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THIS WEEK'S OUTLOOK

A WEEKLY OUTLINE STUDY OF CURRENT HISTORY!
BY J. MADISON GATHANY

SCARBOROUGH SCHOOL, SCARBOROUGH-ON-HUDSON, N. Y.

Treating Men White in Akron reasonably could be expected to go in

WR

Town

HAT changes does this article show have taken place in industrial management and relations within the last few years? What, in your opinion, is the significance of these changes?

What is the attitude of Socialists generally toward measures such as those described by Mr. Davenport in this article? What is your comment on the Socialist position in this matter?

Do you consider the gradual disappearance of the individual personal element in industry and the coming together of workmen in large groups a fortunate or an unfortunate factor in modern industrial life? What are the future possibilities of this change?

Do you understand how a day's pay in a modern industrial plant is determined? Who should be judge of what a day's pay

granting self-government to Ireland?

Was, or was not, the British Government wise in keeping MacSwiney in prison until he died? What reasons have you for your answer?

There are those who believe that the death of MacSwiney can be viewed in no other light than that of murder committed by the British Government. Should it be thus viewed, or should it be viewed as a self-inflicted death?

It is reported that our State Department has been requested by the American Commission on Irish Independence to grant a hearing on MacSwiney's death, with the object of securing an official Government protest in the name of humanity. Should our Government make such a protest?

What is a fanatic? Was MacSwiney a fanatic? Should he be regarded as a martyr? Do you think his death will aid the cause of Irish independence much? Does history show that causes have been

ought to be? If you were an employer, greatly aided by martyrdom? Can you

how would you determine what to pay your employees?

Is an employer a public benefactor because he provides work?

How many ways of eliminating ill will between employer and employee can you suggest?

To the working people whom you know are inducements held out that naturally lead them to take an interest in what they are doing? How essential is it that such an interest be established? For whom essential?

Evidently the concerns whose business is described by Mr. Davenport are endeavoring to inculcate the spirit of thrift in their employees. What is thrift? Can you make clear how it is both a personal and a National asset?

What, in your opinion, is the social value of the efforts described in this article?

What is the meaning of Projects, malinger, efficacy, intricacies, illiterate, litigation, paraphernalia?

If you have not done so yet, you ought to read "Unemployment," edited by J. E. Johnson (H. W. Wilson Co.); " Humanizing Industry," by R. C. Feld (Dutton); "Open Versus Closed Shop," by E. C. Robbins (H. W. Wilson); "Man to Man," by John Leitch (B. C. Forbes Co.).

Fanatic or Martyr?

The Outlook says that "from the point of view of reason and political common sense his [MacSwiney's] position was untenable." What are your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with The Outlook?

The Outlook speaks of the new Home Rule Bill which the British Government hopes will afford a means of compromise in settling the Irish problem. What are the provisions of this bill?

Has Great Britain gone as far as she 1 These questions and comments are designed not only for the use of current events classes and clubs, debating societies, teachers of history and English, and the like, but also for discussion in the home and for suggestions to any reader who desires to study current affairs as well as to read about them. -THE EDITORS.

prove your answer?

Can you

Explain the meaning of common sense,

criminal actions, surreptitious, abnega

tion, Sinn Feiners.

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How much do you know about the pub- This kind of sim

lic record of Venizelos?

Are there sufficient reasons for counting him among the foremost of living states

men?

Is Greece a democratic country? Is her Constitution democratic? Can you prove your answer?

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It is said that Greece is naturally a democracy. Who was the King of Greece in recent times who knew how to preserve his kingly dignity and at the same time live and act in a democratic manner?

What contributions has Athens made to civilization?

Was St. Paul justified in saying what he said about the Greeks? Where and under what conditions did he deliver this speech?

Here are some books of special interest in connection with this topic: "Eleutherios Venizelos, His Life and Work," by C. Kerefilos (Dutton); "Venizelos," by Richard Boardman (the DeVinne Press); "Constantine the First and the Greek People," by Paxton Hibben (Century).

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THE NATION'S
INDUSTRIAL
PROGRESS

Believing that the advance of business is a subject of vital interest and importance, The Outlook will present under the above heading frequent discussions of subjects of industrial and commercial interest. This department will include paragraphs of timely interest and articles of educational value dealing with the industrial upbuilding of the Nation. Comment and suggestions are invited.

THE PASSING OF THE HICK

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BY J. C. LONG

HERE may be nothing new under the sun, but, at any rate, some of the old things are gone. Along with the burial of John Barleycorn and the collapse of Deutschland über Alles, the world has witnessed the passing of the hick.

The straw between the teeth, the "by heck" vocabulary, and the vibrant chin whiskers survive only in the newspaper cartoons. There may still be provincials, there may be gold-brick buyers, as in days gone by, but these are more likely to be found over on Third Avenue and behind the notion counter than down on the farm.

The farmer of to-day affords the best clothes, subscribes to the foremost magazines, comes into town to see the latest show, knows more about the League of Nations than does the State Department, and snaps his fingers at the erstwhile waxmustached villain who used to hold the fatal mortgage.

What has brought about this change? Some say it has been the work of the county improvement leagues. Right. Some call it the influence of the extension of the State universities. Correct. Some give the credit to the development of the telephone and the telegraph. True enough. All these causes have been contributory, but the means whereby they have been able to contribute so largely has been the multiplying use of the automobile.

Civilization follows the line of communication. The development of the railways carried education, culture, and prosperity to all sections of the Nation-at given points. The United States became dotted with centers of population which enjoyed all the privileges and perquisites of a modern age. But the farmer who lived at any distance from the railway station remained without these advantages because of lack of transportation.

A National association (National Automobile Chamber of Commerce) recently sent out question cards to thousands of car users in all parts of the Union asking how the owner used his motor vehicle, what it meant in the terms of business, increased productivity, social conditions, and recreation. To most of the owners the passenger car has meant added wellbeing in one form or another, but the answers from the farmers led every other class in the multiplicity of the social contacts and opportunities resulting from the coming of the automobile.

Some idea of the variety of uses for a car on the farm is suggested in this reply from one owner:

"Car is used to carry some of smaller live stock and products from farm, cow and pig feed, church and social calls, movies, as a tender for tractors, to carry water to stock in dry time, funerals, etc.'

Or from another rural owner: "Enables

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THE NATION'S INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS (Continued)

family to attend lectures, etc., in city eight miles distant. Can do in one-half hour what it takes three to four hours to do with horse.'

A third writes: "If it was not for the car, we could not have any social life to speak of."

Whatever idiosyncrasies the old-time. farmer may have had, he compensated for them by his industry and his Yankee shrewdness. This latter quality made him quick to recognize that the automobile was not a wooden nutmeg, but an article which would prove of substantial use in addition to furnishing pleasure.

Accordingly the great growth of the motor-vehicle industry in the past ten years has been based on the solid foundation of farmer demand. It has been estimated that at least a third of the passenger cars in the Nation are owned by farmers. Cars are thickest in farming areas. The eight States which have the greatest density of cars in relation to population are California, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, Wyoming.

California includes, to be a sure, a large amount of tourist travel, but her large fruit-growing areas form the basis for her pre-eminence in passenger-car demand. In Montana and Wyoming the heavy use of cars in relation to population can be accounted for by the great distances and the efficiency of the motor car in ranching. Iowa has been in the front rank for years as a large owner of cars in relation to population, and as a State showing heavy increases in registration.

The largest gross gain in car registra tions during the past year was fairly well divided between the semi-industrial and entirely farming States. New York, Ohio, Illinois, and Pennsylvania lead in the number of additional cars registered. These States, though possessing large cities, have extensive farming areas which are a dominant factor in their car-buying power. Although New York City has about half the population of the State, it uses only thirty-five per cent of the passenger cars. The fifth, sixth, and seventh States to show the largest increases in registration were Iowa, Texas, and California.

The most recent part of the country to be changed by the coming of the automobile has been the cotton States area. South of the Mason and Dixon line the stubborn blue mule has occupied the place of the old gray mare. The black farm hand did not desire anything faster than animal power, and his employer was inclined to put up with conditions as they were.

But the World War changed all that Mr. Crowder took Rastus and the quartermaster-general bought Maud. The best driving horses were needed for the cavalry, and the South found itself without labor and without transportation. For tunately, the high price of cotton, the demand for the products of the mills, and the location of many of the camps in the South provided capital.

Much of this capital has been invested in cars, so that the labor and transportation problem was met.

The greater percentage of increase in car registration last year was in the Southern States, though some of the Northern States because of their heavier population showed a larger gross increase, as noted above. North Carolina led the Union by showing a gain of fifty-one per cent in automobile

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gistrations over the preceding year. uth Carolina had forty-one per cent ore cars than ever before. Kentucky. creased thirty-six per cent, and the cord for Texas was thirty-three per cent ger. The six next States in this rating ere Oregon, Wyoming, Maine, Idaho, eorgia, and Iowa. All of which goes to ow that the cotton-grower is taking a af from the experience of the planter of ain, the rancher, and the fruit-grower. It is doubtful if the farmer would have opted the automobile so universally had served merely to take him more readily hear Will Carleton at the Lyceum Course. he car had to appeal to him in dollars d cents as well as in lectures and leisure. had to be a business partner, and it has en exactly that in seventy-eight per cent its farmer mileage. The answers to the nvass of car owners referred to above Lowed that of the of 4,600 miles average in annually by the farmer's car 3,588 iles were for business purposes.

This use of the car and truck on the rm works out for profit in various ways. saves labor. It makes possible more equent supervision of large areas. It ings fertilizer, implements, and other pplies from town when they are most eded. It enables the farmer to rush his oducts to the market when they are most demand, and permits the truck gardener see a much wider range of customers. Testimony from farmers in this canvass veals the fact that the efficiency of many doubled and tripled through use of the tomobile. The average of the replies ows an increase of sixty-eight per cent the business productivity of the car vner. As there are 2,466,000 car and uck owners in the United States, each creasing his output sixty-eight per cent a result of the automobile, the gain to e farming community as a result of the ming of the motor vehicle is equivalent 1,675,000 hired men equal in ability to e farmer car owner. As one rancher ex"Can double amount. Saves -resses it: e hired man when hauling to and from e ranch, also one team."

The men who have been clearing the round on, American farms during the 1st score of years have found their land nstantly increasing in value. During the renty years before automobiles came into e-that is, up to 1900-the population of e United States increased at the rate of yo and a half per cent a year and the rm values at the rate of $400,000,000 a ear. During the next sixteen years, which ad not yet given the farmer the full adantage of motor transportation which has ome since, the population increased only vo per cent, but the annual average inrease of farm values was $1,300,000,000. his means that during twenty years withat automobiles the population increased fty per cent and farm values fifty-seven er cent, while during sixteen years with utomobiles the population increased thirtyree per cent and farm values one hunred per cent. This amounts to a differnce of about $900,000,000 a year, a total f $14,400,000,000 in value due largely, if ot entirely, to the automobile.

The rural physician has multiplied three r four times the number of calls he can ake in a day since he has been able to ubstitute motor travel for the old-time orse and buggy. He can be summoned urriedly in urgent cases and arrive romptly, where in former times it took ours to reach the patient. He can visit he serious cases more than once a day. He can afford to visit those who are not

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