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operate in diminishing race friction. it because it always tends to promote “The New State,” reviewed in these The result is that riots have been contentment in a community. It is not pages a few years ago, maintained that averted and newspapers induced more true that all just government is founded democracy is not merely government actively to support the increase of educa- on the consent of the governed; but it by the majority. Democracy is mutual tional and health facilities for Negroes. is true that peaceful government and interest in one another's welfare, mu

the spirit of contentment in the citizens tual regard for one another's wishes, mu

are always founded on the consent of tual respect for one another's opinions. HOW I SHALL VOTE the governed. I believe in it because a It means faith in one another. DemocAND WHY

frank, full, and free conference par- racy is a “Get Together Club.” It is

ticipated in by all the parties interested founded on the fundamental principle THE response on the part of the in the organization to which they belong that out of a fair-minded, honest-hearted

one hundred and sixty-eight col- almost invariably produces a wiser plan comparison of different views and opin

lege presidents who complied than can beevolved by one autocrat work- ions a new plan can be created difwith my personal request for informa- ing in solitude, however wise he may be. ferent from and wiser than any plan tion as to their preferences among the I shall vote for Mr. Harding for which has been submitted to the conferPresidential candidates is a courtesy the reason which Mr. Herbert Par- ence. Democracy is nothing if it is not which I greatly appreciate. The result sons, formerly a prominent Republican creative. Mr. Wilson's endeavor to of their replies is reported in this issue leader, who has recently declared for create in the solitude of his own study of The Outlook. A majority of those Mr. Cox, assigns for voting against a plan for a brotherhood of nations, who replied not only stated their pref- Mr. Harding. “Mr. Harding,” says

and then submit it complete for accepterences but also

gave
the

Mr. Parsons, “has no constructive pro- ance, was inevitably a failure. It failed, Though not a college president, I ven- gramme, and says it is folly to be spe- not merely because it was inconsistent ture to accompany the able and illu- cific.” What Mr. Harding did say was : with the spirit if not with the letter of minating letters in this issue with a

Men ask me for a specific plan. I

our Constitution, but because it was frank statement of two chief reasons have none, because it was the specific inconsistent with that faith in his why I shall vote for Mr. Harding in plan and insistence on it that brought fellow-men which is essential to democthe approaching election.

about the scrapping of the Wilson

racy and without which no man can There are some families in which the

Covenant. It is too big for one man
to determine what the plan is going to

interpret or represent his fellow-men. father is the ruler. He decides all fam.

be. It is my task to so harmonize the My primary objection to the League of ily questions, solves all family prob- views of America that when we do take Nations is not that it is a bad plan, lems, and determines all family policies. up a plan all of us can be back of it.

but that it is not the Nation's plan, and His wife and children accept his de- Mr. Harding has no definite plan for no attempt has been made, either cisions and carry them out more or less a League ; but he has a very definite through Congress, or through public cordially.

plan for obtaining and harmonizing conventions, or through the press, or There are other families in which the the views of America, so that when the through private consultations, to secure father habitually consults with the vari- plan is worked out not merely the any participation of the people or their ous members of the family on all ques- President and his party, not merely representatives in forming the plan. tions which concern its well-being. He the Senate and the House of Repre

But I also think the plan as proposed seeks to ascertain, not merely what are

sentatives, but the great mass of the by Mr. Wilson and adopted by Mr. the interests, but also what are the American people shall be back of it. Cox is full of peril not only to America, wishes and the opinions of the wife and His plan he has thus stated :

but to the peace of the world. This the children. Even the little children

What is in my mind is the wisdom plan is, in brief, a military alliance of are taken into the family councils.

of calling into real conference the the civilized nations of the world to The first father is an autocrat. He ablest and most experienced minds of protect each other from aggression. may be a wise or a foolish autocrat, an this country, from whatever walks of

This purpose is embodied in Article X: unselfish or a selfish autocrat, regardful

life they may be derived and without

regard to party affiliation, to formulate The members of the League underof the interests of all or only of his own a definite, practical plan along the take to respect and preserve as against interests; but he is an autocrat. The lines already indicated for considera- external aggression the territorial insecond father is a democrat. The de- tion of the controlling foreign Powers. tegrity and existing political independcision reached after consultation may I shall vote for Mr. Harding pri

ence of all members of the League. In

case of any such aggression, or in case not always be the wisest, the results marily because I believe that this is of

any

threat or danger of such aggres. may not always be even the most satis- the way in which a democratic country sion, the Council shall advise upon factory to the family; but they are should act in dealing with a great

means by which this obligation shall

be fulfilled. reached by the democratic method. crisis. I do not believe that an auto

Temperamentally, I am a democrat. crat, however excellent his intentions, If America enters the League and I believe in the democratic spirit and however wise his judgment, should act subscribes to this article, it promises to the democratic method—in the family, for the Nation. I believe that the Na- join with other nations in preserving as in the school, in the church, in indus- tion should be inspired to act for itself, against external aggression the territry, and in the State. I believe in this and should form the plan as well as put torial integrity and political independmethod not because it always secures it into execution. For the same reason ence of all the members of the League. the best immediate results, but because that I desire to see the head of the I object to this plan because: it always tends to produce the best family consult with the family, the head 1. The Congress of 1920 has no characters. Children, pupils, industrial of the school with the pupils, the head authority to pledge the Congress of workers, citizens, are by this method of the mine or the factory with the 1922 to preserve the territorial integrity trained to self-government; and self- workers, I desire to see the head of the or political independence of any other government—that is, self-control—is Nation consult with the citizens. Miss nation. To make promises which we essential in every virtue. I believe in Follett, in a remarkable book entitled are not sure will be fulfilled is immoral

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for the individual and still more im- foreign Powers for safeguarding the our friend. “But I am alluding, not to moral for a nation.

future. Of these three plans, Mr. Har- a hermit-like withdrawal from the rush2. Our fathers were wise in not ding's seems to me the wisest. I had ing world of affairs now and then. I allowing one generation to pledge a hoped against hope that President Wil- refer to the ordinary wholesome peace future generation to a war policy. We son and the Senate could get together and quiet we all need practically every must meet our crises with brave hearts, some plan which would at least day of our lives—and do not get. I but we must also assume that our sons diminish the perils of the proposed mil. passed a great church this morning will not be less brave than we are. We itary alliance. That hope is gone. The while the funeral of a certain wellhave no moral right to pledge for them League has not secured peace, order, known motion-picture actress was being beforehand the sacrifice of their lives. or justice in Europe. Mr. Wilson's conducted, and there were vast crowds

3. To create an allied army and put scheme has thus far resulted only in around the doors, drawn thither through it under the control of an international bitter disappointment. I shall vote for curiosity and the magnet of publicity, , committee or to allow an international Mr. Harding because I believe that his scrambling and shoving one another committee to call at will an allied army proposal for dealing with this problem as only a New York mob seems able to into existence is not a wise method to by conference and co-operation prom- and as the casket was borne from promote international peace. It will be ises a better result.

the church I saw, to my amazement, a more likely to promote war..

A hundred and thirty years ago the motion-picture man on the opposite Both the Democratic and Republican people of the thirteen American colo- curb diligently turning his crank. Even parties, both Mr. Cox and Mr. Harding, nies formed a Union of States. This in death that poor young woman was believe in an international association. Union was formed not for them but by unable to escape the pitiless eye of the Mr. Harding has expressed his faith on them, through their representatives, camera! One would have thought that, this subject very clearly. "I am in favor after three years of deliberation and the final curtain lowered, she might of drafting, revising, or remaking an discussion, and it was a far wiser and have been allowed to be taken to her association of nations to maintain civili- more comprehensive document than any grave with some semblance of reverzation without surrendering anything man or small committee of men could ence. But no! she was too popular to we hold dear in our United States of have produced. I wish to see the United be lost to the movie ‘fans ? just yet, America." Observe the words “to States take its part in a similar demo- and on every screen of the city to night maintain civilization."

cratic fashion in forming, not a similar there will be thrown, as news, so many Both parties agree in favoring stated union of World Powers, but an associa- feet of film picturing the last pilgrimage meetings of an International Conference, tion of World Powers for a similar

tion of World Powers for a similar her poor body was to make in this democratic in its character, to consider purpose: To “establish justice, insure world. international problems and reach, if domestic tranquillity, provide for the Our sanctities are gone. You can possible, international agreements. Both common defense, promote the general shut off your telephone, yes; but you parties agree in favoring the creation of welfare, and secure the blessings of cannot prevent that little bell from an International Court to which civilized liberty to ourselves and our posterity.” ringing, though you can refuse, of nations may submit such questions as If we wish to do for the world what course, to answer it. The airplane floats may arise between them. To substitute our fathers did for this continent, above the most remote golf links nowathe appeal to reason for the appeal to can hope to do it only as days, and where you could only a few force has the sanction of all thoughtful possess the spirit and adopt the method years ago take a house in the far back men in all civilized nations.

of our fathers, the spirit of democracy country and put a hedge around yourBut suppose a barbaric nation which and the method of democracy. And I self, be miles from the railway and the disregards treaties, discards interna- shall vote for Mr. Harding because he flying motors that make the highway tional law, disowns all moral obligations, believes that this problem is too big for hum, you cannot now escape the vigiglorifies war, and knows no other prin- . any man to solve, and because I think lant and prying air-machine which can ciple than“ might makes right” again his proposal for national conference and swoop down upon the loneliest garden attacks civilization. With the history co-operation in producing a plan seems or the most desolate stretch of shore. of Germany just behind us, with the to me full of promise for a brotherhood The invasion of our privacy by all sorts threats of the Bolsheviki sounding in of nations which will be more pacific of modern inventions lends terror to our ears, with the unprovoked massacre and more practicable because demo- new brain discoveries. The war of unprotected Armenians fresh in our cratic in the method of its preparation fought by unseen foes; but never once memories, we cannot say that such an than the Wilson League of Nations. did the enemy fail to know, through uprising of barbarism is impossible.

LYMAN ABBOTT. scout planes, just where the opposing This is a real danger, and one which

army lay in wait. we have to consider, if not prepare for. THE DEATH OF PRIVACY

“I sometimes sigh for the old hushed Mr. Cox accepts Mr. Wilson's pro

days of our forefathers. Staye-coaches posal to form now a military alliance of TO longer," said the Young-Old may have been cumbersome and unthe civilized nations prepared to meet

Philosopher, stopping in for a comfortable, but it must have been a the assault of barbarism whenever it

chat the other morning, “is pleasure to live without being constantly Senators Johnson and there any privacy in the world." stared at. Life is now one long veranda Borah propose to do nothing now, but “Why, what do you mean?” we said. without the dignity of the simplest contrust the future to meet future dangers Only a few days ago we read an cealing balustrade; and if the hour when, if ever, they appear. Mr. Har- article by a man who contended that he ever comes—as, alas! it threatens to ding proposes, when elected, to call into could be more alone in a great city like do—when one's innermost thoughts conference some of the ablest and most New York, when he chose, than any. will be an open book to the rest of the experienced minds in America to co- where else. He did not except, as we world, then, surely, I will give up! operate with him and the Senate in recall, even the Desert of Sahara.” For I do like a hedge once in a while, forming a plan to be submitted to the “Oh, I grant you that,” answered

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Keystone View Co.

ELECTION AT VERSAILLES OF
FRANCE'S NEW PRESIDENT

President Millerand (at right center) accompanied by M. Bourgeois (President of the Council of the League of Nations) is seen while leaving the session of the National Assembly after

the Presidential election

(C) Keystone View Co.

COLLEGE PRESIDENTS ANSWER THE OUTLOOK'S

QUESTION

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HOW WILL YOU VOTE AND

AND WHY?

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TN September the Editor-in-Chief of the mind of the scholar and the educator a proportion-nearly ten per cent of

The Outlook sent to virtually every which are not always sufficiently consid- the total vote is recorded as undecided.

college president in the country a ered by the ordinary citizen. One of the In the time elapsed since these ballots letter which, except for details not most eminent of college presidents, a were mailed, however, that percentage necessary to be recounted here, was as man influential not only in academic has probably been reduced. follows:

spheres but also in practical affairs,
who desires for sufficient reasons that

GENERAL DISAPPOINTMENT Never in my lifetime, except perhaps in the Presidential election im

his name be not mentioned, has writ- To perpetrate a bull, there is one mediately preceding the Civil War,

ten giving the reasons for his vote, thing present in all these letters, namely, has there seemed to me to be as much

to which he appends the following the absence of enthusiasm. Indeed, this confusion as now in the public mind reflection :

very negative quality in a number of respecting political issues. For this I appreciate the compliment of your cases becomes positive disappointment reason I am asking a number of col- asking for views from college presi- and occasionally rises into disgust

. lege presidents to co-operate in a plan dents, but I doubt whether our hard- Perhaps the extreme expression of this to furnish guidance to a perplexed headed fellow-countrymen will be apcommunity.

feeling comes in a letter from the presipreciably affected by the opinions Since the foundation of the country,

dent of one of the best-known educa

given. At the outset of the World the college, with its later development,

tional institutions in the country. He the university, has had a special place

Kuhn in the Rocky Mountain News

expresses himself the more freely be of influence in America. Particularly

cause he knows we will observe his has it molded public affairs. This has

request to preserve his anonymity. He been manifest in many ways. For ex

wrote, explaining an inclination to vote ample, of our twenty-seven Presidents

for Harding in spite of his indecision, as eighteen have been college graduates.

follows: There is, therefore, during a Presidential campaign, special significance

Will have to hold but one nostril to in the political judgment, individual

vote for Harding, but two if I vote for and composite, of the heads of Amer

Cox. ican colleges and universities.

In general, however, the disappointYour vote for President ought to

ment is expressed more mildly. Thus be more than a vote. It is, or can be

President Silas Evans, whose resignamade, a word of leadership. I should

tion took effect almost simultaneously be glad if you would make use of The Outlook as a medium for conveying

with the mailing of his letter, writes that word to thie public.

from Occidental College (Los Angeles

, Yours sincerely,

California):
LYMAN ABBOTT.

Like many another citizen, I openly

confess to be politically confused. I The response was generous. One

have an abiding faith in the heart and hundred and sixty-eight college presi

purpose of Ameri ca, but a bewilderdents, representing every section of the

ing sense of humiliation in its present country, North, South, East, and West,

political morale and leaders. We seem and all but ten States of the Union,

weary of the virile idealism and exactrecorded their choice among the candi

War the Kaiser published the opin- ing statesmanship of Theodore Roosedates for President of the United ions of some eighty-three (I think

velt and Woodrow Wilson, and are States. Although The Outlook prom

that was the number) German pro- apparently content with the procedure fessors who unanimously supported

and tolerant of the tactics of our reised each college president that the

him in his aggressive attitude. Doubt- cent political conventions. The consecrecy of his ballot would be preserved

less this move had its effect on the ventions and their candidates were if he wished it, the great majority sent docile German mind, trained to rever- both a popular disappointment. in their votes without requesting se- ence for educational fiat and gov

I prefer the platform of the Democrecy.

ernmental direction-our Americans, cratic party. I have a sense of shame Almost one hundred and forty col- however, take from their college lead- in reading the Republican planks on lege presidents are therefore recorded ers the educational training they desire, Armenia, Mexico, and the League of by name and college in the accompany.

but they don't feel called on to follow Nations. Yet, to illustrate my political ing table. The arrangement is by col

them politically.

confusion, after taking a general per lege alphabetically.

is not with any expectation that

spective of the situation, I may,

al, vote the Republican ticket, espeOf itself the total vote arithmetically our readers will follow these college cially if the drift and spirit gathers a may not be significant. The straw presidents that we publish this vote, but

Jarger hope than at present, that the vote, even when cast by so influential a rather with the expectation that they Republican party will meet America's body as the college presidents of Amer. will be guided and enlightened not only obligation and responsibility in an ica, decides nothing; and, in spite of by the vote itself, but by the reasons ethical

way. I shall vote for Harding the cartoonist whose picture accom- which accompany it.

or Cox, and in either case shall ask panies this article, may be no guide, People who are mathematically in

God to forgive me. and is by no means always trustworthy. clined may be interested in the fact

Not to imply cynicism, I believe the

issues and men are quite up to the as an indication of the course of public that among the college presidents Haropinion. The judgment, however, of the ding polls 85 votes, Cox 63, Watkins 3,

average, but so very far short of the

, , 3 individuals here recorded should have

requirements of our day. The next and Debs 1, and 16 undecided. Many campaign will give us a newer and weight. There are reasons which sway readers may be surprised that so large better reaction, which will lift us to

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HE'S WITH US AGAIN!
From Dorothy Jenkins, Denver, Colorado

with

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