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OCTOBER 20, 1920

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"HE RIGHT TO BOLT

ganize the Government at Washington by the White House, the President \HE proverbial man from Mars and put it upon an efficient basis, and

said : would find much to excite his that they cannot do this through the We need not close our eyes to the

satirical amusement in a Presi- agency of the Democratic party. Mr. fact that in the last analysis the miliential campaign on this planet. He Parsons is of the opinion that the prime

tary and naval strength of the great

Powers will be the final guarantee of would be struck with the almost duty of the American people is to ratify

the peace of the world. . hildlike enthusiasm

the Paris Covenant of the League of seriousness

How can a Power like the United with which political partisans treat

Nations without any radical modifica- States, for example—for I can speak ncidents of comparative unimportance

tions, and that this can be done only for no other_after signing this Treaty, n the struggle for electoral votes. A through the agency of the Democratic

if it contains elements which they do not believe will be

permanent, go three listinguished Democrat, for instance, party.

thousand miles away across the sea nnounces that he intends to vote

and report to its people that it has or Harding or an equally distin

made a settlement of the peace of the THE PRESIDENT AND quished Republican that he proposes to

world? It cannot do so. And yet there SENATOR SPENCER

underlies all of these transactions the polt his party ticket and support Cox.

NOTHER tempest in the political expectation on the part, for example, Whereupon the newspaper headlines

teapot has been stirred up by a

of Rumania, and of Czechoslovakia, re magnified as if the fate of the

and of Serbia, that if any covenants controversy between President Wilson Nation were at stake.

of this settlement are not observed, and Senator Spencer, of Missouri. The the United States will send her armies Two weeks ago Mr. Benedict Crowell,

and her navies to see that they are ecently Assistant Secretary of War in

observed. Che Wilson Administration and one of

In those circumstances, is it unrea

sonable that the United States should he most efficient members of that Ad

insist upon being satisfied that the setninistration, announced that he would

tlements are correct? upport Mr. Harding's candidacy. Last week Mr. Herbert Parsons, a lifelong

It seems to us that the reasonable Republican, active in both the Na

implication of these words is that if cional and State councils of the party,

Serbia and Rumania will assent to a or five years Chairman of the New

correct settlement of the Peace Treaty York County Republican Committee

they may count on military protection and later member of the Republican

from the United States. Nor do we National Committee, declared that he

understand why the President is so had decided to abandon his party affilia

exercised over Senator Spencer's assertions and would vote for Mr. Cox.

tion that Serbia and Rumania were The newspapers treated these inci

promised the military protection of Clents as if they were unprecedented

America if the League should be estaband epoch-making. On the contrary,

lished. For the President himself has such changes of political opinion are

said that Article X is the heart of the the ordinary occurrence of every politi

League and that under that Article al campaign. Mr. Crowell and Mr.

the United States would be morally Parsons have simply exercised the right

although not constitutionally bound to of private judgment—a fundamental po

protect other League members against litical right of every American citizen. U. S. SENATOR SELDEN P. SPENCER, OF MISSOURI territorial aggression. Such protection, Indeed, it is only because thousands of

in the final analysis, must be military. American voters do every four years Senator in a campaign speech asserted It was Mark Twain, we believe, who what these two gentlemen have just that the President in Paris had prom- settled the Bacon-Shakespeare controalone that the political pendulum swings ised Rumania and Serbia that the versy by saying that if William Shakemow towards a Republican and now United States would send her armies speare did not write the plays, then they towards a Democratic President. Other- and navies to protect them if the were written by another man of the wise the only way in which a party League of Nations should be estab- same name. If the President did not out of power could obtain administra- lished. The President declared this promise Serbia and Rumania military tive control would be by increasing its assertion to be false, and a statement protection on the occasion to which

has been given out at the White House Senator Spencer refers, he certainly The really important thing about the which gives the authorized text of what made them that promise in Article X. action of Mr. Crowell and Mr. Parsons the President said during an argument

We have called the matter a tempest is not that they have exchanged party at the Versailles Peace Conference, in a teapot, for it is not of the slightest affiliations, but that each has stated in which he was endeavoring to per- importance in this campaign what Presclearly what he considers to be the suade Serbia and Rumania to abandon sident Wilson did or did not say to primary issue of the campaign. Mr. some of their demands which he re- Serbia and Rumania. The important Crowell believes that the first thing for garded as unreasonable. In the course question is, Do the American people the American people to do is to reor- of the speech, in the words authorized want to enter now into a formal mili

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tary alliance in an endeavor to preserve

Administration has been trying to people have paid as high as thirty cents the peace of the world? Those who do impose its own copyrighted style of

a pound.” will vote for Governor Cox.

altruism upon all the world, the other
great governments have been engaged

Among the responsibilities which in something very much like a scram

will rest on the Republican party in

ble for the control of petroleum re- the next four years, according to Mr. MR. HARDING'S RECENT

sources everywhere. SPEECHES

Hoover, are the reorganization of the N his Western tour the speech of

In one of his speeches the Senator, in

business machinery of our Federal Gor. reply to a question from a heckler,

ernment and wider vision in the conmost attention was that at Des Moines, “How about the boys over in Ger

structive handling of great industrial Iowa, where, according to the news- many?" replied, as reported, “ They issues. Mr. Hoover discussed a budget paper headlines, he was reported as

haven't
any

system, the recasting of Government

business there.” This statehaving “scrapped” the League of

ment would seem to mark an intention departments, the handling of coal, Nations. It does not appear, however, of abandoning our allies in their task transportation and power problems, and

then named the three tasks of the Re from the text of the speech that he has

of forcing Germany to respect the terms abandoned the position he has taken of her surrender. We trust Mr. Har publican party :

1. Peace and an association of naheretofore ; for in that speech we find ding was misreported or will explain ;

tions. the following: what he thinks America ought to do to

2. Reorganized administration. As soon as possible after my elecsee that Germany does not escape the

3. Economic reconstruction. tion I shall advise with the best minds

just consequences of her war upon the in the United States ... to the end

world. that we shall have an association of

A FRANCO-ITALIAN nations for the promotion of interna

UNDERSTANDING tional peace, but one which shall so MR. HOOVER AND THE

HE French President and the Italian definitely safeguard our sovereignty

DEMOCRATIC ADMINISTRATION and recognize our ultimate and unmort

Premier recently met at Aix-lesgaged freedom of action that it will T Indianapolis, on October 9, Her. Bains, the well-known watering-place have back of it, not a divided and dis

bert Hoover made an important

in Savoy. Their friendly attitude (as tracted sentiment, but the united address concerning the League of Na

shown in the illustration on page 312) support of the American people.

tions. He stated that by its platform, signifies, we hope, a new feeling between At Omaha Mr. Harding remarked : by the action of its majority in the

the two peoples. Certainly the French Somebody wants to know if I am in Senate, and by Mr. Harding's repeated

can rely upon M. Barrère, their Amaccord with Senator Borah, or whether statements the Republican party was

bassador at Rome to make M. Mille I have promised Senator Johnson to pledged to undertake " to put into

rand's efforts as efficient as possible. scrap the League." He answered: living being the principles of an organ

The French fear the Teutons. Hence Well, it does not matter whether I

ized association of nations for the they have tried to hem in Germany and am in accord with Senator Boralı or not. As a matter of fact, I am not in preservation of peace.” The Republi

Austria in every political and economic complete accord with Senator Borah. can party, the speaker maintained, way. Certainly they do not favor a But as President of the United States could do this better than could the union between Germany and Austria. I would be in one position and as Democratic party. The Republican

The Italians fear the Slavs. Hence Senator he would be in another, and

party has “ I do not pretend that I will control

the skill and constructive they have tried to hem in Jugoslavia the Senate of the United States when

ability in its membership" to meet the to her own hinterland without such a I am President.

responsibilities of government, and “if port on the Adriatic as Fiume, with its Senator Johnson and I have never it fails to provide peace on terms that preponderant Italian population in the said anything about scrapping the

establish an organized international as- city proper, and without such less imLeague. The President scrapped the League himself.

sociation to prevent war

it should portant ports as Zara and Sebenico At Kansas City Mr. Harding, as and must pay to public opinion the

with their Italian populations. same penalty for that failure which we reported, made the following statement

As the French fear the Teutons, so concerning Article X:

demand should be paid by the Demo- they show corresponding favor to the This obligation assumed by the sigcratic party.” For

Slavs. natories of the Covenant is absolute

To have obstinately held up the

As the Italians fear the Slavs, so and unqualified. Whenever certain peace of the world for eighteen months, they show corresponding favor to any specific circumstances arise, no matter with its fearful cost to ourselves and Power which will check the Slav wareliow much we might regret it, we millions of helpless people, to have now to Rumania, now to Hungary, now would have to keep our promise or rejected the opportunity of amicable sneak out of it. Let no one be de- adjustment, ... is the greatest failure

even to Austria and Germany. ceived; the choice would be between of American statesmanship since the

Where the French, therefore, acted two things—war and dishonor.

Civil War. ... The “ solemn refer- in resentment of German treacheryArticle X is not only the most dan- endum” is not on the League, it is on as in their occupation of the city of gerous provision in the Covenant, but, the failure of the Democratic party. in its sinister possibilities, it is the

Frankfort--they did not have Italian most dangerous proposition ever pre

As to that failure the speaker pointed backing. sented to the American people.

out that the “total futility” of the When the Italians showed resentIn bis Oklahoma City speech Senator

Administration's methods was specially ment—as at the failure of the Paris Harding paid, as was natural in an oil shown in the handling of the sugar prob- Peace Conference to give Fiume to region, special attention to that in

lem.“ Here is a commodity,” said he, them—they did not get French backdustry, and remarked :

“in which the Administration could ing (even if M. Clemenceau did publicly

.. have supplied the American peo- dissociate himself from President WilSurely it must give pause to those of us, who would like to take a reason

ple ... at a retail price of not more son's extreme position with regard to able, practical view of the actual facts than twelve cents a pound. As a result that issue). in this world to know that, while our of its failure in this single item, our Since the Paris Conference the two

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gel. No doubt it is with that in mind that it is reported that France is sending General Weygand to support and advise General Wrangel, while London despatches state that the British commander of Kut-el-Amara fame, General C. V. F. Townshend, is on his way to the Crimea with the same purpose. Neither France nor Great Britain can afford to see a collapse of the antiBolshevist effort in the East.

A singular incident is the occupation of Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, by an "outlaw" or insurrectionist armymade up of Lithuanian regiments of the Polish army (that is, as we under

stand it, Lithuanians by nationality but (C) Kadel & Herliert

Poles by race) who believe that Vilna MEETING OF THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN PREMIERS AT AIX-LES-BAINS

should belong to Poland or should at M. Millerand and Signor Giolitti face each other in the center, the latter with hat in hand;

least have the right of self-determinaM. Barrère, French Ambassador to Italy, is at the left

tion. This was all but simultaneous nations have been growing apart. The armistice is described by M. Joffe, of with the Polish announcement that French are indignant at any signs of the Soviet delegates, as

the Soviet delegates, as " a peace with negotiations with Lithuania concerning

. Italian desire to renew relations with out victory and without vanquished.” an armistice and a line of demarcation Germany, and especially at Italian in- Under the terms of the armistice each between the armies of the two coundulgence towards Bolshevist Russia. Government recognizes the other as tries had been concluded. The situation Just now the French discern the fine having power to make a treaty, and it at Vilna is in some ways comparable to Italian hand behind the revival of talk is agreed that neither shall give support that brought about by d'Annunzio at in Austria favorable to union with Ger- to foreign military action against the many. On their part, the Italians assert other or itself intervene in any way in more loudly than ever that the French the internal affairs of the other. A neu

THE ENGLISH PRIME MINISTER are increasingly jealous of Italian pres. tral strip of territory of fifteen kilome

ON THE IRISH SITUATION tige in the Mediterranean, apparently ters is established, and the lines laid growing far more rapidly than theirsfor is not Italy now intrenched on the

sion of a recent address Tripolitan coast in Africa, on the the Ukraine. These lines apparently

to speak very definitely on the Irish situAdalian coast in Asia Minor, and on

ation. He does not believe in Viscount give the cities of Dvinsk to Poland and the island of Rhodes; and, by her pos- Rovno to Russia. No financial settle

Grey's Irish Dominion plan ; he rejects session of Trieste, Pola, Istria, and ment is included in the armistice agree

the idea of complete Irish independence, some of the islands, has she not really ment. The preliminary peace treaty

and he declares : made the Adriatic Sea an Italian lake must be ratified within fifteen days You cannot permit the country to be even without Fiume ? after it is signed. The armistice is for

debased into a condition of complete

anarchy, where a small body of assasFortunately for France and Italy, the twenty-one days, and if it is not broken

sins, real murder gangs, are dominatmen at the heads of the two Govern. after forty-eight hours by either side ing the country and terrorizing it, and ments look beyond the things of the will renew itself automatically.

making it impossible for reasonable moment. They see a future of unrest, All the indications are that Trotsky

men to come together to consider the perhaps of peril, for Europe unless

best way of governing their country. and Lenine have been anxious for

peace there is a good understanding between on the Polish front, as they well may What, then, is his constructive plan? the two foremost Latin countries. Such be, after the reverses of their armies He insists that the Home Rule Bill an understanding, it is announced, following the brilliant Polish attack now before Parliament will be carried reached at the Aix-les-Bains interview which drove a dangerous wedge through through by the Coalition, and that it is between M. Milleraud and Signor Gio- the Russian center. Under French mili- the best and fairest programme availlitti. It is to the effect that, as to im- tary advice, the Poles have abstained able. Mr. Asquith may call it " a paltry mediately pressing issues, France agrees from such an advance as would make compromise,” but it gives the Irish peoto give Italy a freer hand as regards their own line thin because of too broad

their own line thin because of too broad ple control of education, of courts, of Fiume, and Italy agrees to “stay put” extension. They hold an excellent po- licensing, of most taxation, of housing, as regards Germany and Russia. sition for defense and for striking at of railways, of land receipts, and of vulnerable Russian points.

much else.

One danger of an armistice between As to the Dominion plan, Mr. Lloyd THE ARMISTICE BETWEEN

Poland and Russia is that it leaves the George declared that Dominion Home POLAND AND THE REDS

Reds free to send reinforcements against Rule without power to have an army HE armistice agreement between the General Wrangel in the Crimean re- and navy would be a farce, and that an

Bolshevist Government and Poland gion. Wrangel has had notable suc- Irish army and navy meant conscription was signed on October 12, to take effect cesses, including, according to a late in England, for “you cannot have an on October 18, and will presumably be report, the capture of over 25,000 pris. army of 500,000 or 600,000 men in followed by a peace treaty in agree- oners. France appreciates the danger Ireland, commanded by Arthur Griffith ment with the armistice terms. The of Rell reinforcements against Wran- and Michael Collins, who vowed destrnc.

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THE IRISH TROUBLES-REFUGEES LEAVING BALBRIGGAN, COUNTY DUBLIN, AFTER THE SACKING
OF THE TOWN BY * BLACK AND TANS" AS A REPRISAL FOR THE KILLING OF TWO POLICEMEX

sion :

ion to this country, and only an army of about 100,000 here.” Ireland, he pointed out, was a serious peril in the World War. “And we are to trust to uck in our next war! Was there ever uch lunacy proposed by anybody?” Nor could he find "a single Irishman who has authority to speak for his countrymen who will say that he accepts Dominion Home Rule.”

Much curiosity had existed as to what the Prime Minister would say about the reprisals” in Ireland. He made a scathing indictment of the murdering and wounding of 280 policemen in Ireland in one year, not in fair fight, but mostly from lurking ambush, and commented: “I never read or heard a word of protest from the Sinn Feiners in Ireland, not a single syllable." Without justifying reprisals, he asked, “ Are the police in Ireland to stand up to be shot down like dogs in the streets without any attempt at defending them. selves?"

in 1911 in accordance with the will of be educated in private schools, but must Mr. Lloyd George's address was

Miss Caroline Phelps-Stokes for- be educated mainly in public or taxbrilliant, human, and moving. But we

The erection or improvement of supported schools." are afraid that it does not solve the

tenement-house dwellings in New We quote from the report's concluIrish question.

York City ; and for educational pur-
poses, in the education of Negroes
both in Africa and in the United

Among the good Negro schools are FAMINE IN CHINA

States, North American Indians, and

some which have achieved international needy deserving white students.

fame for pioneer service in democraAST July a friend of The Outlook,

tizing education. But the majority are traveling in China, reported a The trustees have devoted two-thirds

following the traditional school curric

ulum with too exclusive emphasis on widespread drought. Throughout the of the income of the Fund to the ad

bookish studies. populous provinces and vast plains of vancement of education and one-third

in the content of educaShantung and Honan, as far as the eye to housing improvement. In education

tion deňands that the curriculum shall could see, there was not a blade of it has dispensed its philanthropy as far impart culture through knowledge grain in sight.

as possible through existing institutions and practice related to the farm, the The inevitable result has followed. of proved experience and of assured shop, the office, and, above all, the

home. Some thirty-odd million people are future stability. To this end it has

Education must be closely related starving. There are a thousand deaths made scientific and exhaustive investi

to the actual life of those who have to a day. Whole families, it is said, have gation. Of Negro educational institu- be taught. It must take account of been self-poisoned and children have. tions alone it has; in co-operation with their instincts, experience, and interbeen sold to escape slow starvation.

ests, as distinct from those of people the United States Bureau of Education,

living in quite different conditions. Its The condition is serious ; the need of investigated nearly seven hundred and

aim must be to equip them for the life fifty. These are supported by private which they have to live. Hence the Japan will supply 500,000 bushels of charity to the extent of $3,000,000 main emphasis must be put, not on a rice, a despatch from Tokyo announces, annually; their plants and capital are

purely literary curriculum such as still estimated at no less than $28,000,000.

prevails in many schools, but on trainto relieve the famine. China, it is

ing in such necessities of actual life as added, will pay for the rice through a

And yet, says the report, “not a few health, hygiene, the making and keep

of these institutions were found to be ing of a home, the earning of a liveliBut China can ill afford to pay for actually fraudulent ventures, while hood, and civic knowledge and spirit. loans. She needs gifts. The Red Cross many were so inefficient as to be un

During the war, so we learn, the is the intermediary. It is taking imme- worthy of support.”

officials of the Fund were constantly diate measures to relieve the famine. “In view of the frequency of the called on for help in solving educational Mr. Crane, our Minister at Peking, terms "academy' and college' and problems connected with Negro troops has made the sensible suggestion that

• university,'

,”” the report continues, “it (most of the officials of the Fund were any funds contributed be used in pro- is important to note that over seventy- in active war service); and that both moting public works, thereby giving five per cent of the pupils of these in

five per cent of the pupils of these in- during and after the war the Fund coemployment to many famine sufferers. stitutions are elementary. In spite of operated with the War Time Commit

the large private contributions men- tee of the Churches and the War Work

tioned above, the number of pupils in Council of the Y. M. C. A.; finally, THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND

private schools is only seven per cent that it was also instrumental in forming REPORT of the first decade's work of ail children attending elementary the Inter-Racial Committee, which has

of the Phelps-Stokes Fund lias schools. It is apparent, therefore, that organized committees of white and coljust appeared. The Fund was founded the masses of the colored people cannot ored men in many communities to co

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