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1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 585 our rivals for maritime power? Could 'who spoke some time ago ; for he we justify such an unnecessary ex- usually speaks with more ability, and pence in our present circumstances ? with more candour, than he did Therefore what we may do with re. upon this occasion. As to his abispect to either of these articles, can lity, I really do not know what he be no reason for putting off the con- means by 8000 seamen being fuffisideration or the determination of A cient for all necessary services : In the present; and surely, it will be time of peace, and when there are granted, that we ought to provide no pirates at fea, I know of no imfor some numbe of feamen. "Can mediate services that are necessary: any gentleman say, he is not now as As to any such fervices, we should fully prepared for determining this have no occasion for keeping one question, as he can be at any future thip in commifion, or one seaman in time in this session ? And what chiefly B pay, except those under-officers that determines me, and ought, I think, are kept for cleaning and taking care to determine every gentleman to be of the ships. This cannot therefore for the lesser number, is, that his be the reason for our keeping any majesty may increase the number the seamen in pay in time of peace : moment he finds it necessary. The true reason is, that in case of a

As to the provision made last year, rupture, or any sudden danger, we Sir, for the coast of Africa, and the may be able to send a fufficient squacoasts of Nova Scotia, the Hon. dron to sea without distressing our gentleman who spoke first against the trade ; and will he say, will any number of seamen now proposed, gentleman say, that 8ooo seamen are may move for an inquiry into it fufficient for this purpose, especially whenever he pleases ; for it will ap- as I find it is proposed to have one pear, that both were sufficiently pro- half of them always abroad? Sir, vided for. There are two men of D no man can say, that 10,000 is fufwar now upon the coast of Africa, ficient; and for this reason I did not at least they are there, if they have approve of the reduction made last pursued their orders ; and all parts year. Then as to his candour, I of America, particularly Nova Sco- must beg pardon to say, it was not tia, were sufficiently provided with altogether lo candid in him to charge station ships or loops.

But this, this fide of the house with a design like the other two questions I have E to foment a quarrel with France, or mentioned, has nothing to do with with any power whatsoever : We the present queftion; therefore, I never gave the least cause for charghope, Sir, it will be put, before the ing us with any such design ; but house agrees to your leaving the we have often declared, and I fulchair.

pect, we may often again have occa

fion to declare, that we are against The last Speech Ishall give you in this F preserving peace by base and mean

Debaté, was that made by T, submissions, because we know it will Sempronius Gracchus, which was not do : Experience in a late long in Substance tbus.

administration has clearly Mewn, that Mr. President,

it will not do ; for in publick as well as private life, the only way to pre.

vent a second insult, is to resent the T may be easily determined which G firit with spirit.

is the weak fide of the question Now, Sir, with regard to what now before us, from what was said was said by the Hon. gentleman who in favour of it by the Hon. gentle. spoke laft, I shall grant, that by the man over against me upon the floos, present regulation of the militia, it E- of E

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586 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. App: can never be of any real service : 1 majesty, who poffesses the hearts and believe, it was not defigned to be so, affections of his people, "might, in a when it was first establiñed; becaufe

very few days, by this method, raise our court had then a design to render as great an army as he pleased, of the keeping up of a standing ar- as brave men as any that were in the my necessary; and accordingly, the late rebel army; and nothing can foundation was laid in that very A ever prevent this but the governreign, upon which our present dan ment's being hated by the people, gerous fabrick has by degrees been or the people's trusting till it is too erected ; but I should be sorry to late to the regular troops; both which think, that we had no military pow. may prove to be the effect of our er except that which confitts in the

keeping too great a number of the troops we keep in pay; and I was

latter in continual pay. glad to find, that what the Hon. B I shall admit, Sir, that if an år. gentleman said of the late rebel ar. my of new-raised volunteers, were my, overturned the whole of his to engage against an army of regular doctrine upon this head; for I hope, troops long inured to discipline, and they were not the only brave men in both were to fland at a distance to the island : I hope, there is not a fire at each other, the latter would gentleman, a yeoman, or farmer probably get the victory, because in the kingdom, but what are as C they could fire faster and more regubrave, and as apt to learn the fight- Jarly; but this is rather patience than ing business of a soldier, as they courage ; and a general, who could were ; and if they were like to have depend upon the personal courage been an over-match for our regular and vigour of his men, would certroops, ought we not to conclude, tainly not chuse this method of fightthat an army newly raised, and con- ing. He would lead them presently fisting of our young gentlemen, yco. Don to the attack ; and when armies men, and farmers, would be an over- come to pell-mell fighting, I believe, match for any regular troops that can volunteers will generally have the adbe brought against us? We have fill, vantage. Therefore, I shall always thank God ! the same commander, think, that our military power dethat was then at the head of our ré

pends upon the numbers of brave gular troops ; and I am persuaded, men we have in the kingdom, whehe would shew the same courage and E cher they be in the pay of the go. conduct at the head of a volunteer, vernment or no ; and our keeping a which he then shewed at the head great number in pay, and neglecting of a mercenary army.

The former or rather preventing the discipline of might not, perhaps, be so ductile, all the rest, will diminish instead of but I am convinced, they would be increasing our military power ; but as brave, and as alert, in the execu. it is not so with regard to our seation of every order that tended to- F men ; for no bravery can make an wards defeating the enemy. We expert seaman. A brave man may know, Sir, that in time of real dan- in two or three months be made not ger his majesty is not to trust to the only a brave but disciplined foldier ; militia ; He may then iffue commis. and by a very little practice he fions for raising as many regiments may afterwards preserve his difas he pleases, and every volunteer cipline, without interfering with that lists in those regiments, is as any other employment. . But it will much subject to martial law as any require at least two or three years soldier in our regular army : If we to make a brave man an expert were threatened with an invasion failor, and to continue fo, he must from France, I am perfuaded, hiş be in almost a continual practice,


1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL. CLUB, &c. 587 fo that he can follow no other em- 1 majority may be satisfied, I do ployment ; therefore our maritime not know : In this respect ministers, power must be more or less, according I believe, must have some knack, to the number of seamen we keep in which I am quite ignorant of; for, continual pay and service. Those - I am sure, I was far from being in the merchant and fishing service satisfied upon

that occasion ; nor can add, 'tis true, to our maritime A I yet fee how any man could be power, because we can make use satisfied, that knows any thing of of them when necessity requires ; the French or Swiss service. Their but as no more can be maintained

troops are certainly as well disciby, than are absolutely necessary for plined as ours ; and yet in France a that service, we should avoid being soldier has a right, in time of peace, seduced to that neceflity as much as to his discharge, after six years serpoffible.

B vice; and in the Swiss service, their Now, Sir, as the Hon. gentle. soldiers generally contract for a cerman's argument, or, if he pleases, tain number of years, after which his different manner of arguing they may return home if they please, upon the two questions relating to which is the true cause of that counour regular troops and our seamen, try's being always full of disciplined is founded entirely upon the fup. soldiers, position, that we have no military C I know, Sir, the Hon. gentle: power, but what consists in our re.

man will say, that when soldiers gular troops; and as I have thewn, are out of the service, they are no that our military power will ra-. longer at the goverament's comther be diminished than increaled by mand. For this very reason, Sir, keeping a great number of such I wilh we had more of them. They in our pay, I think, the argument will always be at the command of he has made use of, or the reason Da just and wise government, when of the difference which he was at there is an apparent necessity for so much pains to establish, will en- their service; but they will be a tirely evanish ; but supposing that terror to a weak or oppressive governour men must be disciplined as well ment; and it is for this reason, I as brave, in order to constitute a believe, that minifters chuse to have part of our military power; for, I as few of them as possible in the hope, he will not say, that a man's E kingdom. For the same reason I receiving pay adds either to his cou. am for increasing their number, rage or his discipline : I say, fup- by all the methods we can contrive ; posing this, must it not be granted, and I am the more sanguine against that it is che duty of our ministers what is now proposed, as it seems to approve of every method, that to be introductory of a new system may contribute towards the increa.

of government, which is to put no sing the number of disciplined men F longer any trust in our maritime in the kingdom? How then can power, but for the future put our they be jultified, for having refu- whole trust in foreign auxiliares, and sed to give our soldiers a right to a numerous mercenary army engaged demand their discharge, after a cere for life to be the slaves of military tain number of years ? For it must law. This system is not, I am very be allowed, that this would have very sure, an English fyftem : It is a sysmuch increased the number of dif-G tem inconsistent with a free governciplined men in the kingdom. The ment: It is a fyftem inconsistent Hon. gentleman fays, it was proved with our situation as an island ; and to the satisfa&ion of the majority, I am not for trusting any thing to that this would have put an end ministers that but seem to adapt to all discipline in our army. How


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588 PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. App. such a fyftem. Do not tell me of of what you may be able to de, services, necessary or unnecessary; when engaged alone in a war against or of the number of seamen kept in France; whereas you have repeated publick pay by any of our rivals : It is

experience of what you may be aa body of brave seamen kept always ble to do, when engaged in such on root for our defence, and for pre- a war in conjun&ion with a powventing our being ever forced to A erful confederacy upon the condistress our trade, that the nation tinent ; and upon this occafion he wants; and if the parliament should took care to follow the modern think fit to grant 20,000 for this

fashion of falling foul upon the treaty purpose, I would gladly see any of Utrecht; but I will be so unfashiominister dare to reduce their num. nable as to justify that treaty, by ber. But as to what number of sea- saying, that a peace was then be. men may now be in the pay of some B come absolutely necessary, not only of our rivals, particularly France, on account of the distressed cir: has any minister, has any gentleman, cumstances this nation was reduced

him to say, that the to, but because most of our allies French government has not now began to be cool in the prosecution 8000 in their pay? And suppose of the war, after Charles, our king a minister Thould from certain know. of Spain, was chosen emperor, and ledge declare this, is there not a c I believe, would have declared material difference between France against us, if we had perfifted in and this kingdom? Their seamen our design to establish him upon are all registered, and must answer the throne of Spain: I will go farwhen called ; the government al- ther, Sir : I will be so paradoxical ways knows where they are, and as to say, that if there was any thing will not allow them to go upon a bad in that treaty, it was not owing long voyage, when they suspect they D to those that made it, but to those may soon have occasion for their that opposed it; for if our allies service. Here it is quite other- had all at first joined with us in the wise, in every one of these re. treaty, and no party at home had spects : Most of our seamen in the set themselves up againft it, we merchant - service may be abroad, might have obtained better terms when we have occafion for them ; both for ourselves and our allies ; and as to those that may be at home, e but when we fell out ainong our our government, by its late treat- felves, it was impossible for our ment of our seamen, seems to have ministers to prevent France from taken care, that they shall never taking advantage of our difcord, be at its call, without being pressed and I wonder The did not make a into the service.

greater advantage of it, especially I come now, Sir, to our foreign considering her success in the last nonsense, which the Hon. gentleman F campaign of that war. was pleased to prepare us for, by But to return to our experience, insinuating, that by ourselves aloné, Sir; were not we in K. Charles Ild's we should not now be able to carry reign, I mean in the years 1664 on even a naval war against France, and 1665, engaged by ourselves God forbid, Sir, the nation should alone, in a naval war against the think fo; for a very eminent and combined powers of France and ancient poet has justly observed ofG Holland ? And if that pensionary those he mentions, that they con. parliament, as it was called in dequered because they thought they vision, had been as liberal to their could conquer ; but fays the Hon. sovereign, as many parliaments have gentleman, you have no experience been licce, we thould have beat



1751. PROCEEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. 589 both these maritime powers out of the they will certainly put off the election as

Then with regard to our expe. long as possible, that is, during the present rience of being engaged, in conjun&ion emperor's life; becaufe they must expect, with a confederacy upon the continent, that as soon as the election is over, their in a war against France, our present dir- tribute will cease : This will therefore detressed circumstances thew, how fatal feat, instead of promoting the end pre. that experience has been to us. May we tended ; and consequentis, I must think, not from thence learn, that in such a A that if we had found it necessary for us to war we muft be the dupes of our confe- purchase the accomplithment of this end, derates, both in the prosecution of the we should have ftipulated, that the triwar, and in concluding a peace? In the butes we were to pay, were not to begin profecution of the war, we must always till the next quarter-day after the election be at the chief expence; and in concluding of a king of the Romans. When I con

peace, we must be so far from asking any fider this affair, Sir, it puts an end to my thing for ourselves, that if we have made wonder at the opposition made to the reany conquest during the war, we must give , duction of the interest payable upon our it up, in order to procure them an advan. B publick funds. If the people had thought, tageous peace. Therefore, if we take ex- that the saving would be applied to the perience for our guide, we will certainly ne- publick benefic, they would have chearver engage again with a confederacy upon fully agreed to it ; but they suspected, that the continent, or defire their affiftance, in it would only furnih a new fund for any such war; and we have now, Sir, a yet squandering, and their suspicions are now stronger reason, which is our utter in. justified; for we have taken the money ability to pay for their assistance to carry out of the pockets of our widows and or on such a war. We must now resolve C phans, in order to fill the pockets of Ger. never to think of carrying on a war by man princes ; and, in my opinion, with land against France, whilst we are under out any neceffity, or any folid view of adour present load of debts ; and should we vantage : Sublidies or tributes in time of ever be so happy as to get rid of that load, war must be granted to these princes, if I hope, experience will convince us, that we ever engage in another land war against in a land war 'upon the continent of Eu. France, because we cannot carry on such a" rope, France will always have a great ad- war without them, and they cannot put vantage against us, because they can carry p their troops in motion without a fublidy ; it on at a much cheaper rate than we can; but in time of peace, these subsidies can whereas in a sca war, we have the same answer no good purpose whatever ; be. advantage of the French ; the evident con. cause experience has Thewn, that we cansequence of which is, that all foreign al. not thereby secure their allistance, or even liances which tend to engage us as princi. their neutrality, in time of war. pals in a land war, must be pernicious to But now, Sir, fuppose, that we could this nation, and are quite unnecessary, by these tributes secure the internal peace becaule by giving now and then a little of Germany for 40 years to come, can affiftance, we may obtain all the advan. E any gentleman, who considers the infults cages for our commerce which we can de- we are daily meeting with, Aarter himfelf fire.

with the hopes of our continuing in peace As to the happy æra of our getting for 40 years, unless we are to sacrifice our quite free of debt, Sir, I wish I could trade, as well as our honour, to the preserhave as certain a prospect of it, as the vation of peace ? And even this, with reHon. gentleman who fpoke Jast pretends spect to the payment of our debts, would to have ; but if we are to set up for pre- be in vain ; for if we lose our trade, an. serving the internal quiet of Germany by peternal peace would not enable us to fubfidies in time of peace, and to engage pay our debts. Can any one say, Sir, in war when it happens to be difturbed, I that we are now in less danger of a rupe, am very sure, we shall never be able to ture, than we were two years ago ? Are pay our debts. And with respect to the we not now a&ually in a fate of war with project now pretended, of getting a king the French in Nova Scotia ? I say, with of the Romans choren, if it could secure the French, Sir ; for their Indians are the peace of Germany, which I am far mixt with and conducted by Frenchmen ; from being assured of, I think, we have and an Hon. gentleman that was there, taken the wcift method that could be G has informed us, that the prisoners they thought of for that purpose : By granting take are carried to Cape-Breto:), and that an annual subfidy, or more properly a we are so mean as to admit of an exchange yearly tribute, to the elector of Bavaria, of prisoners. Are not the French now we shall make every one of the electors erecting a fort within the limits of New.. expect the like ; and when they have got England ? Suppose we should fubmit to us [addled with a yearly tribute to cach,


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