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son set forth his conception of the Another element in the policies and They are by no means all agreed as to Presidency. When he became Presi- practices of President Wilson's Admin- just what ought to be done; but they dent, he put that conception into prac- istration which the American people see very clearly that what has been done tice. He has frankly dominated the wish to replace with something differ- has not worked. They watched with Government. He has been content only ent is the kind of idealism that has interest, and some of them with eagerto work with executive associates whom shown itself incapable of expression in ness, the experiment of the League of he could control. He has undertaken practical form. They are not unmind- Nations. Whatever they may have not to consult with Congress but to ful of the peculiar and great difficulties thought of it in theory, they see that it direct it. The very manner of his deliv- that have attended the waging of war is not making headway in practice. ery of his Messages to Congress, his on an unprecedented scale thousands of Whether it is due to the inability of insistence upon his decisions in legisla- miles from home, nor of such remark- personal government to work under a tive matters (sometimes without reveal- able achievements as the preparation Constitution requiring consultation with ing his reasons, as in the question of and administration of the Selective the Senate, or whether it is due to the Panama Canal tolls), his appeals to the Service Law and the successful trans- sort of idealism that insists on drawing people on personal grounds, becoming portation of hundreds of thousands of up a utopian plan without due reference so pronounced as to lead him to term citizen soldiers across the seas; but to the facts, or whether it is due to those who disagreed with him imperti- they remember the events which led both, the League is at present an unpronent and ignorant, and not least his up to the proclamation of “ Peace with- ductive piece of machinery. The Amerpersonal conduct of foreign affairs in out victory” as an ideal, followed by ican people have seen a theory tried

, disregard of the popular judgment for the grim reality of Château Thierry with little regard to results; now they which he had himself asked-all are and the Argonne; they remember the are ready to see if another party can but examples of a deliberately formed promises about Liberty Bonds and the get results with little regard to theory. and openly acknowledged policy. When, unprevented drop in value; they re- The election is not so much a vote after blocking preparedness, he called member irritating taxes and the avoid- for Mr. Harding and the Republican this country to war, it was only after able waste. In the light of experience, party as it is a vote for the only alteraffronts directed by a hostile German they have determined to see whether native to Mr. Wilson and the Demo Government to him as the Nation's another party cannot be more successful cratic party. And it is well that it is Executive. After the country went in connecting ideals with reality and so. The President-elect and his party into war he was.endowed by Congress reality with ideals.

associates will be the more likely to set with an unprecedented personal author- As a result partly of personal govern

themselves to finding a way to prove ity in which the people acquiesced be- ment and partly of an impractical ideal- that the alternative is better. Already cause of the requirements of war, but ism, the American people have seen it is clear that the contrast after the under which during two years of virtual their foreign affairs almost hopelessly Fourth of next March will be sharp. Mr. peace they have become restive. This tangled. They know very well that Harding has made clear not merely by kind of personal government, this one- their country bas few real friends in the his words but by the whole expression of man power, the people wish terminated. world to-day, and they want a change. his mind and temperament that he be



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Nothing that we have seen throws more light on Senator Harding's personal qualities, particularly

his fairness and his reliance upon team work, than the following: The first is a quotation from an interview with Mr. The second is a statement of Mr. Harding's journalistic Harding by Edwin C. Hill, which was published in creed, which he gave to every reporter and writer on the the. New York“ Herald” October 31, two days before Marion “Star" during his active editorship of that journal: election :

“ Remember there are two sides to every question. Get “Is it fair to ask what you think of Wilson ?”

them both. Harding hesitated, and well he might. I happened to “ Be truthful. Get the facts. know that no one of the Senate had been treated with “ Mistakes are inevitable, but strive for accuracy. I would more deliberate contempt in the meetings between the

rather have one story exactly right than a hundred half wrong. President and the Foreign Relations Committee. I was

“ Be decent, be fair, be generous. prepared for a sharp comment.

“ Boost-don't knock. “You want my honest opinion, don't you? Well, here

“There's good in everybody. Bring out the good and it is: Woodrow Wilson will have his place in history as

never needlessly hurt the feelings of anybody. one of the most intellectual figures of a century and a

“In reporting a political gathering give the facts, tell half, a man of wonderful mentality, a man of fine ideas

the story as it is, not as you would like to have it. Treat

all parties alike. If there is any politics to be played, we usually. But the trouble with Wilson is that he has never

will play it in our editorial columns. understood the people. That has not been his fault alto

“Treat all religious matters reverently. gether. Lacking real understanding of the people, he let his

“If it can possibly be avoided, never bring ignominy personal ideals carry him to impossible lengths. He failed

to an innocent man or child in telling of the misdeeds or to understand that in this world of ours great good is

misfortunes of a relative. only obtainable by harmonious action, by good under

“ Don't wait to be asked, but do it without the asking, standing, by compromising differences, and getting to and above all be clean and never let a dirty word or something like a practical working basis of action. The suggestive story get into type. American people can never be driven, although they are “I want this paper so conducted that it can go into willing to be led. There has been Wilson's great blunder.” any home without destroying the innocence of any child.”

eres in consultation, in co-operation believe that the organization of a world progressivism, for it is not reactionary etween the executive and the legisla- army is a way to secure world peace or to see that damage to the foundations ve, in not overriding opposition but that autocratic methods are required of Government shall be repaired. ather in bringing together those who to make the world safe for democracy, Among the voters there were many em opposed and finding a common or that leaving delicate and difficult thousands who believed that this was ound, in ascertaining facts and shap- questions of international law to the not a time for change, that President g plans in accord with them, in letting final decisions of a committee of diplo- Wilson's stewardship should have been neory wait on understanding. In his mats is the way to establish interna- approved, that the further trial of his hole attitude Mr. Harding presents tional justice, or that reviving on a new plans and policies should have been antithesis to both personal govern- and world-wide scale a Venetian Court intrusted to Mr. Cox and his party. ent and impractical idealism.

of Ten is the way to secure liberty for If they are good Americans, these voters This election does not, cannot, mean all nations. America is the same Amer- will acquiesce in the verdict. They will at the American people have sud- ica. The idealism of its people is more set themselves to the task of using enly lost their idealism and become deeply rooted in the solid earth, but that their influence to the end that what is rdid and selfish, have lost their ambi- will make it only the more enduring good in the Wilson Administration is

. on to take part in world leadership The desire of Americans for peace is not lost to the country, that the dignity nd desire to follow the glory of a great more sanely guided by a desire for and strength of the executive is not ctory by retreating to a policy of liberty and justice as well, but that absorbed by the legislative branch, and olation, that from being a nation of will make it only the more likely of that in the effort to secure plans that oneers they have become a nation fulfillment.

will work there shall be maintained the E quitters. It means that they do not The election is not a desertion of spirit of sound ideals.

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THE DAY AFTER IN THE METROPOLITAN PRESS FF the editorials appearing during the York “Times” is a Democratic paper. which were here until the other day campaign in the newspapers sup

It does not relish the result of the and against falling prices to-day, reporting Governor Cox were to be election. In the course of its leading

sentment against the “exactions” of elieved, the country was headed for editorial it says:

labor up to the other day, and against

the industrial decline and rising unisaster, perfidy, and militarism unless

The League of Nations issue, the

employment to-day—all these oppoovernor Cox was elected. Now that

only one upon which the Democrats ne Nation in precedented fashion could have made any respectable

sites combined in one great weari

ness, into one mighty desire for a as chosen, not Mr. Cox, but Mr. Har- showing, was altogether submerged by change. Warren G. Harding and

this tidal wave. On that issue it is ang, it is natural for us to turn to the

plain that the Republican party, the ost influential of the Cox supporters

the Republican party have profited o learn how they face the end prereal Republicans, lost in strength,

thereby. . . . As against the Hearsts

and the Johnsons and the rest of votes, and character. Great numbers acted. Among the most intense advo

the motley who hail the death of of Republican men and women, intelates of Mr. Cox's election was the New

the Treaty and the League, these men ligent enough to examine the issue

-Hoover, Taft, Root-must know ork“ World,”. In its leading editorial and conscientious enough to put conI November 3 the 66 World

that thre Treaty cannot be rejected says :

viction above party, publicly and pri- without inviting catastrophe, and that

vately came to the support of GovAll of the restlessness and discon

world co-operation for peace cannot ernor Cox. It was futile, but it was tent bred of the war has finally found

be abandoned without our breaking significant. expression in the ballot-box, and the

faith with the dead in the Great War

Policies of domestic moment will enresult is Warren G. Harding.

and with the generations of the future. gage Mr. Harding's attention, policies The American people have dis- of which the importance for our pros

These men, if they have

een sincere played the same kind of political intel

in their protestations of faith in a perity and welfare cannot well be exligence that the people of New York

League, must now begin to fight as aggerated.

. . His problems will be displayed in 1917 when they threw

they have not fought before. the Nation's, and he will have the out the Mitchel administration and

The support that went to James M. loyal support of the Nation in his made John F. Hylan Mayor. Those

Cox because he stood manfully for a endeavors to solve them. The hope exploits in political prejudice are al

great ideal will rally behind Harding that he may have a successful Adminways expensive, and four

if he is true to that ideal.

istration will be universal. now the country will be in a better

The two leading Republican papers position to estimate the cost of this However nominally independent the

in New York are the New York TM Herlatest manifestation of its worst quali

New York “Evening Post ” has been, ties. it was as devoted to the cause of Gov

ald " (which has succeeded the old faAs to Mr. Harding himself, the

miliar“ Sun” of the morning) and the ernor Cox's election as either the

“ Tribune." “ World” can only wish him well. 66 Times

The satisfaction which

World.” But its edi. It is easy to abuse Woodrow

both papers feel is tempered with a torial comment on the result does not Wilson, but to succeed Woodrow Wil

sense of responsibility before the party son in the White House is a man's

appear to be quite so gloomy as theirs. job, and Mr. Harding will not have It pinned its faith to the League of

they support. They agree with their

Democratic contemporaries that the the aid either of a united party or of

Nations, and now it renews that faith those dominant qualities that can bat

vote was a vote against the Wilson by finding ground for hope in Mr. Har

Administration. The difference is that ter down opposition. He will have to ding's enlightenment. We quote' the go with a tide that runs erratically and following from its comment:

they approve of this revolt and expect

better things of the Administration of treacherously, and the very voters The colossal protest was against that have put him into the Presidency Woodrow Wilson, and everything that

President Harding. The “Tribune to do the impossible will be ready to

describes this revolt and expresses its

from every conceivable angle might destroy him at the first sign of failure. be attached to his name...

expectation in the following words :

Resentment both against the Treaty The country was weary of WilsonThough not recognized, like the and against delay in the Treaty, re- ism in all its inanifestations. It liked World,” as a party organ, the New sentment both against the high prices as little a foreign policy which intro

or the 6

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duced discord among our allies as it did a domestic policy which has brought the country to serious adversity. It was tired of parlor Bolshevism in high places, and likewise of a pretended pacifism whose proposals are practically always in the interest of poor Germany. It would have no more arraying of class against class and asked for an Administration intelligent enough to realize that only by accelerating production is the cost of living to be reduced. Extravagance, incompetence, narrowness at Washington, all these and many others were in the minds of voters as they marked their ballots.

Senator Harding has steadily grown in public estimation since his nomination. He has shown reserve power in avoiding the making of vote-getting promises. This is a good omen. The misrepresentations from which he has suffered lie broken at his feet. He

may wisely determine to forget them
and to remember only the responsi-
bilities of his mighty position.

The New York “Herald's" editorial
appears under the signature of its
owner, Frank A. Munsey, and concludes
as follows:

The price of victory is good service. In no other way can a President of these United States repay the people of the Nation for the confidence they have in him in electing him to the first office in the land, in electing him to one of the most exalted posts in all the world.

Senator Harding's place in history will rest with the men he calls to the service of his Administration. If they have youth, clear heads, genius for their jobs, honesty, loyalty, and the realization that the Government expects and demands of them the best there is in them, his Administration

will handle the business of the Gov. ernment better than it has ever been handled before.

Fortunately Senator Harding comes into the Presidency a free man. His Administration is not mortgaged to politicians, to financiers, or to aspirants for official honors.

This National Government of ours has no jobs for political hacks or political pensioners. This National Gorernment of ours has no jobs that may be checked out as rewards for political services. This National Government of ours recognizes no such obligation to any man or to any woman or to any political party.

The President who checks out Gov. ernment jobs to pay personal obligations isn't checking from his own bank account.

“To the victors belong the spoils." is a doctrine that has no place in this enlightened day.








Rhodes, and that will also be turned of vision, participation in the war

over to Greece if Britain relinquishes has resulted fortunately for Greece.

Cyprus to her. Thus 60,000 square Two and a half million of Greece's

miles of territory become hers, which people who before the war were living

includes all the principal ports of the under a foreign yoke have been brought

eastern Mediterranean. Salonika, the under her flag. Economically Greece

guardian of the eastern Mediterranean, is in a stronger position than most of

has been hers since the Balkan wars, the late belligerent states of Europe,

and to that she has now added Gallipand politically she has the backing,

oli, the guardian of the Dardanelles actually, if not acknowledged, of the

Straits, and Smyrna, the principal port strongest power in Europe to-day

of western Anatolia. Great Britain.

In addition, in the hinterland lie the How comes it that this little country,

rich fields of Macedonia, hers by the which did not enter the war until 1917,

formal recognition, now accorded by the and then with no guarantees as to her

Powers for the first time, of the Treaty share in the settlement, should have

of Bucharest of 1913; Thrace, with been so completely successful at the

the richest tobacco fields of eastern Peace Table? The answer to that

Europe, and capable, in addition, it is question is Eleutherios Venizelos.

estimated, of producing revenue sufiAbroad, the greatness of Venizelos

cient to wipe out the entire foreign is universally recognized—a statesman

debt of Greece, while the rich agriculmuch greater than his country, is the

tural soil of the Smyrna district would common verdict. At home, on the con

go far toward achieving the same result trary, so strong is the old Royalist

under modern intensive cultivation. party and so bitter the feeling against

In the Near East one often hears the him that it may be that even now he

question put: Can Greece hold all this will be unable to carry out his plans for

territory which has come to her ? the good of his country.


Just over the border of Epirus are I have just come from Athens, where HOWEVER, PARTISAN FEELING IS SO BITTER th Albanians, whose national conscious the Constantine movement is strong,

ness is rapidly awakening. Macedonia and where, in the heat of the pre

is seething with unrest, the spirit of election campaign, charges of question

sabotage is everywhere, and secret able character are freely made against possess southern Epirus and the Mace- societies are springing up on all sides the President, and particularly against donian littoral as far as Monastir, Farmers who have been in America his party. When the Greek Govern- Thrace, the Smyrna district of the dare not import modern agricultura ment, on July 29, signed the Peace Asia Minor littoral, and at the same machinery for fear war will come and Treaty, it meant that Greece was to time, by an agreement entered into destroy it all. The farms are not pro

with Italy, she receives all of the Dodec- ducing, and this in a country where 1 When I asked an American official how I should address Venizelos, be said : “As Mr. Presi.

anese Islands held by Italy since the three crops a year could be raised; dent or Your Excellency."-E. M.

Turkish war with the exception of nobody is doing anything. The Greeds


Wide World Photos





atrol is artificial, and so far rests al fuge would have helped him more, the purchasing value of normal times, ost solely on force.

which is characteristic of the great man but it is relatively higher than the Thrace presents quite another prob- that he is.

money of any country I visited last n. In spite of Bulgarian efforts to He is charged with having over- summer. This is attributed to the wise ove the contrary, the truth seems to stepped his authority in inviting Eng- financial policy of the Government dur

that the population of Thrace is lish and French troops to enter Sal- ing the war; to the large sums sent ided about equally between Turks onika, and again in asking them to home every year by Greeks in the Greeks. But Thrace possesses an intervene in Athens in the internal affairs United States, which last year amounted cerest for Bulgaria quite other than of the country. History will decide to 200,000,000 drachmas; to the large anological. It has belonged to Bul- whether Venizelos or the King had the earnings of the merchant marine, and ria since the first Balkan War, true interests of the country most at to the expenditures for the Allied ard there lay the richest tobacco fields heart, but there can be no question

heart, but there can be no question mies in the country. the country. In addition, in Thrace that if the Venizelos policies indorsed Further evidence of the increasing s the country's principal Ægean port, by the people were to be put through prosperity of the country can be seen deagatch, with all that that means he must have had help from his allies, in the number of new banks established intercourse with the Western world for the King possessed absolute power and the great increase in deposits, while an intelligent and thoroughly awa- to block their performance.

the International Finance Commission, ned people.

What would have happened in our brought into being at the conclusion of When I was in Bulgaria, in Septem- Revolution if Washington had not the Greco-Turkish War in 1898, and , feeling ran bitterly against the sought and obtained aid from France ?

sought and obtained aid from France ? having supervision of the sale of salt, reeks, coupled with the determination And yet no one calls Washington a petroleum, matches, playing cards, win back the territory. The town of traitor for having done so. There is stamped paper, emery from Naxos, topyrna is predominantly Greek, but an analogy in the two cases worth bacco, and of the custom duties at cere hinterland is ninety per cent Tark- noting.

tain ports, reported that their receipts . Certainly the method of Greek The reaction from the extreme lauda- last year were greater than during any eupation was not such as to induce tion of Venizelos in the Western world year of the life of the Commission and her Turks or Greeks to welcome it has set in, but it is only fair to ask double those of 1914. t to speak of the atrocities committed what the results of the Venizelos poli- In an effort to extend this prosperity Smyrna itself, for which there was cies have been for his country.

to the agricultural classes, laws have rhaps justification. The whole Aidin

been enacted by which the large estates lley was laid waste, without a single PROSPERITY ADDED TO EXPANSION

have been broken up, the former ownHage, or indeed a house, from Aya- Aside from the wonderful increase ers being indemnified by the state acalouk to Omerlu, that was not de- of territory and population which has cording to the findings of an expert oyed. In the Meander Valley, one of come to Greece during the ten years commission, and the state in turn sells richest in Turkey, the villages were Venizelos has practically been in con- to peasants, on easy terms and at a low completely wrecked, including the trol, what is the condition of the coun- rate of interest, only so much as each y next in size to Smyrna. This proc- try to-day? In spite of the fact that can till with his own hands. of dividing the Turkish Empire has the public debt has more than doubled These are but the beginnings of the ulted in destruction of property, loss since 1914, the growing prosperity is changes contemplated by the nationlife, violation of women, and at least greater than the increase in the debt. builder in order that the foundations rty thousand people becoming refu- The drachma, in common with the may be wisely laid for that expansion of es by December, 1919.

currency of the entire world, has not power and influence which many see beVENIZELOS AND THE ALLIES


BLACK Greece is holding this long line ex

SERBIA ding from the Adriatic in the west

Durazzo the southern Smyrna district in the


E -t, a distance of four hundred and


Kavala -y miles, with an army of about two

MUM ndred thousand men. Each section


Valona its own problems, but all united in

Gallipo omon bitter opposition to the Greeks, many claim that Venizelos will yet

janina - the day when he took over Thrace. e speech he made in 1913, in the amber of Deputies, declaring that ose who urged taking Thrace for eece were the true enemies of their

SMYRNA untry, is often quoted against him

Patras day.

THENS But, although I made every effort to cestigate the charges against him and

B 8 ked with many leaders of the Con

Dozen ntine party in Athens, I am bound say that in every concrete charge Sch was brought to my attention, en the facts all came out, right med to lie with Venizelos. That is

GREECE 1914 to say that errors have not been nmitted. But Venizelos is not afraid the truth and is content to let his

Territory Gained 1920 ord stand on its merits. He has a y of startling you with the simple








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fore the Greek people. They need, above all things, peace in which to prepare for that future, and that is what their

wisest man said to me when I asked
him about his plans for the future.

“ Peace," he said. “To get peace

for Greece in order that the country may become normal and stable."


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of its prestige. That left three large political groups in the arena :

(1) The Conservatives lack, as a party, the vigor which they show in individual initiative; they have a large parliamentary representation, but no nation-wide popular machine bebind.

(2) The Popular party has turned out to be merely one more of those hybrid attempts at reconciliation of Roman Church and Italian State.

(3) The Socialist party, ever more strong, reinforced by the natural reaction against war of a small country steadily bled for four years.

It stands to reason that any group of Italians seeking active, energetic po litical support in a country where divis

ions take place not along industrial but MERICANS are puzzled at the all sorts of political affiliations, carry

along political lines must necessarily significance of the recent indus- out their struggle under the leadership

hitch its wagon to the Socialist party. trial happenings in Italy. of Socialistic elements, thus giving to These economic disturbances should their movement all the appearances of

WHY THE WORKERS SINGLED OUT not be called “strikes,” even less

THE STEEL INDUSTRY a political upheaval ? lution,” for normal life existed to the 2. Why did the workers single out Meanwhile, a fairly serious economic very doors of the factories, the children the steel factories (which required the situation had developed in Italy. The playing in the street, near-by shops greatest amount of coal, and rivals who could not curb her terriopen, cafés doing a thriving business, therefore most unfit to resist outside torially began to apply economic pressand trolley cars running day and night boycott) and only sporadically other ure. The exchange situation became in front of the building over whose door plants ?

critical. Railway material was infini. was hoisted a little red rag of warning, 3. Why did the workers begin, as it tesimal. Tonnage was scarce. Austria not larger than those used by train were, at the end, by forcible seizure, had nothing more to give, and Italy's signal-men in America. You can imag- instead of formulating first a series of share of Germany's indemnity was ine, then, how I felt when, shortly after demands, and only resorting to the most

placed at the pitiful total of ten per landing, I was shown a copy of a extreme measure in case these demands cent of the whole. Emigration was at its leading New York daily with the fol- were denied ?

lowest ebb for a number of reasous. lowing cablegram:

British coal was slow to come; the British WHY THE LEADERSHIP WAS SOCIALIST London, Oct. 12. ... The Bolshevist

miners were not working overtime.

Italy entered the war, unprepared, in Tribunal sentenced to death Mario

Sarre Valley coal was just as slow; the Sonzino, President of the National May, 1915. She was helped in mainly German miners would not work under Association of Turin, and Constantino by Nationalist elements. A tremendous Frenchified Senegalese and Annamites. Rimula, a prison official. They were impetus to the infantile steel industry American travelers were given to unsentenced to be burned alive, accord- had to be given. The country must

derstand by an Administration preses ing to the despatches, but as the fires therefore close both eyes to the abuses which could not forget Fiume, and by in the furnaces had been put out they

which were taking place in the steel the “See America First” interests were shot and their bodies were thrown into the street.

factories-profiteering by the employ. which intensified their campaign on the

ers and exemption from active service eve of the July exodus, that Italy shouli Such “chamber of horrors" affairs for their families and protégés. The not be visited, the specious pretest were entirely foreign to Italian hap- Socialists emphasized these illegalities, being offered that the Wilson ukases penings.

created dissatisfaction, helped (if not on Adriatic matters would cause tourWhat did happen in Italy was sim- actually brought about) the Caporetto ists to be annoyed by public resentply a sudden, systematic, and obviously disaster in 1917, through a morale- ment. Thus another important source illegal “lock-in” or forcible occupation destroying process. But, with the coun- of income was denied to Italy. The of all steel factories and mills and allied try in vaded, Italy in 1918 silenced the entire country felt itself, a few months industries on the part of the workers, Socialists and ended the war at Vit- ago, under the menace of an impendwho refused to vacate them until the torio Veneto, after a year of intensive ing disaster. Something would go to Government, which had become the ar- manufacturing of all material and con- the wall soon ; what would be the first biter of the dispute, recognized the prin- sequent leniency toward the rapacity of industry? The steel industry, of course. ciple of inter-factory and intra-factory factory managers andowners. The Peace Let it be clearly understood that this co-operation between employers and Conference, however, gave an opportuConference, however, gave an opportu- industry is necessarily artificial in Itals

, employees.

nity for vengeance to the Socialists; they a country possessing little iron (and Three questions will present them- joined hands with the Jugoslavs, with that little not on the continent, but in selves to the mind of the American Mr. Wilson, and with the politicians of the island of Elba) and no coal. (Coal reader:

certain Allied lands. The Nationalist was worth 730 lire a ton in Italy when 1. Why did the workers, who have party in Italy lost a considerable share I sailed away.) When there raged a

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