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of wholesome exercise, I admit, but also spondent is that the report of a church me, even so send I you.” And the pura leading up to a too-heavy luncheon at commission as rendered is not a de- pose for which his Father had sent him the club afterwards.
fense of the strikers, but a judge's
judge's he made clear in a single sentence: “I “To be well balanced ; to keep the decision against an accused whom he am come that they might have life, blend at a high state of perfection- has tried. Our answer to the second and that they might have it more that seems to me so worth while; as a is that it is one thing to condemn injus- abundantly." It was not the purpose of
. man often does it in England, with his tice and another to determine who Jesus to give the world new laws or never-ending interest in the Latin he are the unjust; one thing to condemn new institutions, religious or secular. got at Eton, his refusal to forsake for- every form of industry which enriches He came to give the world new lifeever his little Greek or French, simply some at the expense of others, quite 66 the life of God in the soul of man;" because the world at large knows little another thing to decide that the steel and he trusted that life to work out the and cares less for the true fragrance of trust is guilty of this injustice. Jesus necessary reconstruction of forms and life.
condemned Pharisees who devoured institutions. Doubtless they were to be “To keep our dreams of a higher widows' houses and for a pretense made worked out by his disciples, but not standard—and you know very well that long prayers, but he never tried and directly by his Church. when we were younger we thought condemned individual Pharisees for It is of the utmost importance that solemnly of standards—is the thing being guilty of this crime. “I judge no our presidents and governors, that will enrich a man beyond any man," he said. And again: “I came legislators and judges, should be inreckoning. To bold in the heart, un- not to judge the world, but to save the spired by the spirit of Christ ; but it is ashamed, some deathless line of Keats world.”
very undesirable that they should be or Shakespeare will make a man almost The Church is admirably equipped ecclesiastics. The attempt bas often an angel, mentally, and help him to be to arouse the public conscience against been made by the Church to assume more generous, more companionable, every form of injustice, but it has legislative and judicial functions. We more to be desired than rubies, when neither the equipment nor the personnel do not recall any instance in history
back to meet him and talk with for an investigation of persons, whether in which this attempt has been benehim after the lapse of years.
individual or corporate, who are accused ficial to the community. The Church "For the beauty we keep is the only of wrong-doing. It cannot compel the at- of Rome governed Italy. No patriotic beauty that counts in the final sum- tendance of witnesses, nor require them Italian desires to go back and re-estabming up. What is education, if we for- to submit to cross-examination, nor ad- lish the States of the Church. Luther get it. and lose it? A boy in the
minister oaths, nor convict them of in his battle with Rome entered into captured by the Germans and sent to perjury if they testify falsely, nor de political partnership with the princes a forlorn and lonely prison camp, told mand the production of books and of Germany, partly to protect the Protme that his remembrance of Shelley papers ; nor are its leaders generally estant Church, partly to purify the saved his reason. Over and over he fittel either by temperament or train- German Government. The partnership would say lines of magic, fragments ing for the task.
furnished some political protection but from this or that favorite poem, and We do not pass judgment on the cor- no political purification. The State he took on the very essence of that rectness of the report of the Inter- pulled the Church down; the Church 'blithe spirit' which Shelley has made church Commission, but we take this did not lift the State up. The Church the skylark's own.
incident as an occasion to restate our in England sought to modify the pro“ Is it, then, a little thing to remem- conception of the function of the Church ceedings of the civil courts by estabber all that we once loved ; that which of Christ.
lishing ecclesiastical courts, and so was poured into our poor brains by Christ was not in any strict sense a ameliorate the larshness of law by the teachers who knew that in the coming re-former. He made no attempt to re- introduction of what was called equity. days this beauty would stand us in construct the existing order of society. The result was so unsatisfactory that in good stead?
Slavery was universal; he said nothing this country in almost all the States “I think not. On the contrary, I about slavery. War was the chief honor- of the Union courts of equity have wish I could impress upon the genera- able profession ; he said nothing about been abandoned and powers which they tion now growing up the worth of that war and did not condemn the army. once exercised have been transferred to vast store of literature, from the Bible Government was an absolute monarchy; the courts of law. The bishops of the down, that has helped not only the he uttered no protest against monarchy Established Church were given seats in martyrs and the dreamers, but the and proposed no changes in the form of the House of Lords. It is said, and we practical men of all ages.”
government. Gluttony and drunkenness believe history justifies the saying, that were far worse in his day than in ours ; they have always been found as a body
he advocated neither total abstinence not to promote but to hinder political 6 I CAME NOT TO JUDGE nor prohibition. He strongly affirmed progress. The Puritan ecclesiastics sucTHE WORLD”
ceeded no better. The sons of the the permanence of the marriage tie and
the stability of the family; otherwise Puritans in New England have no wish WO correspondents on another he said nothing about the institutions to
back to the era when the Puritan page defend the investigation of of his day.
Church was the dominant power. the steel strike by the Interchurch It does not follow that Christians are The prophet Micah defines religion Commission. One compares its action not to be reformers. Even Jesus Christ as doing justly, loving mercy, and walkto that of a public defender of an is not to be blindly followed. The ing humbly with God. To organize our accused; the other defends it as neces- duties of the citizen in a free republic political, educational, and industrial insary to enable the Church to take note are not the same as the duties of a stitutions on the basis of Micah's defiof injustice and to use its moral power citizen in an imperial despotism. But nition is of the first importance. But to rescue the oppressed.
to his Church Christ gave a definite this cannot be done unless the spirit of to the first
commission : “As the Father hath sent Micah's definition is inspired in the
hearts of the men and women who constitute the community. Every indication on the part of the Church or the ministry to do the work rather than to inspire the workers we look upon with regret. It may not be more important to feed the springs that run among the valleys than to dig the channels and direct the water into its appointed courses; but there is no institution so well equipped as the Church and no individual except the mother so well situated as the minister to feed the springs, and unless they are fed the channels, however skillfully dug, will remain dry.
Since this article was begun we have received a letter from the widow of a clergyman widely known for his effective preaching of what may be called social Christianity, from which we make the following quotation :
We wanted to join in a world-encompassing compact that war should be no more. And we seem to be getting farther and farther away from that dream. The simplicity of the teaching of Jesus, to love God and our brother as ourselves, to live with the spirit of love and fellowship—we seem so far from that ideal.
The great Interchurch World Move- ference, Confidence, Co-operation, and ment for Christianity had a splendid in the other of which the greatest apsound to our ears. We had been deal
plause and most enthusiasm were for ing in world movements, and this seemed to satisfy our hopes for heal
the addresses which presented the real ing the wounds of the nations.
Christian side of industrial relations; That hope, too, has disappointed us, Honest to God friendliness and our churches are not thronged
one expression which brought down with home-coming soldiers, whose
the house. hearts have bee touched by the awful experiences and their own near- We share our correspondent's fear ness to eternity.
that the Church may be overlooking Is the Church overlooking some of some of the things that are her own, the things that are her own? Is she claiming all of the triumphs of her
that she may be losing something of Leader that rightly belong to her? It
her moral power in the community, may be we have looked for the leaven, because she is substituting the ambiwhich the Church is supposed to have, tion' to do the work of other organizawithin the Church. Possibly the
tions for the ambition to inspire all leaven we find there is stale, like the leaven of the Pharisees. Our leaven
organizations to do their own work should be like that of the woman Jesus well. noticed, who hid it from sight in the We believe that it is the function of meal.
the Church to furnish this hidden Yeast must be hidden to be found, and then we can only find it in its
yeast; to inspire with a passion for effects. It is like the wind; we hear righteousness men who will carry into the sound thereof, but no man can tell industry the spirit of human brotherwhence it comes or whither it goeth. hood, into education eagerness to im
And our correspondent gives a glow- part faith in the values of justice, ing account of two industrial meet- mercy, and humility, and into our ings largely composed of employers, courts and our legislatures more and which she has recently attended, in more that spirit of righteousness, peace, one of which the four points of the and good will which make the Nation principal address were Contact, Con- great.
THE SITUATION IN SOUTHEASTERN RUSSIA
BY GEORGE KENNAN
\HE Bolshevik debacle in Poland aspirations of the common people, and it he was quite willing to give reasopa
furnishes convincing proof, if he failed, therefore, to gain the whole- ble compensation to the previous owner.
proof were needed, that the armies hearted support of the class that might When General Denikine practically of Lenine and Trotsky are by no means
bave been most useful to him. No army assumed civil as well as military conso formidable as their recent victories can long continue to be victorious if it trol in southeastern Russia, he ignored in southeastern Russia and Siberia has behind it an apathetic, discontented, this natural desire of the peasants, and, would seem to indicate. The apparent or hostile population, and Denikine was following the lead of Kolchak, declared ease with which they defeated Kolchak defeated not by exceptional strength or that he had no authority to settle the and Denikine led the world to believe efficiency in the Bolshevik forces that land question, and that it must be left that there was no force in Russia
capa- confronted him, but by dissatisfaction for the consideration of a Constituent ble of withstanding them, and that it and dissension in his rear. The peasants Assembly, to be elected by the whole would be difficult, if not impossible, to and Cossacks upon whom he was mainly nation at some future time. This disapprevent them from overrunning Poland, dependent for support were alienated pointed and irritated the peasants, not the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and even or made apathetic by administrative only because they regarded it as an Persia. For this belief, however, there errors that he might have avoided if he evasion of their demands, but because never was any substantial foundation. had had more political sagacity.
it seemed to confirm a suspicion which The Bolsheviki no doubt are skillful One of the reasons for the unsympa- they already had that Denikine and his and successful propagandists; but as thetic attitude of the peasants toward advisers were acting in the interest of fighters they are not to be compared him was his treatment of the land ques- the nobility and the great landed pro with the disciplined armies of western tion. Land, to the Russian peasant, is prietors of the old régime. Europe, or even with the hastily assem- the most important and valuable thing Another grievance of the peasants bled and imperfectly trained soldiers in the world. Under the old régime he was the arbitrary and often unauthorof Poland. Their previous victories never had enough of it to satisfy his ized confiscation of their grain and other were due not to fighting efficiency, nor urgent needs, and when the Revolution personal property by Denikine's suborto exceptional skill in strategy, but gave him an opportunity to steal a few dinate officers. These seizures in many rather to lack of cohesion, unanimity, acres from a neighboring landlord he cases amounted almost to looting, and and patriotic enthusiasm in the forces did not hesitate to enlarge his holdings although they were made upon the plea that were opposed to them. This was in that way. But he knew nevertheless of urgent military necessity the people particularly the case in southeastern that he was not acting fairly and that resented them, just as they resented Russia. General Denikine was a sincere under some later form of goverument
similar acts of injustice on the part of patriot and a fairly competent military his claim to the land thus seized might the Bolsheviki. leader, but he had little administrative not be recognized. He was extremely Finally, the peasants were displeased capacity; he could not understand or anxious, therefore, to secure something when Denikine refused to recognize or did not regard the thoughts, wishes, and like a legal title, and in order to obtain co-operate with their own partisan lead
-men like Makhno—who had
organ- order to remove the causes of popular ment.with their hetman, concluded on ized independent bands of volunteers discontent that had existed under his April 13, they were given complete and were fighting the Bolsheviki on predecessor, he took up, first of all, the local autonomy, and were required their own account and in their own way. Iand question. In solving this difficult only to recognize General Wrangel as From a military point of view, the problem he followed in general outline their commander-in-chief and to refrain commander-in-chief was perhaps justi- the plan adopted at the time of the from negotiating independently with fied in declining to have anything to do emancipation of the serfs in 1861 ; that any foreign government or power. with irregular troops operating inde is, he combined allotments of land to The effect of these various decrees, pendently, even though they were fight the peasants with compensation to pre- concessions, and reforms was to unite ing a common enemy; but he would vious owners. Under this plan the peasants and Cossacks in loyal support have had heartier support from the peasant secured what he most wanted, of General Wrangel and his Governpeasants if he had taken a more sympa- viz., legal title to his actual holdings; ment. Thousands of volunteers flocked thetic attitude toward their representa- but he was required to pay a certain to his standard, and early in the sumtives in the field. sum annually into a Government fund
mer he felt strong enough to move out The main grievance of the Cossacks, for the future reimbursement of owners of the Crimea and attack the Soviet who compose so large a part of the from whom he had taken land unlaw- armies on the northern side of the Sea population of southeastern Russia, was
of Azov. In the course of a short but the failure of General Denikine to give
brilliant campaign he drove the Bolshthem the full measure of local autonomy
eviki out of Berdiansk, Melitopol, and to which they thought they were en
Alexandrovsk, and he now dominates titled. They had always held an ex
practically the whole of the Taurida ceptional position, as compared with
province and a part of the province of the great mass of common peasants, and
Ekaterinoslav, a territory that has more it did not seem to them that Denikine U RFA NE
than twice the area of Belgium. recognized this fact, or that he gave
This aggressive movement of General due consideration to their hereditary
Wrangel is evidently regarded by the right of self-government in local affairs.
Soviet Government with serious conThey therefore cooled toward him;
cern. On July 10 the Communist Cenlarge numbers of them deserted him,
tral Committee in Moscow sent to all and at the most critical moment in the
its branches throughout Soviet Russia campaign, when the Bolsheviki counter
the following telegram : attacked in force, he found himself
“During the most terrible moment practically unsupported by the most
of the struggle of the Russian and militant part of the whole population.
Ukrainian peasants against Poland All these things taken together weak
General Wrangel has launched an ened General Denikine, so that when
offensive in south Russia, intending to the crisis came he was unable to with
capture the most fertile sections of the stand the assault of even a mediocre
Ukraine and the Don. His offensive Bolshevik
has already caused the Soviet Republic due to administrative rather than mili
great difficulties. Each success of the tary incapacity. He did not deal tact
General, even the most modest one, defully with the political and civic prob
prives Soviet Russia of great quantities lems that were presented to him, and TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY GENERAL WRANGEL of grain, coal, and oil and causes a consequently lost popular confidence TO THE BOLSHEVIST HEADQUARTERS AT MOSCOW, spread of starvation, destitution, lack of and support.
fuel, and destruction of the means of When Denikine_was compelled by fully during the period of the Revo- transportation. The Communist party pressure from the Bolshevik forces to lution. Inasmuch, however, as the should understand that the liquidation withdraw from the northern Caucasus, allotment of land is intrusted to the of General Wrangel's undertaking is an he retired with the remnants of his township (volost) councils, the peasants, absolute necessity for Soviet Russia. beaten army to the Crimea, and there, who elect such councils, have virtual The Central Committee demands that disheartened by defeat, he turned over
control of division and distribution, all party branches and trade unions his command to General Wrangel. The and to some extent of reimbursement. .support with all possible energy the latter, as soon as practicable, organized In order to do away with another offensive started against Wrangel. No a Provisional Government, with Peter popular grievance, General Wrangel defeat of the Poles is possible without a B.Struveas Minister of Foreign Affairs strictly prohibited the unauthorized defeat of Wrangel. The red banner and M. N. Bernatzky as Minister of seizure of grain and other property be- must wave over the Crimea.” Finance;1 but at the same time he longing to the peasants, and gave orders General Wrangel's Government has publicly declared that he was taking that if his officers or soldiers resorted to now been recognized by France ; his control only temporarily, and that, so confiscation or looting they should be armies are more generally and heartily far as he was concerned, the future tried by court martial and shot. At the supported by the peasants and the Cosgovernment of Russia should be what same time he notified the people that, sacks than the armies of General Denithe people wished it to be. Then, in whenever possible, his officers would kine ever were, and his campaign north 1 Struve is an eminent publicist and a prominent
loan them army horses in order to help of the Sea of Azov has thus far been Constitutional Democrat who first became widely them get in their harvest. He also di- successful. If he is able to withstand the kuown as editor of the Russian journal Libera- rected that volunteer peasant organiza- forces that the Bolsheviki will perhaps tion,” published in Stuttgart. After his return to Russia, in 1905, he edited the daily newspaper
tions which were fighting the Bolshe- throw against him after they abandon “ Polar Star” in St. Petersburg and the monthly viki independently should not be in- the attempt to capture Poland, his review “Russian Thought in Moscow, and in
terfered with or treated as bandits, but 1907, as one of the candidates of the Constitutional
movement into the fertile valleys of the Democratic party, he was elected a member of the should be aided and encouraged so long Dnieper and the Don may be the beginSecond Duma. He is the author of a number of
as they opposed the common enemy and ning of a really national uprising books on political and economic subjects, and has been influential for many years in Russian politiobserved the laws of civilized warfare.
against the despotic oligarchy which cal affairs.
With the Don Cossacks General has ruled Russia for nearly three M. N. Bernatzky is a well-known economist, who
years. was Minister of Finance in the coalition Govern
Wrangel soon re-established friendly In Siberia such an uprising seems to be ment of Kerensky.
relations. By the terms of an agree already in progress.
Bain News Service
MRS. THEODORE ROOSEVELT TO TAKE AN ACTIVE
PART IN THE CAMPAIGN Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, will, the newspapers announce, speak during the coming campaign in furtherance of her husband's re-election to the
New York State Assembly
of the Bolsheviki
THE PILGRIM MOTHER—A STATUE BY PAUL WAYLAND BARTLETT This statue, when completed, will be erected at Provincetown, Massachusetts. The picture is
made from a sketch now on view in the Provincetown Towu Hall