, moald, an invading army that came nay, more, because the land men are not to conquer the people, but to always at home, but great numbers, redress their grievances, would meet of our seamen are at all times a. with little, if any resistance from the
с broad; and do not we all know, people; and I believe, nay, I hope, that to make a compleat seaman re- that no English army will ever be quires several years service at sea, zealous for the support of a govern. and early in life too? Whereas the ment that is hated or despised by all most ignorant landman may, learn all the rest of their countrymen. This the butiness of a common soldier in our ministers, if they are faithful a few days : I mean, all the fighting d servants to their master, will feri. businels ; for as to all the punctilio's ously consider; and if they do, they of a review, I shall grant, it may will alter their conduct : They will require some months before he can leffen the expence we are put to by go thro' them with dexterity. keeping up numerous standing armies
I am sorry to say it, Sir, but from in time of peece, and concur in some the care we have taken to keep a scheme or other for restoring military great number of land forces in con- e discipline to the people in general. tinual pay, and the little concern we By this means we may have soldiers have shewn for keeping any great enough always at command, but it number of seamen in continual pay, is imposible for us to have seamen it really feems to me, as if our go-a enough always at command, without vernment had been of late years, keeping a great number in the pay more afraid of its domestick than of and in actual service of the publíck, its foreign enemies ; and this suspi
in time of peace as well as of war. cion is strongly confirmed by the lit. The reason of this difference, Sir, tle care that has been taken of the is very plain: A man may not only militia, and particularly by the re- learn but practise the trade of a folfusal of that uieful regulation so of. dier, without departing from that ten proposed, for giving our soldiers business by which he is to earn his a right, in time of peace, to de. bread in time of peace ; bat no man mand their discharge after so many
can learn, and much less practise the years service. If this regulation had trade of a seaman, without departing been established, when we first began from every other fort of business by to keep up a numerous land army, which he can earn his bread in time we should before this time have had of peace; therefore in time of peace,
1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUE, &c. especially after it has continued for French have but 50,000 employed fix or seven years, it is impossible for in the fame sort of service ; yet, if us to have any more feamen, than they keep 20,000" , seamen in the are necessary for the merchant and continuat pay and fervice of the pubfishing service, besides those that lick, and we keep but 8000, they have been continued in the pay and will at the end of seven years be futhe actual service of the publick ; A perior to us in maritime power ; and -for even a thorough bred seaman, whatever reflections the Hon. genafter he has been for fix or seventleman may throw out upon those years continually at land, becomes that make it their business to provoke absolutely unsic for the sea service, France to a rupture, I must tell him, and must be again for some time at thac rather than see this at the end of fea, before he can do the duty of an a feven years peace, I should wish to able and expert sailor. From hence, B fee a war declared to-morrow ; for Sir, it is evident, that of two states we must not think, thar France has naturally equal in number of inhabia given over che conteft for maritime tants, if the one takes care to have power.; like the defeated bull so all its people bred up to arms and beautifully described by Virgil, they military discipline, and the other are by all means possible endeavourtruits entirely to its ftanding armies, ing to gather more strength, and the first muß have the superiority in C. Port, ubi collectum robur, virefque remilitary power ; but of two states :
cepree naturally equal in numbers of sea. Signa movet, præcepsque oblitum fertur men, that itate muft acquire 'a fupe...
in hoftem : riority in maritime power, which: This. Sir, is the true reason why keeps the greatest number of seamen we should always keep up a large always in the pay and the service of number of seamen, even in time of the publick, even tho' the other D peace, and this reason is now stronger Mould have a greater number of than ever it was heretofore. I wish fhips of war ready to put to sea. as-heartily as any gentleman in this' The Swiss furnith us with an ex- house, to see our debes paid, or to ample of the first of these cases“; see us in a way of paying them ; and I wish, that France may not but to allow France to get the fupefoon furnith us with an example of riority of us at fea, is not, I am the lalt ; for tho' I believe, they E sure, the way to pay them; for if have not in America such a great that should ever happen, the nation, number of seamen as we have, and as well as its debts, will be annihiconsequently upon the whole are not lated. It is, in my opinion, ridicunaturally equal to us, yet I am afraid lous to think of their being ever they have now naturally as many payed by the dull method of coseamen in France as we have in nomy alone : Some grand scheme, Great Britain ; and these on can F fome curious project must be invented serve for making or defending a sud- for that purpose bysome happy genius, den attack. And granting, as I have, and carried vigorously into execution that naturally they are not upon the ' by a steady and faithful administrawhole equal to us in maritime power, tion ; otherwise, I may venture to yet in seven years they may make foretel, chat our debes will never be themselves fuperior, by keeping a paid. Supposing the finking fund much greater number of seamen in G were every half year to be duly and the continual pay and service of the regularly applied to the payment of publick ; for fuppofing, that we our debts, and that it now amounts have 60,000 seamen employed in the. to a million yearly, it would be merchant and fishing service, and the above 40 years before our present