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It must likewise be observed, that, if the substantive which governs the relative, and makes it assume the genitive case, comes before it, no pause is to be placed either before which, or the preposition that

governs it.


The passage of the Jordan is a figure of baptism, by the grace of which, the new-born Christian passes from the slavery of sin into a state of freedom peculiar to the chosen sons of God.

Abridgment of the Bible.

RULE XIV. When that is used as a casual conjunction, it ought always to be preceded by a short pause.


The custom and familiarity of these tongues do sometimes so far influence the expressions in these epistles, that one may observe the force of the Hebrew conjugations.


There is the greater necessity for attending to this rule, as we so frequently find it neglected in printing. For fear of crowding the line with points, and appearing to clog the sense to the eye, the ear is often defrauded of her unquestionable rights. I shall give two instances, among a thousand, that might be brought to show where this is the case.

I must therefore desire the reader to remember that, by the pleasures of the imagination, I mean only such pleasures as arise originally from sight.

Spectator, No. 411. It is true, the higher nature still advances, and, by that means, preserves his distance and superiority in the scale of being; but he knows that, how high soever the station is of which he stands possessed at present, the inferior Dature will at length mount up to it, and shine forth in the same degree of glory.

Spectator, No. 111.

In these examples, we find the incidental member




Plate I.


he said

ou have my father much offended.



did he answer satis



factorily or


Madam, y

factorily he pre

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dun of

God and keep his com

for this is the


If he


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succeeding the conjunction that is separated from it by a pause ; but the pause which ought to precede this conjunction is omitted : this punctuation 'runs through our whole typography, and is the more culpable, as the insertion of the pause after that, where it is less wanted than before, is more apt to mislead the reader than if he saw no pause at all.

RULE XV. When the adjective follows the substantive, and is succeeded either by another adjective, or words equivalent to it, which form what may be called a descriptive phrase, it must be separated from the substantive by a short pause.


He was a man, learned and polite.
It is a book, exquisite in its kind.
It was a calculation, accurate to the last degree.

That no pause is to be admitted between the substantive and the adjective, in the inverted order, when the adjective is single, or unaccompanied by adjuncts, is evident by the following example from Pope :

of these the chief the care of nations own,
And guard with arms divine the British throne.

For the reason of this, see Elements of Elocution,

page 37.

Those who have not considered this subject very attentively, will, I doubt not, imagine, that I have inserted above twice the number of points that are necessary; but those who are better acquainted with the art, will, I flatter myself, agree with me, that a distinct, a deliberate, and easy pronunciation, will find employment for every one of them. Much mn. doubtedly will depend upon the turn of voice, with which we accompany these points; and, if this is but properly adapted, the sense will be so far from suffering by so many pauses, that it will be greatly improved and enforced. And this leads us to a consideration of one of the most important parts of delivery; which is, the slide or inflection of voice with which every sentence, member of a sentence, and even every word, is necessarily pronounced; without a knowledge of this it will be impossible to speak intelligibly of the interrogation, exclamation, and pårenthesis, which seem distinguished from other sentences more by a peculiar inflection of voice than by pausing ; nor can accent and emphasis be completely undertood without considering them as connected with a certain turn or inflection of voice; and this must be the next object of our inquiry.

Audible Punctuation.

As describing such sounds upon paper as have no definite terms appropriated to them, like those of music, is a new and difficult task, the reader must be requested to as nice an attention as possible to those sounds or inflections of voice, which spontaneously annex themselves to certain forms of speech, and which, from their familiarity, are apt to be unnoticed. If experience were out of the question, and we were only acquainted with the organic formation of human sounds, we must necessarily distinguish them into five kinds: namely, The monotone, or one sound, continuing a perceptible time in one note, which is the case with all musical sounds; a sound

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