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spired with an ideal which they really The so-called "problem of military duct and of a mechanically perfect drill

, wished to live up to, and I did a good discipline in a democracy” is no longer they show a largeness of temper in putdeal of talking with all the skill at my a problem under some such plan as that ting up with harsh orders and restricted command and with as little preaching above described. Even if the men are liberties just as citizens do in a town as possible about the pride a sailor takes merely interested in giving a good under martial law. They know it will in his work.

dramatization of perfect military con- not be so when the war is ended.



Glitters no scale or any fin
Between these blind basaltic walls;
The broad weed waves about within
The water of the pillared halls.
And here the old crustaceans
Crawl patiently across the sand
With twisting eyes that turn askance,
And ugly pincers that expand.
Light's essence in the gloomy sea
Through opal strained and emerald
Tinges the spread anemone,

And pearls of milk and rings of gold.
St. John's College, Cambridge, England.




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N this side of the Atlantic we are

evil Spirits an’ a Things that gang pretty well informed as to what

bump i’ the Nicht . Guid Lord de the Pilgrim Fathers found on

was a frequently repeated their arrival. It may be, however, worth

prayer from the Scottish Litany. On while to consider for a time what they

an average nearly a thousand men and left behind them.

women were annually done to death Much they abandoned certainly

for alleged witchcraft in the first half would not have been appreciated or

of the seventeenth century. even known to them. They were almost

The first fifth of this century (1600wholly plain country folk, used to hus

20) in Europe was a period of intense bandry and life on the land. They

interest in every form of human activsought freedom in Holland, and found

ity. At its beginning, Queen Elizait, but not happiness. Still

bethlike all the Tudor monarchs, "Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damas

most highly educated—was on the cus, better than all the waters of Is

throne of England. She was succeeded rael.” They agreed among themselves

in 1603 by James VI of Scotland and “ how grievous it was to live from

I of England-the most learned fool under the protection of the State of

in Christendom. Robert Cecil was still England,” and “how like we were to

chief adviser to the English crown. lose our language, and our name, of

Henry IV, the first of the Bourbons, English.” And, since the England of

was on the throne of France, and be James I would have none of them, save

fore our period was complete Richelieu at a price they would not pay, they set

was taking command of the policies of out in quest of “some corner of a for

Henry's comparatively insignificant soi, eign field” which they might make

Louis XIII. The last of the series of “ for ever England.” One of the rea

Medici Popes, Leo XI, sat in St. sons why they left Holland after a ten Much that they left behind them was Peter's Chair in Rome. years' sojourn was that in order to earn bad-perpetual strife between the couna living they were compelled to prac- tries of Europe; strife in the Church

POLITICS THEY LEFT BEHIND THEM tice the arts of the factory. Only by and between the Churches. Supersti- As usual, half the countries of Europe intense mechanical and indoor labor tion was as rampant then as it is to- were more or less at war. England was and by the use of an intensive child day, but then it was accompanied by fighting Ireland, which had the support labor were they able to get a bare living far more cruelty. Under the Tudors of Spain, which had at Lisbon (1599) in Holland. Further, they wished to re- the laws against witches were milder equipped a second Armada, turned to main English folk and to be under the than in other countries ; but under naught at its first sailing by a storm, English King, though they were as James I these laws were repealed, and The Poles were fighting Russia and anxious as anybody to put a quite con- he himself took an active part in the had taken Moscow. About the middle siderable distance between themselves cruel and senseless perseention. “From of our period the first of the Romanoffs, and His Majesty.

Witches, Warlocks, and Wurricoes, an' Michael, son of Philaret, Patriarch of

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scow, became Czar and founded the appy and tragic line of Romanoffs. in was fighting

for the Netherlands. Thirty Years War, which for three ndes devastated Central Europe, commenced in Bohemia by the act he Bohemian nobles, led by Thurn. y had revolted and hurled the two ents from a window of the palace Prague in 1618. In the following

Maurice the Stadtholder, who was ring with the Holy Roman Empire ich, as somebody-probably Lord ce-has pointed out, was neither y, nor Roman, nor an Empire), was euting Barneveldt and imprisoning tius in the castle of Louvestein. The garians were fighting and annexing - Transylvania and then Moldavia. oy was trying to annex Geneva. 1 so it all went on. Some of these essant wars were due to the ambis of the several rulers for more itory, some were due to religious pomies, many owed their being to a bination of the two. One doubts if Pilgrim Fathers, first at Amster2, then at Leyden, knew much about

if they knew, whether they d. They had other things to think ut.


Lll, or,

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From an Etching by Jacquemart



IR ENTERPRISING CONTEMPORARIES I was a period of great commercial vity. In 1600, owing to the increase he price of pepper by the Dutch, -se fault has ever been in “ giving too e and asking too much," an assoson of London merchants with one dred and twenty-five shareholders

a capital of £70,000 was formed trading with the East Indies. The

THE CELEBRATED PORTRAIT OF WILHEM VAN HEYTHUIJSEN, BY FRANS HALS, WHO merous Dutch companies trading in East amalgamated two years later

THIRTY-TWO, BUT WAS PROBABLY UNKNOWN TO THEM the Dutch East Indian Company, after ejecting the Portuguese from and a colony was first planted there in Tartars were invading China, and in Moluccas they monopolized the 1612. Champlain was in 1615 explor- the year of the Pilgrims' voyage proe trade. Two years later Henry IV ing Lake Huron, while the year before claimed their independence of that De Monts to colonize Acadia, and the United New Netherland Company, country. The Sikhs were fighting a apolis, then called Port Royal, recently established in Holland, received

recently established in Holland, received Holy War against the Mogul Emperfounded. Champlain was exploring territories at the mouth of the Hudson. ors. The Dutch about the same time western coast of North America. The intense desire to find a shorter were buying the island of Goree and following year the Barbadoes, “the way to China than that around the establishing Batavia in Java, and a British colony," was taken by the Cape was the cause of much explora- British company chartered to tish, but not "settled” until 1624, tion during our period. Henry Hudson trade with West Africa and establish

in 1607 John Smith was starting a made no less than four attempts to get forts on the Gambia and the Gold lement at Jamestown in the south round the north of America between Coast. In the East the Dutch had just Tirginia. Many years later Captain the years 1607 and 1611, on the third obtained permission to trade with n Smith, the hero of the Pocahontas of which he made his way one hundred Japan, while the British at the same y, offered his services to the Pil- and fifty miles up the river which bears time were making a settlement at Surat, 9. Fathers, but they were declined, his name. At the same time Champlain near Bombay, under the auspices of Sir

it is with a certain complacency was coming down from the northern Thomas Roe, Ambassador to Jehangin, ; the inveterate soldier of fortune lakes—in fact, these two explorers ap- the son of the great Mogul Emperor sus how their humorous ignorances proached within twenty leagues of each Akbar. Bed them for more than a year to other. In 1610 he penetrated into In 1616 the cultivation of tobacco ure a wonderful deal of misery with Hudson Bay, at once his monument was introduced into Virginia, probably infinite patience.” In 1608 Cham- and his grave.

much against James I's wishes, and n founded Quebec and began his pro

Some of these activities on the east- three years later the first colonial Pareted struggle with the Iroquois, and ern shores of America may have been liament, that of South Virginia, met at t year Paraguay was handed over known to the leaders of the Pilgrim Jamestown. This was the first constiSpain to the Jesuits, who established Fathers, but one doubts if they knew tutional, free-elected parliament in e a theocracy based on communism. or would have cared to know about the America, and but for the fact that a but the same time the Bermudas great changes which were taking place similar, but naturally much smaller, ine annexed by the Virginia Company in the Eastern World. The Manchu stitution had been established in the


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From a Spanish Print

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parts of the Schloss at Heidelberg, the
Friedrichsbau, was completed in 1607;
Velasquez was reaching the crowning
point of his career, and was shortly to be
asked to settle in Madrid and to accept
the appointment of Court painter.

The first oratorio, composed by
Cavaliere, was performed in the Ora-
tory at Rome in 1600, and at the same
time “Eurydice," the libretto by Rinuc-
cini, the music by Peri, was performed
at the marriage of Henry IV and Marie
de Medici. From it came modern opera.

Ben Jonson was publishing his “Vol-
pone," and beginning to compose plays
and niasques with music and scenery
which remained popular at the Court
until the Puritans cleared all this sort
of thing out of the country.

Shakespeare's sonnets appeared with-
out his sanction in 1609. Hamlet,”
published seven years previously, was the
first of his greater plays, the remainder
of which were written in the nine suc-
ceeding years.
The two supreme glories of the Eng-

was publishing his “ Anatomy of t


World" and his “Satires;" Role Bermudas a few months before it would lish tongue are Mr. " William Shake

Burton was publishing his “ Anator be reckoned second in point of time speare's comedies, histories, and trage

of Melancholy," which in later editie to the House of Commons in England. dies” and the wonderful translation of

he greatly enlarged. In the same year Negro slaves were the Bible ordered by King James I in

It was also the time for the esta brought to this “Plantation." the early part of our period. This was

lishment and inception of many learn William Baffin a year or two later published in 1611, and has ever been

and scientific societies and academie explored the great inlet afterwards known as the Authorized Version,

In 1603 Cesi established the Academ called by his name. Later he went which found its way to the hearts of

dei Lincei in Rome, and four yea East, and is said to have been mate in the English people as no otber book

later the Lutherans deserted Marbu a ship voyaging to Surat and Mocha. has ever done, and we may be sure it

in Hesse and founded in the san It is believed he was killed while help-found its way to the hearts of the

state a rival wiversity at Giessen. TI ing the Persians to expel the Portu- Pilgrim Fathers. guese from Ormuz.

Milton at the time of the Pilgrim

Ambrosian Library at Milan

started in 1609 by Cardinal Frederic A distinguished Spanish explorer, Fathers had just been painted by Cor

Borromeo and Francis de Sales, who Torres, in 1606 was sailing between nelius Janssen as a boy of ten." He

1608 had published his “Introducti New Guinea and Australia, through made a pleasing picture of a serious

to a Devout Life,” and he and M what we now call the Torres Straits. looking but charming boy. In 1614 Pietro della Valle was start

Stow had just completed his Survey

dame Chantal founded in 1610 the i of London and Coke was issuing his ing on his journey brough Syria,

male Order of the Visitation, model

on the Ursulines, which spread wi Persia, and India.

Law Reports and Casaubon his Com-
mentaries. “Don Quixote," the chief

great rapidity and met with the Pope THE ART THEY DIDN'T CARE FOR masterpiece of Cervantes —one of the

approval. The establishment of il The_world was shrinking. The Pil- great writers of all time—appeared

Fruchtbringende Geselschaft in W grim Fathers left behind them great

mar on the lines of the Italian societi within our period, and Lope de Vega heritages of art, literature, and science.

made literary circles in Germany po was then publishing his pastoral novels They were nearly all of them young

ular. Madame de Rambouillet began and his poems. Calderon was born with

form a circle of litterateurs which do men, few of them on the “shady side

the century. of thirty-two, and the twenty years at

inated French taste for a generatio

The same year that Cervantes pubthe beginning of the seventeenth cen

The Accademia della Crusca was issuir lished his “ Don Quixote” saw the birth tury were the formative years of their of Francis Bacon's “ Advancement of

its Dictionary, and various experimen lives. Still one doubts whether they Learning,” and his still greater " No

were being made with education.

But all these activities would have had any real appreciation of even the vum Organum was printed in the Dutch and Flemish art which they

left the Pilgrim Fathers unmoved, fo very year of the sailing of the Pilgrim can hardly have escaped seeing. Guido Fathers. Harvey, who was working they were beyond the sphere of the

vision. Reni, who died the same year as Galileo when Bacon was writing, said of him, (1642), was painting in Rome, and “He writes philosophy like a Lord SCIENCE FLOURISHED, BUT THEY Rubens had returned from his seven Chancellor.” This perhaps is true, but

DIDN'T KNOW IT years' study in Italy, and had settled his writings show him a man weak and But great as were the first years at Antwerp to become Court painter pitiful in some respects, yet with an the seventeenth century in art and to the Archduke Albert. He completed abiding hope, a sustained object in life, literature, they were equally great lis “Descent from the Cross” in 1612. one who sought through evil days and every branch of science. In 1613 thi Murillo and Rembrandt were born in in adverse conditions for the glory of New River, still the source of much our period, and Van Dyck, Goyen, and God and the relief of man's estate. London's water supply, was broug! Frans Hals were young men. Inigo Captain John Smith was almost be- into the city by Sir Hugh Myddeltog Jones was designing his magnificent ginning American

ginning American literature by the That, at any rate, the Pilgrims won palace at Whitehall after the manner publication of the “ True Relation of have appreciated and understood. of Palladio; only the banqueting hall Virginia ;" Donne, the melancholy and In 1600 Gilbert published his “ D was carried out. The most beautiful certainly morbid Dean of St. Paul's, Magnete,” the first considerable contr

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sun, he replied, “That is all very well,
but what are you going to do about
it?” However, this may be as apoc-
ryphal as the classical words put in the
astronomer's mouth on the occasion of
his recantation before the Inquisitor in
the Church of Santa Maria

Minerva: E pur si muove."

Napier, of Merchiston, had made known his discovery of logarithms and his friend Briggs published the first tables in 1617. A few years later the slide rule, which to-day plays a great part in physical and engineering science, was invented by Edmund Gunter. Algebra was being written in the notation we still employ, and decimals with their “damned little dots," as Lord Randolph Churchill described them, were coming into use. At the end of our period Drebbel constructed a thermom

eter, employing spirits of wine in his bution to British science since those bulb, and Bacon was suggesting that made by Roger Bacon nearly four cen- heat might be a form of motion. About turies before. Kircher invented the the same time a certain Dutchman

main and especially in England, recogmagic lantern, and the great Danish named Snell discovered the law of re- nized as proved in his own lifetime, astronomer, Tycho Brahe, died in the fraction of light and calculated its

and, again, no one of credit claimed or first year of our century. Kepler index for water and other substances.

asserted the claims of others to pri(1571-1630) was explaining the struc

ority. In research all inquirers stand ture of the eye and how images of


on steps others have built


but in objects as formed on the retina. He


this, the most important of single conwas also throwing much light on rain- On the biological side great discov- tributions to physiology, the credit is bows, tides, and the motion of the

eries were being made. Fabricius in Harvey's and almost Harvey's alone. planets. In 1608 Lippersheim, about 1603 discovered and described the Cowley, a man of wide culture, wrote an whom little or nothing seems to be valves in the veins, and nineteen years “Ode on Harvey,” in which his achieveknown, invented the telescope, and the later Assellius was for the first time ment was contrasted with a failing comnext year either Galileo or Joannides

describing the lacteal system. But most mon to scientific men of his own time, or both invented the microscope. There important of all, before the end of our and, so far as we can see, of all time: are very few clear-cut inventions in the period Harvey was lecturing in St. Harvey sought for Truth in Truth's world ; most are the result of successful Bartholomew's Hospital on his discov

own Book efforts of many inventors striving after ery of the circulation of the blood. The Creatures, which by God Himself common end. The telescope was Harvey, “the little choleric man,"

was writ; greatly improved by Jansen, a Dutch Aubrey calls him, was educated at And wisely thought 'twas fit, spectacle-maker, and by Galileo, who Cambridge and at Padua, and was in his

Not to read Comments only upon it, applied it to astronomy; for the first thirty-eighth year when, in his lectures

But on th' original itself to look. time the four satellites of Jupiter, the on anatomy, he expounded his new

Methinks in Arts' great Circle, others

stand mountains in the moon, Saturn's rings, doctrine of the circulation of the blood

Lock't up together, Hand in Hand. sun spots, and the various phases of to the College of Physicians, although

Every one leads as he is led Venus were seen by the human eye. his Exercitatio on this subject did not The same bare path they tread, Galileo determined the period of the appear till 1628. His notes for the lec

A Dance like Fairies a Fantastick revolution of the sun on its axis and

tures are now in the British Museum. round, confirmed his faith in the Copernican He was physician to Charles I, and it

But neither change their motion, nor system, which was indeed adopted by is on record how, during the baitle of

their ground; the learned of the time, although the Edgehill, he looked after the young

Had Harvey to this Road confin'd his world at large accepted the Ptolemaic princes as he sat reading a book under a


His noble Circle of the Blood had system-a system which, as a school- hedge a little removed from the fight. been untrodden yet. master, Milton taught. Mark Pattison In the chain of evidence of his conhas pointed out that these two systems vincing demonstration of the circula

As we have seen, the Pilgrim Fathers “confront each other in Milton's tion of the blood, one link, to be sup

left all these things behind them; "the poems in much the same relative posi- plied only by the invention of the com- rumors and the marching and the tion which they occupied in the mind pound microscope, was missing. This, strife;" unparalleled developments in of the public. The ordinary, habitual

the discovery of the capillaries, was due science, in literature, and in art. It mode of speaking of celestial phenomena

to Malpighi, who was among the earliest is more than probable that they knew is Ptolemaic; the conscious or doctrinal : anatomists to apply the compound mi

not what they left. Much of the activexposition of the same phenomena is

croscope to animal tissues. Still, ity of the first twenty years of the Copernican, As is well known, Galileo Dryden has it

seventeenth century was taken up with got into trouble with the Church, which,

The circling streams once thought but

religious and civil controversies and after all, did not treat him very harshly.

pools of blood

contentions ; to these we have not alThe Pope had to take official cogni- (Whether life's food or the body's

luded, for the Pilgrim Fathers did not zance of the heresy as Pope; but he food),

leave these behind-they took them seems to have been a kindly old gentle

From dark oblivion Harvey's name with them. man-at any rate, according to the

shall save.

For many of the facts and dates in the above story which relates that when Galileo

article I am indebted to “ Annals of Politics and Harvey was happy in two respects as

Culture," by G. P. Gooch, M.A., Cambridge Unitold him the earth moved round the regards his discovery. It was, in the versity Press, 1901.





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