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But in this watery depth no more
And when the climbing tentacles
The ships that ride a league above
WHAT THE PILGRIM FATHERS LEFT BEHIND THEM
BY SIR ARTHUR E. SHIPLEY, G.B.E., F.R.S., Sc.D.
N this side of the Atlantic we are pretty well informed as to what the Pilgrim Fathers found
their arrival. It may be, however, worth while to consider for a time what they • left behind them.
Much they abandoned certainly would not have been appreciated or even known to them. They were almost wholly plain country folk, used to husbandry and life on the land. They sought freedom in Holland, and found it, but not happiness. Still were "Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel." They agreed among themselves "how grievous it was to live from under the protection of the State of England," and "how like we were to lose our language, and our name, of English." And, since the England of James I would have none of them, save at a price they would not pay, they set out in quest of " some corner of a foreign field" which they might make for ever England." One of the reasons why they left Holland after a ten years' sojourn was that in order to earn a living they were compelled to practice the arts of the factory. Only by intense mechanical and indoor labor and by the use of an intensive child labor were they able to get a bare living in Holland. Further, they wished to remain English folk and to be under the English King, though they were as anxious as anybody to put a quite considerable distance between themselves and His Majesty.
evil Spirits an' a Things that gang bump i' the Nicht . . . Guid Lord de liver us," was a frequently repeated prayer from the Scottish Litany. On an average nearly a thousand men and women were annually done to death for alleged witchcraft in the first half of the seventeenth century.
The first fifth of this century (160020) in Europe was a period of intense interest in every form of human activ ity. At its beginning, Queen Eliza beth-like all the Tudor monarchs, most highly educated-was on the throne of England. She was succeeded in 1603 by James VI of Scotland and I of England-the most learned fool in Christendom. Robert Cecil was still chief adviser to the English crown. Henry IV, the first of the Bourbons, was on the throne of France, and be fore our period was complete Richelieu was taking command of the policies of Henry's comparatively insignificant son, Louis XIII. The last of the series of Medici Popes, Leo XI, sat in St. Peter's Chair in Rome.
POLITICS THEY LEFT BEHIND THEM As usual, half the countries of Europe were more or less at war. England was fighting Ireland, which had the support of Spain, which had at Lisbon (1599) equipped a second Armada, turned to naught at its first sailing by a storm. The Poles were fighting Russia and had taken Moscow. About the middle of our period the first of the Romanoffs, Michael, son of Philaret, Patriarch of
cow, became Czar and founded the appy and tragic line of Romanoffs. in was fighting for the Netherlands. Thirty Years' War, which for three des devastated Central Europe, commenced in Bohemia by the act he Bohemian nobles, led by Thurn. y had revolted and hurled the two ents from a window of the palace Prague in 1618. In the following -Maurice the Stadtholder, who was ring with the Holy Roman Empire ich, as somebody-probably Lord ce-has pointed out, was neither y, nor Roman, nor an Empire), was cuting Barneveldt and imprisoning tius in the castle of Louvestein. The ngarians were fighting and annexing - Transylvania and then Moldavia. oy was trying to annex Geneva. I so it all went on. Some of these ssant wars were due to the ambis of the several rulers for more itory, some were due to religious nomies, many owed their being to a bination of the two. One doubts if Pilgrim Fathers, first at Amster, then at Leyden, knew much about ll, or, if they knew, whether they d. They had other things to think at.
IR ENTERPRISING CONTEMPORARIES
was a period of great commercial vity. In 1600, owing to the increase he price of pepper by the Dutch, se fault has ever been in "giving too e and asking too much," an assoon of London merchants with one dred and twenty-five shareholders a capital of £70,000 was formed trading with the East Indies. The erous Dutch companies trading in East amalgamated two years later the Dutch East Indian Company, after ejecting the Portuguese from Moluccas they monopolized the e trade. Two years later Henry IV De Monts to colonize Acadia, and apolis, then called Port Royal, founded. Champlain was exploring western coast of North America. following year the Barbadoes, "the British colony," was taken by the ish, but not "settled" until 1624, in 1607 John Smith was starting a lement at Jamestown in the south Virginia. Many years later Captain n Smith, the hero of the Pocahontas y, offered his services to the Pila Fathers, but they were declined, it is with a certain complacency the inveterate soldier of fortune sus how "their humorous ignorances sed them for more than a year to ure a wonderful deal of misery with infinite patience." In '1608 Chamn founded Quebec and began his proted struggle with the Iroquois, and t year Paraguay was handed over Spain to the Jesuits, who established re a theocracy based on communism. out the same time the Bermudas e annexed by the Virginia Company
From an Etching by Jacquemart
THE CELEBRATED PORTRAIT OF WILHEM VAN HEYTHUIJSEN, BY FRANS HALS, WHO WAS A YOUNG MAN WHILE THE PILGRIM FATHERS WERE ON THE SHADY SIDE OF THIRTY-TWO, BUT WAS PROBABLY UNKNOWN TO THEM
and a colony was first planted there in 1612. Champlain was in 1615 exploring Lake Huron, while the year before the United New Netherland Company, recently established in Holland, received territories at the mouth of the Hudson.
The intense desire to find a shorter way to China than that around the Cape was the cause of much exploration during our period. Henry Hudson made no less than four attempts to get round the north of America between the years 1607 and 1611, on the third of which he made his way one hundred and fifty miles up the river which bears his name. At the same time Champlain was coming down from the northern lakes-in fact, these two explorers approached within twenty leagues of each other. In 1610 he penetrated into Hudson Bay, at once his monument and his grave.
Some of these activities on the eastern shores of America may have been known to the leaders of the Pilgrim Fathers, but one doubts if they knew or would have cared to know about the great changes which were taking place in the Eastern World. The Manchu
Tartars were invading China, and in the year of the Pilgrims' voyage proclaimed their independence of that country. The Sikhs were fighting a Holy War against the Mogul Emperors. The Dutch about the same time were buying the island of Goree and establishing Batavia in Java, and a British company was chartered to
trade with West Africa and establish forts on the Gambia and the Gold Coast. In the East the Dutch had just obtained permission to trade with Japan, while the British at the same time were making a settlement at Surat, near Bombay, under the auspices of Sir Thomas Roe, Ambassador to Jehangin, the son of the great Mogul Emperor Akbar.
In 1616 the cultivation of tobacco was introduced into Virginia, probably much against James I's wishes, and three years later the first colonial Parliament, that of South Virginia, met at Jamestown. This was the first constitutional, tutional, free-elected parliament in America, and but for the fact that a similar, but naturally much smaller, institution had been established in the
Bermudas a few months before it would be reckoned second in point of time to the House of Commons in England. In the same year Negro slaves were brought to this "Plantation."
William Baffin a year or two later explored the great inlet afterwards called by his name. Later he went East, and is said to have been mate in a ship voyaging to Surat and Mocha. It is believed he was killed while helping the Persians to expel the Portuguese from Ormuz.
A distinguished Spanish explorer, Torres, in 1606 was sailing between New Guinea and Australia, through what we now call the Torres Straits, In 1614 Pietro della Valle was starting on his journey through Syria, Persia, and India.
THE ART THEY DIDN'T CARE FOR The world was shrinking. The Pilgrim Fathers left behind them great heritages of art, literature, and science. They were nearly all of them young men, few of them on the "shady side of thirty-two, and the twenty years at the beginning of the seventeenth century were the formative years of their lives. Still one doubts whether they had any real appreciation of even the Dutch and Flemish art which they can hardly have escaped seeing. Guido Reni, who died the same year as Galileo (1642), was painting in Rome, and Rubens had returned from his seven years' study in Italy, and had settled at Antwerp to become Court painter to the Archduke Albert. He completed his "Descent from the Cross" in 1612. Murillo and Rembrandt were born in our period, and Van Dyck, Goyen, and Frans Hals were young men. Inigo Jones was designing his magnificent palace at Whitehall after the manner of Palladio; only the banqueting hall was carried out. The most beautiful
parts of the Schloss at Heidelberg, the Friedrichsbau, was completed in 1607; Velasquez was reaching the crowning point of his career, and was shortly to be asked to settle in Madrid and to accept the appointment of Court painter.
The first oratorio, composed by Cavaliere, was performed in the Oratory at Rome in 1600, and at the same time "Eurydice," the libretto by Rinuccini, the music by Peri, was performed at the marriage of Henry IV and Marie de Medici. From it came modern opera.
Ben Jonson was publishing his "Volpone," and beginning to compose plays and niasques with music and scenery which remained popular at the Court until the Puritans cleared all this sort of thing out of the country.
Shakespeare's sonnets appeared without his sanction in 1609. "Hamlet," published seven years previously, was the first of his greater plays, the remainder of which were written in the nine succeeding years.
The two supreme glories of the English tongue are Mr. "William Shakespeare's comedies, histories, and tragedies" and the wonderful translation of the Bible ordered by King James I in the early part of our period. This was published in 1611, and has ever been
as the Authorized Version, which found its way to the hearts of the English people as no other book has ever done, and we may be sure it found its way to the hearts of the Pilgrim Fathers.
Milton at the time of the Pilgrim Fathers had just been painted by Cornelius Janssen as He a boy of ten.' made a pleasing picture of a seriouslooking but charming boy.
Stow had just completed his Survey of London and Coke was issuing his Law Reports and Casaubon his Commentaries. "Don Quixote," the chief masterpiece of Cervantes-one of the. great writers of all time-appeared within our period, and Lope de Vega was then publishing his pastoral novels and his poems. Calderon was born with the century.
The same year that Cervantes published his "Don Quixote " saw the birth of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning," and his still greater "Novum Organum" was printed in the very year of the sailing of the Pilgrim Fathers. Harvey, who was working when Bacon was writing, said of him, "He writes philosophy like a Lord Chancellor." This perhaps is true, but his writings show him a man weak and pitiful in some respects, yet with an abiding hope, a sustained object in life, one who sought through evil days and in adverse conditions "for the glory of God and the relief of man's estate.'
Captain John Smith was almost beginning American literature by the publication of the "True Relation of Virginia;" Donne, the melancholy and certainly morbid Dean of St. Paul's,
CERVANTES, "ONE OF THE GREAT WRITER OF ALL TIME," WHOSE MASTERPIECE, "DO QUIXOTE," APPEARED WITHIN OUR PERIOD
was publishing his "Anatomy of th World" and his "Satires;" Robe Burton was publishing his "Anato of Melancholy," which in later editio he greatly enlarged.
It was also the time for the esta lishment and inception of many learn and scientific societies and academi In 1603 Cesi established the Academ dei Lincei in Rome, and four yea later the Lutherans deserted Marbu in Hesse and founded in the sa state a rival university at Giessen. T Ambrosian Library at Milan started in 1609 by Cardinal Frederi Borromeo and Francis de Sales, who 1608 had published his "Introducti to a Devout Life," and he and M dame Chantal founded in 1610 the f male Order of the Visitation, model on the Ursulines, which spread wi great rapidity and met with the Pop approval. The establishment of t Fruchtbringende Geselschaft in W
mar on the lines of the Italian societi made literary circles in Germany po ular. Madame de Rambouillet began form a circle of litterateurs which do inated French taste for a generation The Accademia della Crusca was issuin its Dictionary, and various experimen were being made with education.
But all these activities would hav left the Pilgrim Fathers unmoved, fo
they were beyond the sphere of the
SCIENCE FLOURISHED, BUT THEY
But great as were the first years o the seventeenth century in art and i literature, they were equally great i every branch of science. In 1613 th New River, still the source of much London's water supply, was brough into the city by Sir Hugh Myddelto That, at any rate, the Pilgrims wo have appreciated and understood.
In 1600 Gilbert published his "D Magnete," the first considerable contr
"GALILEO GOT INTO TROUBLE CHURCH" WITH HIS THEORY THAT THE EARTH MOVED ROUND THE SUN
bution to British science since those made by Roger Bacon nearly four centuries before. Kircher invented the magic lantern, and the great Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe, died in the
first year of our century. Kepler (1571-1630) was explaining the structure of the eye and how images of objects are formed on the retina. He was also throwing much light on rainbows, tides, and the motion of the planets. In 1608 Lippersheim, about whom little or nothing seems to be known, invented the telescope, and the next year either Galileo or Joannides or both invented the microscope. There are very few clear-cut inventions in the world; most are the result of successful efforts of many inventors striving after a common end. The telescope was greatly improved by Jansen, a Dutch spectacle-maker, and by Galileo, who applied it to astronomy; for the first time the four satellites of Jupiter, the mountains in the moon, Saturn's rings, sun spots, and the various phases of Venus were seen by the human eye. Galileo determined the period of the revolution of the sun on its axis and confirmed his faith in the Copernican system, which was indeed adopted by the learned of the time, although the world at large accepted the Ptolemaic system-a system which, as a schoolmaster, Milton taught. Mark Pattison has pointed out that these two systems confront each other" in Milton's poems in much the same relative position which they occupied in the mind of the public. The ordinary, habitual mode of speaking of celestial phenomena is Ptolemaic; the conscious or doctrinal exposition of the same phenomena is Copernican. As is well known, Galileo got into trouble with the Church, which, after all, did not treat him very harshly. The Pope had to take official cognizance of the heresy as Pope; but he seems to have been a kindly old gentleman-at any rate, according to the story which relates that when Galileo told him the earth moved round the
sun, he replied, "That is all very well, but what are you going to do about it?" However, this may be as apocryphal as the classical words put in the astronomer's mouth on the occasion of his recantation before the Inquisitor in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva: "E pur si muove."
Napier, of Merchiston, had made known his discovery of logarithms and his friend Briggs published the first tables in 1617. A few years later the slide rule, which to-day plays a great part in physical and engineering science, was invented by Edmund Gunter. Algebra was being written in the notation we still employ, and decimals with their "damned little dots," as Lord Randolph Churchill described them, were coming into use. At the end of our period Drebbel constructed a thermometer, employing spirits of wine in his bulb, and Bacon was suggesting that heat might be a form of motion. About the same time a certain Dutchman named Snell discovered the law of refraction of light and calculated its index for water and other substances.
ONE DOCTRINE THAT DID NOT
On the biological side great discoveries were being made. Fabricius in 1603 discovered and described the valves in the veins, and nineteen years later Assellius was for the first time describing the lacteal system. But most important of all, before the end of our period Harvey was lecturing in St. Bartholomew's Hospital on his discovery of the circulation of the blood. Harvey, "the little choleric man," as Aubrey calls him, was educated at Cambridge and at Padua, and was in his thirty-eighth year when, in his lectures on anatomy, he expounded his new doctrine of the circulation of the blood to the College of Physicians, although his Exercitatio on this subject did not appear till 1628. His notes for the lectures are now in the British Museum. He was physician to Charles I, and it is on record how, during the battle of Edgehill, he looked after the young princes as he sat reading a book under a hedge a little removed from the fight.
In the chain of evidence of his convincing demonstration of the circulation of the blood, one link, to be supplied only by the invention of the compound microscope, was missing. This, the discovery of the capillaries, was due to Malpighi, who was among the earliest anatomists to apply the compound microscope to animal tissues. Still, as Dryden has it
The circling streams once thought but
(Whether life's food or the body's
From dark oblivion Harvey's name
Harvey was happy in two respects as regards his discovery. It was, in the
main and especially in England, recognized as proved in his own lifetime, and, again, no one of credit claimed or asserted the claims of others to priority. In research all inquirers stand on steps others have built up; but in this, the most important of single contributions to physiology, the credit is Harvey's and almost Harvey's alone. Cowley, a man of wide culture, wrote an "Ode on Harvey," in which his achievement was contrasted with a failing common to scientific men of his own time, and, so far as we can see, of all time:
Harvey sought for Truth in Truth's
The Creatures, which by God Himself
And wisely thought 'twas fit,
Lock't up together, Hand in Hand.
The same bare path they tread, A Dance like Fairies a Fantastick round,
But neither change their motion, nor
Had Harvey to this Road confin'd his
His noble Circle of the Blood had
As we have seen, the Pilgrim Fathers left all these things behind them; "the rumors and the marching and the strife;" unparalleled developments in science, in literature, and in art. It is more than probable that they knew not what they left. Much of the activity of the first twenty years of the seventeenth century was taken up with religious and civil controversies and contentions; to these we have not alluded, for the Pilgrim Fathers did not leave these behind-they took them with them.
For many of the facts and dates in the above article I am indebted to "Annals of Politics and Culture," by G. P. Gooch, M.A., Cambridge University Press, 1901.