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the platform and at the dinner-table he was always more anxious to be just and many others of the score of volwhen the coffee cups have come in he is than to be clever. We remember that umes he published, lay not in epigram full of amiable discourse, brilliant anec- the “ Atlantic Monthly” once said or smart writing, but in sanity, human lote, and genial eloquence. No man something to the effect that the only sympathy, and love of that which is presides at a banquet or a board meet- trouble with Mr. Mabie as a critic was best in art and life. He was, to quote ing with a readier wit or with finer that he didn't say “ Damn” often Dr. van Dyke once more,
an author tact.”
enough. The reason was simple; he without a grudge, a teacher without a We have dwelt on this joyous, genial, believed in ignoring the weak and fool- rod, and an idealist without a fad.” yet always strong and sincere, side of ish in literature and held to Goethe's dic- Running through and beyond what Mr. Mabie's personality because it tum that the best critical quality is the Mr. Mabie wrote and did there stands was necessarily less known to the gen- ability to admire greatly.” The charm what he was, which may be summed up eral public than were his writings, and atmosphere of such books as Mr. Ma- in Theodore Roosevelt's declaration : and because it is so well brought out bie's “My Study Fire," "Backgrounds “He was one of the sweetest-tempered in this Life. In his critical capacity of Literature,” and “American Ideals and highest-minded men I ever met."
WHAT STARTED THE
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE BY MAIL AND
OF THE COUNTRY
TELEGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE FROM
“REPUBLICAN," TO THE OUTLOOK
as usual,” and entertain the delusion vote which Johnson himself would have
that they can get it by voting for it. got running on the same issue. ELECTORATE
There was also, of course, the reaction Various local causes also contribute
against President Wilson personally, CALIFORNIA
result. Attorney-General Palmer due to his obstinate tactlessness in the had brought, just before election, a suit last Congress and to the bugaboo of to dissolve the popular Raisin Growers' autocracy. In general, California likes Association. This confirmed central
autocracy. It supported Johnson and California and the fruit-growers genHE principal Roosevelt enthusiastically. But it wants erally in opposition to the Administra
cause affecting that autocracy emotional and crusading tion. Owing to the low Italian exthe election result on the side of the people, not coldly change, Sicilian lemons are displacing in California and intellectual on behalf of mere abstract California lemons in the New York neighboring States right.
market. This gave renewed importance is doubtless the gen
California, however, showed its usual to the tariff question in southern Calieral reaction which independence of voting, as between fornia. A slump in rice had a similar produced the same President and Senator. Four years ago
effect in northern California and a slump result elsewhere. Hiram Johnson for Senator (on the
in beans in the coast regions. Barley This reaction was Republican ticket) ran three hundred and figs produced a like effect in the based partly on facts thousand ahead of Hughes for Presi- districts growing them. Four years ago and issues, but was dent. This year Shortridge (also Repub- progressivism defeated Hughes in the
mostly psycholog. lican) for Senator ran three hundred West. This year Progressive leaders -cal. To illustrate: On an apparently un- thousand behind Harding for President. were included in the most partisan related matter California two years ago In any normal year Phelan, Democrat, advocates of regular Republicanism. defeated bone-dry State prohibition by
would have been elected Senator. Whatever may be the case in the future, only a narrow majority, all cast in San Except among the narrow class of progressivism as an organized moveFrancisco, and elected a Legislature “ highbrow” intellectuals, the election ment has ceased to exist in the State oledged to ratify the Eighteenth Amend- was not a solemn referendum on the of its origin and principal triumphs. nent. This year, with prohibition in the , with prohibition in the League of Nations. The people in gen
the Armenians were Constitution, the people, on referendum, eral were bored with the issue. What for Wilson on the mandate question, defeated by a huge majority a law they wanted was a change of Adminis- the Italians against him on Fiume, the
lready passed by the Legislature for tration and lower taxes. Senator John- Irish against the League of Nations for he enforcement of the Constitution. son, the chief opponent of the League not freeing Ireland, and the Germans Che same emotional transformation of Nations, is still the strongest political quiet but doubtless generally for Harwhich made these two results possible figure in California, but a large part of ding. The principal foreign question n two successive elections also accounts his choicest supporters have never
in California is naturally the Japanese n large part for the reaction towards agreed with him on this issue, and his
Both candidates for Senator were President Wilson's idealism and the candidate for the Senate, running on radically anti-Japanese, and the antissues in which it was embodied. this issue, fell hundreds of thousands of Japanese alien land law passed by The people have voted for “ business votes behind his ticket, and behind the an overwhelming majority, as did a
HESTER H. ROWELL
Of alien groups,
(C) Underwood & Underwood
OF MISSOURI REPRESENTATIVE
CALL IT AVALANCHE OR FLOOD, WHAT HAPPENED ON ELECTION DAY SWEPT FROM OFFICE THESE EM
EXTINCTION, IN THE JUDGMENT OF THE
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE FROM H. J.
TO THE OUTLOOK
H. J. HASKELL
was at the
minor amendment imposing a United tions of 1918 forecast the outcome of . left you.” Whereat there was tumultuStates poll tax on aliens and not on 1920. It is difficult to sort out of the ous applause. citizens, directed openly against the complex known as public opinion the It was the universal testimony of Japanese.
great causes that move it, aside from speakers in the Southwest that audithe obvious appeals to group feelings. ences were apathetic until the League of
In 1916 the kept-us-out-of-war appeal Nations was reached. Then people А VOTE OF NO CONFI. dominated the prairie States. When gave attention. In Missouri the Re DENCE
the war came, many persons felt, rightly publican candidate for Governor, Ar
or wrongly, that the President must thur M. Hyde, undoubtedly was helped THE SOUTHWEST
have known it was inevitable and that by the State-wide feeling that it was
their votes had been obtained under necessary to elect him to clean up a HASKELL, OF THE KANSAS CITY "STAR."
false pretenses. The revulsion that then bad police and election situation in
set in against Mr. Wilson was aug- Kansas City. Yet his audiences reHE Southwest, mented after the war by members of sponded chiefly to his discussion of the
in the election, the Expeditionary Force and their rela- League. In Kansas organized labor responded to the tives who held the Administration centered an attack on Governor Allen same influences that responsible for lack of equipment grow- for his industrial court. But his audiswept the rest of the ing out of failure to prepare. The im- ences were much more interested in the country. Local is
pression spread that the President was League than in the court. The hostility sues created little
impractical, autocratic, unwilling to to the League was evident, but observeddies here and take counsel.
ers felt that the League was the rent there. They did not The discussion of the League Cove- for hostility to the Administration. materially affect the nant confirmed this belief. The West The personality of the Presidential result. As Roose- had lost confidence in his leadership. candidates was absolutely subordinate. velt put it in the first It became suspicious of the Covenant, Governor Cox, however,
Taft campaign, the and finally turned strongly against it. high point of public esteem in the West Nation was dealing with poster effects, These impressions are the outcome when he was nominated, Senator Harnot with zinc etchings.
of conversations with politicians and ding at the low point. Cox steadily de Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado are speakers who made it their business to clined, while Harding mounted in pulaccustomed to do independent voting. know what people were thinking about. lic estimation. It was common to bear Democrats of Missouri and Oklahoma A characteristic instance was the Chau- Cox referred to as a ward politician. have inherited their party tradition tauqua at the little town of Beloit, in Harding's dignity, moderation, modesty. from the South. With them it is almost western Kansas. Four years ago, on and readiness to accept advice made an a religion. A sweep that tears Okla- political day” the Republican politi- increasingly favorable impression. homa from the Solid South and makes cians first learned that their National Other factors had even less influ. Missouri Republican by more than one ticket was in danger. People flock to the ence. Numerous Western States, inhundred thousand is due to funda- Chautauqua from all the country round cluding Kansas, Colorado, and Okla
. mental, Nation-wide forces. about. At every mention of President homa, already had woman suffrage
. Briefly, the Southwest was pro- Wilson the cheers shattered the roof of There was no indication that in other foundly dissatisfied with the Wilson the tent. Last summer an eloquent States the vote of the women affected Administration and the Wilson League Democratic speaker got absolutely no the result, except to make it more of Nations. It did not like Governor response to his picture of the President emphatic.' At the outset prohibition Cox as revealed in the campaign, while broken on the wheel of public service. promised a possible issue. But the res Senator IIarding grew in its estimation. “My God!" he exclaimed. " Has it fusal of Governor Cox to champion the
“ Finally, it had confidence in the ad- come to this, that Americans will not wet side made the wet issue fade. Racial ministrative capacity of the Republican cheer their President ?" And still the appeals had no particular effect in the party.
audience sat silent. Governor Allen, Southwest, where the German vote has In the phrase of current politics, the following him, referred to his defense been identified with the Republican situation began to “ freeze
of the League as able, and added : " But party since the Civil War, and where two years ago. The Congressional elec- it left me unconvinced, as I see it has the Irish are not a dominant force. The
NENT PUBLIC SERVANTS (INCLUDING THREE MEMBERS OF THE SMITH FAMILY) WHOSE CHIEF TITLE TO
lump in wheat and live stock was lost ness of the Republican victory cannot campaign. The voters either cared nothight of in the cataclysm. The situation be ascribed to any positive virtue in ing about the League or they were vas frozen long before the slump set in. the Republican candidate. Mr. Har- satisfied with the possibility that mod
The attempt to revive the progressive- ding's majority was due solely to an ag- erate Republican opinion would force eactionary division of 1912 failed be- grieved electorate bent on punishment. the new Administration to enter. cause the people showed no interest. A Even in 1912, with the normal Re- The alien vote went almost solidly ood share of the progressive pro- publican vote split between Mr. Roose- to Harding. Citizens of German deramme had been enacted into law by velt and Mr. Taft, only three of the scent professed themselves disgusted he various State Legislatures. No States of the Northwest went to Mr. with the “ Wilson dynasty." The Gerreat progressive issue was in sight Wilson. Minnesota and South Dakota man press declared that no Germannd people were concerned with other
were even then able to swing their vote American who respected himself could hings. The cleavage still existed, but to a Republican candidate—in both vote for Mr. Cox, the tool of Wilson.” or the present was in abeyance. cases Mr. Roosevelt. And in 1916, with German papers pointed to the fact that
So far as the Southwest was enthusiasm for an unbroken foreign Mr. Cox had helped eliminate German erned, outside the Solid South, the policy rampant, only one State went
instruction from the schools of Ohio. Cage was set for a vote of no confi- over into the Democratic camp-North They pointed to the fact that he favored ence in the Democratic party, the Dakota. That a district so thoroughly the present Peace Treaty with Germany, Vilson Administration, and its chief Republican should switch to a broken which they termed "the crime of Verolicy, the League of Nations. People Democracy at this time was inconceiv- sailles." To-day they are confident that arned to what they seemed to feel was able. But political wiseacres were not no little share in the credit for Mr. e superior practical sense and admin. prepared for the terribly earnest drub. Harding's election is due them. The
. trative talent of the Republican party bing that came.
Scandinavians likewise voted to punish nder a leader whose determination to Everybody knew that Republicans, Mr. Wilson. Minor alien groups were eek counsel and move cautiously ap- as a whole, would stick to the Grand Old similarly actuated.
similarly actuated. Italians voted as a roved itself to the popular mood. Party. Few realized how unanimously protest against Mr. Wilson's Adriatic
the independent vote would join them. stand. Poles voted against his Russo
And yet, considering the nature of Polish policy. N AGGRIEVED ELECTO. the Democratic Administration, to- The agricultural interests of the RATE BENT ON
gether with the fact that our popula- Northwest have long felt a discrimina
tion is largely agricultural and almost tion at the hands of the Democratic PUNISHMENT
twenty-five per cent foreign-born, noth- party. They point to Democratic paterTHE NORTH CENTRAL WEST ing
should have been more clear. nalism in the South, where the cotton
The independent vote of all five interests were pampered. And then States went almost in a body to the they figure up their grain receipts,
Harding camp. Some went as a protest which have shown a steady decline. T was no personal against what they chose to call the They were willing, even eager, to trust
merit of Warren “ Wilson dynasty.” Some went be- their fate to a Republican régime. They G. Harding that cause of supposed discrimination against were determined to put an end to a gave him the five the farmers of the North. Some went régime which could ignore their claims. States of the North
as a protest against Democratic failure Thus business men, farmers, and Central West; Iowa, to remove restrictive war legislation. workers—the latter haunted by the Minnesota, the Da- Some went because they were a part of specter of workless days-joined to pile kotas, and Wiscon- the general progressive movement in up an unprecedented majority for the sin have been Re- the Northwest, which threw its influ- Republican candidate. Only a few trapublican States
ence into the Republican side of the ditional Democrats, a few proponents since the beginning. scales in the National election.
of the League of Nations, a very few Unless the party On the other hand, the Democratic ultra-wets, and a sprinkling of those
undergoes sweeping party, having lost most of its less sin- who felt that Mr. Cox was a more proanges they will be Republican until
cere adherents, gained very few votes gressive man than Mr. Harding cast e end. Even the astounding thorough- on the one outstanding issue of its their votes for a continuation of the
F. PERRY OLDS
THE EBB AND FLOOD OF
Democratic menage The League of which was cast from the counties mak- 1914. Washington was one of the pion Nations issue had little effect. The newly ing up the western half of the State, neer States in banishing alcohol
. Howachieved right of the women to vote did on the other side of the Cascade Moun- ever, the closeness of the Canadian little to change the balance. Prohibi- tains. Debs’s vote was negligible. border to the great cities of the State tion was no issue. Punishment of Wil- This is the largest plurality ever has complicated enforcement of its dry son was the keynote. Union on Repub- given any candidate for any office in laws. A President who might not hold lican candidates was the slogan.
the State of Washington, exceeding up the strict provisions of the Volstead In the Senatorial contests the results Roosevelt's 70,000 in 1904, although Act is not wanted at the White Honse
. were the same. In every case Republi- Roosevelt received a larger percentage as far as Washington's voters are con cans were elected. Where the radical of the vote. Four years ago Wilson cerned. The impression has been wide forces had a separate candidate in the carried Washington over Hughes by spread that Cox would possibly be in field, defeat was his portion. Where 16,180.
clined to leniency; his Ohio record was Non-Partisan League support went to
Roosevelt carried it in 1912 with well circularized over the State by AntiRepublicans, victory came as a matter 113,698, as against 86,840 for Wilson Saloon League advocates, and the voters of course. and 70,445 for Taft.
also had not forgotten Bryan's ep: Radicalism, whether avowedly Social- Washington State's remarkable “turn- taph: “The smell of the beer rats on ist or camouflaged as Townley Non- over” from a 16,000 Wilson plurality his garments.” The whisky ring of the Partisanism, was roundly defeated. The in 1916 to a 160,000 Harding plurality State showed much concern for Com Northwest is moving away from its in 1920 is due most largely to profound The largest single contributor to the radical leaders. Townley was every
discontent with the Wilson Adminis- National campaign of either party by where defeated. La Follette has lost tration.
any individual within this state was his power in Wisconsin. Even Victor The farmers were against him be- sent to Cox's New York headquarters L. Berger, twice elected to Congress cause he did not show as much concern by a former Spokane liquor dealer. and twice denied a seat in that body, in keeping the price of wheat where Women's suffrage did not enter into was this time snowed under by the they could make a fair profit as he did the contest in this State at all. WashRepublican avalanche.
in keeping the price of cotton where ington also ranks as one of the pioneer The Northwest has tasted Democracy Southern planters could reap a huge women's suffrage States, voting equal and dislikes the taste. It has flirted profit; labor manifestly did not follow suffrage to women in 1910. with radicalism and recognizes its dan- Gompers's indorsement of the Wilson
1916 the Progressive voter ger: It has gone back to the old fold, Administration, as the big vote given showed a marked defection to Wilson . more unifiedly Republican than ever. Christensen proves; the merchant did but the last four years have taught
not like Federal interference with busi- them the fallacy of expecting any proness; the ordinary citizen did not like gressivism from
Wilson, Burles. the high cost of living; and altogether Palmer, et al. The Progressives were A VOTE OF MISTRUST mistrust of the Wilsonian economic all back with Harding, with isolated
principles is believed to have caused exceptions. . THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
Washington's reaction against continu- The interest of racial and alien ing Democracy in power.
groups was an inconsiderable factor. Voters of this State would cheerfully The alien population of this State is
have accepted a League of Nations with comparatively small. ENATOR HAR
proper reservations, but the League of Traditional party differences may be DING has carried Nations may not fairly be considered ignored in calculating the causes for the State of Wash- as having been an issue with voters Washington's landslide. The State bas ington by about here. Senator Harding's position was proved in the past that it is indep-2160,000 plurality plainly understood as being not hostile dent-thinking, politically. It turned on over Cox, an esti- to a friendly association of nations to Harding because it believes he, a well ate of the final vote prevent future wars. It was understood chosen Cabinet, and a Republican Cou based on
that he was against the Wilson League, gress can properly and honorably solve official returns being but not against a League for world international problems and produce 260,000 to 100,000. peace that will permit
peace that will permit “ America to go an Administration that will greatly Christensen and in under American ideals."
ameliorate domestic conditions. Farmer-Labor can- Prohibition had much influence, withdidates for State
Senator Jones appears to have run out doubt, for the voters here in great fully up to Senator Harding, if he di offices received a vote ranging from preponderance are entirely satisfied with not, in fact, exceed the Harding plurality 80,000 to 115,000, about four-fifths of the dry régime which was voted in over his Democratic rival. Senator
TELEGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE FROM W. H.
REVIEW," TO THE OUTLOOK
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE FROM ARTHUR
TO THE OUTLOOK
Jones has represented Washington at in its* behalf in order to get the do- ively to bringing out a big vote in the National capital twenty-two years, mestic governmental change, with its Michigan was the proposed antiand would probably have been re- hoped-for betterment of general condi- parochial school amendment to the elected without the Republican land- tions affecting them more directly. State Constitution, which was defeated slide. It may be questioned if any of The record of the Wilson Adminis- by a majority of more than 200,000. the issues affecting the Presidential tration was so interwoven in this that Interest in this issue was fully as keen contest added to or subtracted from
an outstanding cause for the as interest in the National election. Jones's vote.
Republican landslide. Party prefer-
of votes, but Michigan voters are yearly THE NATIONAL SWEEP VOTE-IT-STRAIGHT becoming more and more independent AGAINST VILSONISM INDEPENDENTS
in their political thinking, and party
at the polls.
M. DAVENPORT, OF W. STACE, OF THE GRAND RAPIDS PRESS," notably strong throughout the State,
THE CHAIR OF CIVIL POLITY, HAMILTON
COLLEGE, NEW YORK, TO THE OUTLOOK but it would be a mistake to say
that ICHIGAN gave Harding a plurality this was this was due to deep-seated party
Cow that it is preference of the old dyed-in-the-wool cause of general dissatisfaction over type.
not able to see how existing governmental and economic Nor did progressivism have much
essentially the East conditions. Platform issues had very to do with the result. The progressive
differs from the little to do with it. Michigan undoubt spirit is strong in Michigan, as was
West, or, indeed, edly would have gone strongly Repub- evinced in the memorable three-cor
from a part of the lican had it voted early in June be- nered election of eight years ago, when
South. It is all of a fore either major party convention was it gave Roosevelt a plurality over Taft.
piece. Leaving out held. Michigan didn't regard Harding as
of account certain Indeed, Michigan may be said to progressive in thought or tendencies.
belated and backhave gone overwhelmingly Republican That is why it was lukewarm toward
ward parts of the in spite of the party platform and in his candidacy. It gave a Republican
South, politically spite of the choice of Harding as nomi- plurality of nearly half a million in and progressively speaking, the people nee, for there was no real enthusiasm spite of its knowledge of Harding's of the country have rendered an overover the Chicago declaration of prin- reactionary affiliations.
whelming verdict against the Wilson ciples, while the selection of Harding Racial and alien groups were scarcely
Administration. The early years of as standard-bearer was a distinct dis- in evidence in the campaign in Michi- President Wilson's first term appointment. There was no manifest gan. The tariff and other stock party marked by the enactment of certain Harding sentiment in the State before issues aroused practically no discussion great and beneficial measures of adthe Convention, and scarcely any more among the voters themselves.
vance which had already ripened in during the campaign. Harding pictures The women in casting their ballots public opinion, and the country gratein windows were so rare as to be nov- apparently were moved by the same fully acknowledged the part which elties.
general reasons that caused the mass of the President played in their passage. A year ago Michigan as a whole was the men to go Republican. There was When gigantic new problems arose strong for the League of Nations. Later no one issue that made them supporters with the war, the Administration at interest waned and as a political issue of Harding. There was the broad and Washington faltered and bungled. The it caused scarcely a ripple among the compelling desire for a change in the President's mind, in grappling with the voters of the State. There is no doubt, hope that the change would check issues of the Great War, has seemed to however, that Republican explanations Governmental waste and make for tax the American people to reveal itself in of the reservations made it easier for reductions.
the phase of the emotional idealist, the many friends of the League to vote This desire brought out a Republican without practical vision and without against it in President Wilson's refer- flood in Michigan that not only gave capacity for practical leadership into endum. They probably would have Harding a big plurality but also swept
Harding a big plurality but also swept the difficult and the unknown. This voted against it, anyway, for the League into Congress a solid Republican dele
into Congress a solid Republican dele- the country felt at the same time that of Nations issue appeared to be a minor gation and into the State Legislature it gave the President credit for integconsideration with the mass of voters. a solid Republican House and Senate. rity of purpose and for deep desire to They were ready to overlook the pleas One factor that contributed impress- perform his duty as he saw it, even to
(C) Prince, New York