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guage.” What distinguishes the poet from

his fellow-men, he proceeds, is not the BY LLOYD R. MORRIS

peculiar nature of the images which inHE capacity for sharing vividly in the wide sense, and more particularly to

spire the poem, but the increasingly verbal

form of these images as they are reshaped poetic experience is a part of the the criticism of the romantic

revival, which cultivated feeling rather than thought, and

by the poet's imagination, and in the Lost of us perhaps would like to believe refused to admit that reason itself was

rhythmical or metrical character of their hat we have preserved it unblemished capable of arousing the emotions. To the

final expression. Poetry, Professor Erskine gainst the challenge of the recurring years, classical scholar, who admits Aristotle or

tells us in the exquisite and penetrating few would be willing to confess a spiritual Herodotus to the canon of literature as

essay which gives its title to his book, is an

invariable function of life. " terility so devastatingly complete as to freely as he does Homer or Euripides, and

Ordinarily," Reprive them of the ability to recapture

he says, "the emotions aroused by experi, to the French scholar, who reads as literahat magical insight which is an effect of ture Descartes or Voltaire or Rousseau,

ence are used up in the further process of beauty and which lies at the heart of the antithetical opposition of reason and living. The poet differs from his fellows poetic experience. But to many that expe- emotion in our common definition of litera

only in the greater power of his emotions, ience lacks, with the passing years, some- ture might well seem strange.

in the greater imperativeness of his intuihing of the exquisite glamour with which Even if we agree that we may


tions, whereby it is easier for him to ex

upon t first revealed itself, and they are prone

them in words than to consume them both history and philosophy for our greater


in life. The stimulus that enters the poet's co attribute to a fancied impermanence of understanding of poetry, we may well in

. beauty that which is rather the result of a quire into the character of their special

nature and comes out as epical or dramatic

or lyrical expression, enters equally the neglect to cultivate those attitudes which nake for insight.

nature of ordinary man and is consumed

in lyrical or epic or dramatic living. If our approach to poetry is colored by a not unnatural discouragement, we may

A poet's temperament prescribes into which

of the three genres his work shall fall ; none the less take heart. At some moment

and similarly the temperament of average of the past a brilliant interpreter or inspired teacher unlocked the magic case

men prescribes whether they shall live in

the present, or in the past, or in the ment and made us free of the larger world

future.” The qualities of poetry which we of beauty. If the power of his insight alone so greatly stimulated our receptivity

term lyrical, dramatic, or epic, he con

tinues, are as fundamental as the three to beauty, it is probable that some knowledge of his methods will go far toward

apprehensions of life which they imply

as simply a present moment, or as a enabling us to recapture those moods of ahe spirit in which the world of the im

present moment in which the past is

reaped, or as a present moment in which agination first exercised its dominion over

the future is promised.” us. What is the discipline which fosters

The two theories of poetry thus briefly such insights? The question is answered

indicated serve in a measure to differentiby one who is himself both poet and interpreter of poetry.

ate the attitudes toward poetry of the two In a charming essay on “ The Teaching

critics. Professor Perry is an advocate of

what he has termed the genetic method in of Poetry” in his recent volume, Professor Erskine remarks that it is the function of

criticism ; Professor Erskine, if we do not

misread him, conceives poetry as a domain Ehe teacher—and he might well have added, of the critic also—“ to afford a mediation

of human experience, a “function of life,” between great poets and their audience,

and he would interpret it in terms of itself

rather than in terms of its language, but - .. to supply the information, the background, whatever is lacking to make the

in the light of whatever wisdom intellireader at home with the book.” In order

gence has formulated out of its contact to supply this background the teacher or

contributions. History, Professor Erskine with experience. And the difference in

tells us, will make us contemporary with a the critic must draw upon both history

attitude, in what may be termed the phiand philosophy, must include in his defi- poem, but, once contemporary, the problems losophy of these two critics, determines nition of literature the literature of reason

of appreciation and interpretation remain ; very largely the character of the contribuas well as the literature of emotion. In

a mere knowledge of facts, however com- tion to our recovery of poetic experience other words, if we are to recover poetic

prehensive, will not solve them. How shall made by their books. Professor Perry, as experience, we must have some control

we proceed? “ To criticise a poem written we may imagine, is interested chiefly in over the facts and over the ideas which

yesterday or this morning one needs not a analyzing the “strange potencies of verse, Elave contributed to the inspiration of po

record but a theory of life. We pass judg- in its capacity to produce certain effects etry. As Professor Erskine points out, this

ment immediately on our neighbor's ac- upon the mind of the reader, and, more control is an instrument which we rarely

tions, on his thoughts or emotions, without particularly, in the method by which these enough possess. “We talk,” he says, “ of

going into his biography. . . . Poetry, a effects are produced. Professor Erskine, the ideas of evolution in In Memoriam,'

reflection of action or thought or feeling, is himself a poet, is vitally interested in the but we ignore those predecessors of Darwin

judged in no other way. The equipment of same questions as is Profesor Perry, but whom Tennyson studied, and Darwin him

the best teachers of literature is principally he is likewise concerned with poetry as a self, of course, we do not read. If it be this, that by experience or study they have means of apprehending, or, if you will, of urged that he did not write with felicity,

arrived at a coherent philosophy of life, interpreting, life. and therefore deserves to be counted out

and have therefore an instrument with In one thing, though perhaps they might of literature, what shall be said of Hobbes

which to take hold of new emotions and vigorously disagree with this statement, and Locke, of Berkeley and Hume, or how

new thoughts. It makes little difference the two critics are in decided agreement. Shall we dispose of such an historian as

what our philosophy is, so long as it is And the element common to their critical Gibbon?” The romantic definition which

sincere and thorough; of course the more equipment is that of method. Professor excludes from literature those books which

it explains of life and letters, the better it Erskine suggests his method of cultivating alo not essentially possess an emotional

is, but the desirable thing is to have some insight in his essay on “The Teaching of content is peculiar to English criticism, in philosophy."

Poetry," and gives us an example of its But what, after all, is poetry? We have application in another on

- The New The Kinds of Poetry and Other Essays. By

two definitions offered. “The field of Poetry.”. Professor Perry applies the John Erskine, Professor of English, Columbia poetry," says Professor Perry in his stim- method in his closely packed “ Study of University. Duffield & Co., New York.

ulating study, “is that portion of human Poetry,” interpreting the æsthetic as well A Study of Poetry. By 'Bliss Perry, Professor of English Literature Harvard University.

feeling which expresses itself through as the experiential background of poetry Hloughton Mifflin Company, Boston.

rhythmical and preferably metrical lan- in the light of his wide reading of litera


(C) Underwood & Underwood




ture, of science, and of philosophy. He gives an unusually clear analysis, supported by rich and apt quotation, of the effects of poetry upon the reader, and in the second part of his book he discusses with equal felicity a special type of poemthe lyric. The value of his essay lies in its vivid ability to provide us with those moments of lucid understanding in which poetic experience is restored to us. And it is to our additional advantage that Professor. Perry has the true critic's facility in making apparent to us not only what it is in poetry which moves us profoundly, but why we are profoundly moved.

Here, then, are two books in which the lover of poetry will rejoice, for they hold the key to those magic casements of which Keats wrote and which open upon

that world of beauty that is poetry. In tlte last analysis we sliall find in poetry only what we bring to it; the ripeness of our wisdom, the depth of our spiritual capacity, and the power of our reading of human experience are only so many instruments with which we may take hold of those experiences and ideas which have been its inspiration. And those books which provide the fortunate moments of spiritual apprehension which send us back to poetic experience with a more profound capacity are surely to be commended.

such stories, lead the reader in wrong
Heart of Unaga (The). By Ridgwell Cullum.

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.
Another story of the wilds of Canada
and of the Mounted Police. It would be
the better for compression and it is rather
too somber in its treatment.
Returned Empty. By Florence L. Barclay.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.

This story by the author of “The
Rosary is described as "a dramatic
story of reincarnation,” and it will doubt-
less appeal to the prevailing taste for
“psychic” fiction.
She Who Was Helena Cass. By Lawrence

Rising. The George H. Doran Company, New
Those who are fascinated by an appar-
ently insoluble mystery will find it in this
romance. It tells of the disappearance of
a beautiful American girl who stays over-





of the Canadian Mounted Police, who bez lieves himself at the point of deatlı, confesses to a murder which he never committed in order to save a man whom be supposes to be guilty but who is really innocent, only to find that the doctor las made a mistake, and that the sergeant's greatest danger of death is that of being hanged, is certainly arresting and peculiar. Wilderness Mine (The). By Harold Bindloss,

The Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, Wherever Mr. Bindloss begins one of his stories, they are pretty sure to more sooner or later to a Canadian lumber camp or mine. In this case one wishes it hail been sooner, for the Canadian part of the book is much the best.

BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS Hidden People (The). By Leo E. Miller.

Illustrated. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. The author is well known as a naturalist and explorer of South American countries. This tale is about two American college boys wrecked on the coast of South America. It is described as a boys' novel, but it is the kind of book that will appeal to all lovers of adventure.

ESSAYS AND CRITICISM Personal Prejudices. By Mrs. R. Clipstop

Sturgis. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Decidedly entertaining little chapters, these, that seem like the talk of a clever woman dictaphoned. People who like to listen to such a talker will find this book most enjoyable.

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION Westward with the Prince of Wales. By

W. Douglas Newton. D. Appleton & Co.,
New York.
The visit of the Prince to Canada and
the United States is brightly and interest-
ingly described. The author's comments on
things American are keen, discriminating,
and altogether friendly. The impression
one gets of the Prince is that he is thor-
'oughly likable and unspoiled.

Canteening Overseas. By Marian Baldwin.

The Macmillan Company, New York.

These letters home from a Y. M. C. A. .worker in France are made vivid by a natural descriptive touch, by an ever-present sense of humor, and by an admirable spirit. They are all the better for having been written informally and without idea of publication. The author had the opportunity of seeing the front, and later the occupied German zone at many points. Her impressions of Paris, Aix-les-Bains, Coblenz, and other places are full of human interest; there are very many pictures of soldier life, incidents thrilling and amusing, bits of character sketching The reader gets an intimate, near-by view of the American boys in khaki. Letterwriting is a gift, and the secret is usually in being simple, direct, and unaffected these letters exactly fit that description.

Pleasures of Collecting (The). By Gardner

Teall. Illustrated. The Century Company,
New York.

This book will interest people who aspire to become collectors rather than those who have already become specialists in any one line. It covers a multitude of fascinating hobbies in short chapters freely and attractively illustrated. Any one who harbors even the germ of the collecting habit will find it developing in the glowing atmosphere of the author's enthusiasm.



Cape Currey. By Rene Juta. Henry Holt &

Co., New York. Stories of secret gardens are always fascinating. This is also a story of Cape Colony more than a hundred years ago, of the British rule there, of a certain odd and whimsical doctor, and, as a matter of course, of love and adventure. Come Seven. By Octavus Roy Cohen. Dodd,

Mead & Co., New York. No one, at least for a long time, has written such rollicking and orginal stories of Negro life as these by Mr. Cohen. They

Courtesy of Houghton Mifflin Co. approach the burlesque in their fun, but they never fail to amuse. The titles of the separate stories are ingeniously phrased. night with her mother at an inn in a To our liking, “The Quicker the Dead” is

remote Spanish district. What makes the the best.

mystery remarkable is that, not only does

the giri disappear, but the room in which Flemish Legends. By Charles de Coster. Illustrated. Translated from the French by

she slept, with its furniture, hangings, and Harold Taylor. The Frederick A. Stokes

the like, disappears also, so that in the Company, New York.

morning the mother is neither able to find These strange Middle-Age legends were her daughter nor to find anything like the gather by de Coster during the last cen- room in which she left her the night before. tury from the folklore of Brabant and In other



is original, but its Flanders. They are Rabelaisian in form literary quality is not particularly good. but without the coarseness and rollicking Top o' the Morning. By Seumas MacManus. humor of the great French satirist. There

The Frederick A. Stokes Company, New

York. is much of somber beauty in the stories, but also much of the blood-lust of the period.

The author has again given us a volume

of short stories and character sketches of In the Onyx Lobby. By Carolyn Wells. The George H. Doran Company, New York.

Irish life and people that abound in raciThe singular accident by wliich the de

ness, true fancy, and thorough knowledge

of Irish character and dialect. One of tectives and the readers are put on the

these stories, we remember with pleasure, wrong track almost to the end of the book is cleverly invented. Otherwise we cannot

first appeared in The Outlook. In these

days of disturbance and tragedy in Ireland rank the book very highly in the con

it is restful to turn to such tales of genuine stantly multiplying number of books of this class.

humor and large-hearted human nature.

Valley of Silent Men (The). By James Oliver “No Clue !" By James Hay, Jr. Dodd, Mead Curwood. Illustrated. Cosmopolitan Book & Co., New York.

Corporation, New York. A cleverly constructed detective story, Mr. Curwood's story of the great Canabut one with very little genuine human in- dian north is well written, but is almost terest. The title is singularly inappro- too tense, too somber, and sometimes too priate, for there are only too many clues, trying in its horror to be a pleasant book. all of which, as is the wont of writers of The opening situation, in which a sergeant

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President Wilson, Senator Har- ests? Are they disloyal? If you think so,

to whom? ding, and France

What lessons for Americans do you see F President Wilson had not raised the in the action of the British coal miners?

question, would you be under the im- What is your definition for : Paradox,

pression that the French Government referendum, nationalization of industries, had sent an official representative to Sen- deputation? ator Harding telling him that France was In connection with this topic you will do looking to America “ to lead the way for a well, indeed, to read “ England After the new association of nations"? Or would

War,” by Frank Dilnot (Doubleday, Page), you have thought that some representative and “The New Industrial Unrest,” by R. of France, speaking informally for France, S. Baker (Doubleday, Page). suggested to Senator Harding that America should be the leader in such an asso

The Haitian Situation ciation ? Some people consider this incident as a

What relationship exists between Haiti trilling affair. Is it?

and the United States? When and under What are the provisions of the Federal

what circumstances did this relationship law dealing with the question of a private

come into existence ? American citizen communicating with any

What is the matter in Haiti ? What has foreign government or its agent? When the American Marine Corps done there? and why was this law passed ? Are its

Do you think our forces should be occupypenalties too severe or not severe enough? ing Haiti ? Has Senator Harding laid himself open to What is the policy of the Democratic a charge of having violated it?

Administration in Haiti? In your opinion, Do think the less said about this in

does or does not that policy injure our you cident the better? What are your reasons ? reputation with the various other Ameri

The Outlook says that President Wilson can republics? took an astonishing step in sending his

Why should an American citizen withinquiry to Senator Harding. What do you hold judgment upon the Haitian situation think The Outlook means? Do or do you

until the findings of the Court of Inquiry not agree with it?

are published ?
The Outlook also says that “the whole
affair is of importance only as an indica-

Theodore Roosevelt
tion of Mr. Wilson's mental processes.” What do the two contributions on pages
What is your opinion of this criticism?
How serious would it be for a foreign

366 to 371 tell you about Theodore Roose

velt which you did not know before? government officially to go over the head of our Chief Executive to appeal to the

Are any of the opinions and beliefs American people? Has the American Gov

which were held by Mr. Roosevelt in the ernment ever done this toward a foreign

eighties and expressed in these articles

still sound? government? Has a foreign government

Sketch American political history from done this toward the American Govern

1880 to 1884. What was the situation in ment? In your opinion, what contribution ougļt Who, at this time, were called the “stal

the Republican party during this time?

, this affair to make to popular education?

warts,” the “half-breeds,” and the “mug

wumps "? How many comparisons can you English Labor Blocks English make between the Presidential cainpaign Industry

of 1884 and the present one? What was

Mr. Roosevelt's attitude toward Blaine as How essential to Great Britain are her the Presidential candidate of the Repubcoal mines? Is her industrial supremacy lican party? largely due to her coal production?

What did Mr. Roosevelt do for the We are told that Great Britain keeps on cause of civil service ? How important do hand food enough to last only about a you regard his efforts in this cause ? month. In the light of this, what comment In its editorial entitled “ Theodore you make

upon the significance of the Roosevelt” what does The Outlook say British coal strike?

the test of personality is ? Is there any How much more strongly is labor organ- greater test of personality ? ized in Great Britain than in the United The Outlook tells us in this editorial States? Is labor organized there mainly on who the three outstanding personalities in political lines? Is it in the United States?

American political history are, but does not Should it be anywhere?

tell us who, in its opinion, our three greatIs the British coal strike a blow at con- est statesmen are. In your opinion, who are stitutional government? What are your they? What are your reasons for selecting reasons ?

the names you do? Do you consider that the British miners Do you believe that the personalities of are thinking soundly, economically ? Dis

men and women actually influence the cuss your answer.

course of history? Would the course of Are they acting in their own best inter- American history and world history have

been different had Mr. Roosevelt never i These questions and comments are designed not only for the use of current events classes and clubs,

been born? Upon what do you


your debating societies, teachers of history and English. belief? Is it possible to illustrate your and the like, but also for discussion in the home

answer ? and for suggestion to any reader who desires to study current affairs as well as to read about them.

Define the following terms: Hypercriti-THE EDITORS.

cal, escapades, asceticism, gyrations.

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