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Although, son Marcus, as you have now been a hearer of Cratippus for a ear, and this at Athens, you ought to abound in the precepts and doctrines of philosophy, by reason of the great character both of your instructer and the city ; one of which can furnish you with knowledge, and the other with examples : yet, as I always to my advantage joined the Latin tongue with the Greek, and I have done it not only in oratory, but likewise in philosophy; I think you ought to do the same, that you may be equally conversant in both languages.
Cicero's Offices, book i. chap. 1° These sentences begin with the concessive conjunction although, and have their correspondent conjunction yet; and these conjunctions form the two principal constructive members. The words him, and examples, therefore, at the end of the first members, must have the rising inflection, and here must be the long pause.
This rule ought to be particularly attended to in reading verse. Many of Milton's similes, commencing with the conjunction as, have the first member so enormously long, that the reader is often tempted to drop his voice before he comes to the member beginning with the conjunction so, though nothing can be more certain than that such a fall of the voice is di. ametrically opposite to the sense.
Thus, in that beautiful description of the affected indignation of Satan, at the command of God to abstain from eating of the tree of life:
She scarce had said, though brief, when now more bold
Sometimes in height began, as no delay
Paradise Lost, b. ix. v. 664. In this passage, if we do not make a long pause with the rising inflection on the word right, we utterly de. stroy the sense.
In the same manner we may observe some of Homer's similes to extend to such a length before the application of them to the object illustrated, that the printer, and perhaps Mr. Pope himself, has sometimes concluded the first part with a full stop.
Direct period, with only one conjunction. RULE II. Every direct period, consisting of two principal constructive parts, and having only the first part commence with a conjunction, requires the rising inflection and long pause at the end of this part.
As in my speculations I have endeavoured to extinguish passion and préjudice, I am still desirous of doing some good in this particular. Spectator. Here the sentence divides itself into two correspondent parts at prejudice; and as the word so is understood before the words I am, they must be preceded by the long pause and rising inflection.
If impudence prevailed as much in the forum and courts of justice, as insolence does in the country and places of less resort; Aulus Cæcina would submit as much to the impudence of Sextus Æbutius in this cause, as he did before to his insolence when assaulted by him.
If I have any genius, which I am sensible can be but very small; or any readiness in speaking, in which I do not deny but I have been much conversant; or any skill in oratory, from an acquaintance with the best arts, to which I confess I have been always inclined: no one has a better right to demand of me the fruit of all these things, than this Aulus Licinius.
Cicero's Oration for Archias. If after surveying the whole earth at once, and the several planets that lie within its neighbourhood; we contemplate those wide fields of æther.
that reach in height as far as from Saturn to the fixed stars, and run abroad almost to an infinitude ; our imagination finds its capacity filled with so immense a prospect, and puts itself upon the stretch to comprehend it.
Addison's Spectator, No. 428. In the first of these examples, the first part of the sentence ends at resort, and the second begins at Aulus Cæcina. In the second sentence, the first part ends at inclined, and the second begins at no one; and in the third, the first part ends at infinitude, and the second begins at our; between these words, therefore, in each sentence, must be inserted the long pause and rising inflection,
All these sentences commence with a conjunction, and may be said to have a correspondent conjunction commencing the second part of the sentence, not expressed but understood. In the first senten mencing with if, then is understood at the begining of the second part; the sense of this conjunctive adverb then may be plainly perceived to exist by inserting it in the sentence, and observing its suitableness when expressed.
If impudence prevailed as much in the forum and courts of justice, as insolence does in the country and places of less resort, then Aulus Cæcina would submit as much to the impudence of Sextus Æbutius in this cause, as he did before to his insolence when assaulted by him.
The same insertion of the word then might be made in the two last examples commencing with if, and the same suitableness would appear; for though correct and animated language tends to suppress as much as possible the words that are so implied in the sense as to make it unnecessary to express them, yet if when inserted they are suitable to the sense, it is a proof the structure of the sentence is perfectly the same, whether these superfluous words are expressed or not. The exception to this rule is when the emphatical word in the conditional part of the sentence is in di. rect opposition to another word in the conclusion, and a concession is implied in the former, in order to strengthen the argument in the latter: for in this case the middle of the sentence has the falling, and the lat. ter member the rising inflection.
If we have no regard for religion in youth, we ought to have some regard for it in áge.
If we have no regard for our own character, we ought to have some regard for the character of others. In these examples, we find the words youth and own character, have the falling inflection, and both periods end with the rising inflection ; but if these sentences had been formed so as to make the latter member a mere inference from, or consequence of, the former, the general rule would have taken place, and the first emphatic word would have had the rising, and the last the falling inflection.
If we have no regard for religion in youth, we have seldom any regard for it in dge.
If we have no regard for our own character, it can scarcely be expected that we should have any regard for the character of others.
Rule III. Direct periods, which commence with participles to the present tense, consist of two parts ; between which must be inserted the long pause and rising inflection.
EXAMPLE Having already shown how the fancy is affected by the works of nature, and afterwards considered in general both the works of nature and of art, how they mutually assist and complete each other, in forming such scenes and prospects as are apt to delight the mind of the beholder; I shall in this paper throw together some reflections on that particular art, which has a more immediate tendency than any other, to produce those primary pleas. ures of the imagination, which have hitherto been the subject of this discourse.
Spect. No. 415. The sense is suspended in this sentence till the word beholder, and here is to be placed the long pause and rising inflection; in this place also, it is evident, the word now might be inserted in perfect conformity to the sense.
RULE I. Every period, where the first part forms perfect sense by itself, but is modified or determined in its signification by the latter, has the rising inflection and long pause between these parts, as in the direct period.
Gratian very often recommends the fine taste, as the utmost perfection of an accomplished man. In this sentence the first member, ending at taste, forms perfect sense, but is qualified by the last; for Gratian is not said simply to recommend the fine taste, but to recommend it in a certain way; that is, as the utmost perfection of an accomplished man. The same may be observed of the following sentence :
Persons of good taste expect to be pleased, at the same time they are informed. Here perfect sense is formed at pleased ; but it is not meant that persons of good taste are pleased in general, but with reference to the time when they are informed; the words taste and pleased, therefore, in these sentences, we must pronounce with the rising inflection, and accompany this inflection with a pause; for the same reasons, the same pause and inflection