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Nairplanes ap

peared in American skies than LAURENCE LA TOURETTE DRIGGS began to fly as a sport; this led him

to the study of aviation's commercial possibilities. He probably knows

more about flying than any other Amercan writer. During the war the Brith Government invited him to inspect heir airplane industries, training camps nd schools, and to visit their flying quadrons in the field as an expert on var aviation. He was the only Amerian thus honored. While at the front e organized the American Flying Club, f which he is president. It consists of American aviators who flew over the nes during the war. He organized two f the greatest aviation contests ever eld in this country-the New Yorkoronto Airplane Race and the New ork - San Francisco Airplane Race, oth held in 1919. He believes that nother decade will see the airplane as ɔmmon as the automobile and that our ation will yield to aviation the reponsibility of being the Nation's first ne of defense. The motive behind his resent series of articles for The Outlook to present the capabilities of aviation an aid to civilization as distinguished om an effort to aid in its war value. e is author of "Arnold Adair," "Hees of Aviation," "Fighting the Flying ircus," and "Golden Book of Aviaon."

AMUEL COLCORD, who presents many intimate pictures of President-elect arding, has been very active in trying secure action on the League of ations. He has worked hard in curing an agreement on the League etween the President and the Senate,. etween the Republicans and the Demrats, and between the two wings of e Republican party. He early became earnest advocate of our entry into e war in support of the Allies. He ntributed to The Outlook an article the subject which was written before. e President summoned the country to ar and published before Congress deared war. He lives in New York City.

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LEANOR MARKELL has just returned to her home at the Hotel Plaza, New ork, from her annual globe-trot, which is year carried her to Paris, Prague, ienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Sofia, onstantinople, and Athens. She had long talk with Venizelos, met the ing of Bulgaria and Stambulisky, d an hour's interview with Dr. Riza asha on the day he reached Constanople from signing the Treaty of aris, and had an audience with the reek Patriarch.

For Those Who Read
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These memoirs of Margot Asquith will fulfill the keen expectations aroused on both sides of the Atlantic. Written with the dash and candor that characterize the brilliant wife of the ex-Prime Minister, the book has not a dull moment. Illustrated. 2 Volumes, Boxed. THE LAST DAYS OF THE ROMANOVS

George G. Telberg and Robert Wilton The tragic story of the fate of the Royal Family as revealed in the official statements of witnesses; powerfully supplemented by the thrilling account of Mr. Wilton, for sixteen years Russian correspondent for the London Times, who helped find the bodies and who escaped finally from Siberia in disguise with one of the three court records. Illustrated.

With an Introductory Essay by Hilaire Belloc John T. Tussaud
These colorful memoirs of “history made visible in wax" spread out the
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A SUPER-UMPIRE FOR BASEBALL ON MARQUIS said lately in his "Sun Dial" that the baseball business seemed to suffer because it was a business and not a sport. Professional baseball is bound to be a business from its nature, but it can be, and in the main is, an honest business. It is also a sport-and it must be a clean sport. One step in that direction is the final agreement of all the clubs in the two major leagues, the National and the American, to appoint Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, of the United States District Court of Illinois, as a sort of high commissioner, or one-man court of appeals, with extensive powers to settle questions between leagues or between clubs. The wording of the joint resolution taking this action is worth quoting. It provides that "the unreviewable control of all ethical matters be invested in the chairman of the control board." It seems to be doubtful whether there will be any other members of the control board; at all events, Judge Landis will have jurisdiction and authority to put a sharp end to such foul ball-playing as brought about the recent baseball scandal.

Judge Landis is nationally known as a fearless judge. His decisions in the Standard Oil, I. W. W., and Victor Berger cases prove that. He is a baseball enthusiast and expert in baseball strategy as seen from the grand stand. Fractically he will alone fill the place formerly occupied by the National Commission of the two big leagues. That his services were estimated by the baseball men to be worth $50,000 a year indicates the magnitude of the business side of baseball. He stipulated, however, that his Federal salary ($7,500) should be deducted from the $50,000 if he continued to serve in both capacities. The discrepancy in the size of the two salaries is impressive.

Probably other leagues than the two now in agreement will join in the movement for better baseball. The new plan will not, we judge, interfere with the World Series that are the culminating

excitement of each season.

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NOVEMBER 24, 1920

might be expected of its incapacity and waste at home. In one of his latest speeches Senator Harding took up this subject vigorously. He indicted the Administration for its Administration for its "reckless, unbusinesslike, impractical, and blundering operation." He pointed out to the American people that

Their Government is not functioning effectively, their public revenues are being wasted, their public debts increased to a point threatening their National solvency, while their industries, their commerce, their transportation systems are staggering under checks, burdens, and imposts, housing

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conditions becoming seriously inadequate and living costs mounting beyond reach and Government obligations in the hands of the citizenship under par and depreciated.

"Fundamental incapacity" on the part of the Administration was Senator Harding's explanation.

Not all the waste and loss came from war expenditure. But a great deal did. Recently startling assertions as to instances of extravagance and useless war expenditure have been made. It is true that the pressure of war needs does involve loss that would not be tolerated

in peace. We could not practice economy at a time when ships, camps, munitions, uniforms, and a thousand kinds of war material must be bought quickly in enormous quantities. Nor could we plan for a short war; we had to provide for an unknown period and make contracts long ahead. But, with all allowance for this, there is growing

proof that waste and undue profits were enormous. Even in war time there must be some limit to unintelligent and excessive expenditure. Moreover, haste and recklessness were the natural result of the criminally unprepared condition in which the country was left by the Administration until war was actually upon us. All this was because, as Senator Harding said, "we have had an Administration which despised facts as puerile, ignored causes as negligible, and sought results by proclamation.'

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When one notes the enormous peace time army and navy estimates of $1,464,000,000; or reads in the public press such assertions as that $60,000,000 was spent on a powder plant that never produced a pound of powder used in the war, over $116,000,000 for a nitrate plant which produced no nitrate for war use, over $17,000,000 for a port terminal never used, or of the $325,000,000 spent in building useless wooden ships, and a long list of similar things, one is impressed with the feeling that the people have a right to know how much incapacity above and rapacity below were responsible for waste and failures. Some such things were doubtless unavoidable or defensible, but there is a growing belief that there is much that calls for a change in executive methods and practices.




ITH the Army record in mind, the charges that waste and even graft existed in the Shipping Board are hardly surprising. On November 15 Admiral Benson, Chairman of the Board, said as reported by press despatches:

It is an easy matter for any one to pick flaws in an organization like the Shipping Board. We had to train three hundred thousand shipbuilders, and in the manning of our ships we have had to train thousands of men. Of course, in an organization of this magnitude you will find here and there evidences of wrong-doing, and now and then you will uncover a systematic effort to defraud. It was necessary for the Shipping Board to employ men whose sole responsibility was the uncovering of wrong-doing, and these men were charged with a heavy responsibility. The men whom we depend upon to be checks upon those who might be tempted to do wrong bear a heavy responsibility if they fail us, but in an organization spending more than

three billion dollars, where, as the largest steamship operator in the world, millions of dollars are expended from day to day, it would be humanly impossible to prevent all wrong-doing or to do business without suffering financial losses from time to time.

This was doubtless the largest undertaking ever attempted by any government. No one expected that it could be carried through "clean." But certainly the charges now made indicate that more than the usual percentage of inefficiency and dishonesty may have existed. These charges tell of the payrolls padded by contractors so as to get from the Board the largest price for the least service; collusive bids; bribery by money and liquor of the Board's employees; the drawing of salaries by impostors; and the appointment of barbers, dry-goods clerks, doctors, veterinary surgeons, and others of occupations certainly unmarine as inspectors of plants and ships!

At this juncture comes the President's revision of his list of appointees to the Shipping Board. The four Democratic nominees are to serve, respectively, for six-year, five-year, fouryear, and three-year terms; the three Republican nominees (one of them a Cox supporter) get the two-year and the two one-year terms. This is the President's interpretation of the provision of the law that not more than four members of the Commission shall be of one party.


N the flood of election returns not as

Imuch attention has been paid to one

individual triumph as it really deserves. Judge Ben B. Lindsey was again elected Juvenile Judge in Denver by what was really an extraordinary vote. Although he was a candidate on the Democratic ticket, he had a majority of 23,000 over his opponent. Judge Lindsey polled a total vote of about 46,000, while the vote for the Republican Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates in Denver in the same precincts was about 44,000. Judge Lindsey's opponent did not carry a single precinct out of the 211 voting precincts in Denver. The campaign for election to this office was by no means a walkover," as the contest was. fought aggressively. A Republican commenting on this election declared that it is the greatest single political victory for an individual in the history of Colorado, and perhaps in the entire country.


The readers of The Outlook are well acquainted with the fine and high

minded character of Judge Lindsey and the peculiar value of his work in gain ing the friendship of young people who under former methods might have been almost driven into criminal lives. It is gratifying to see this new and remark

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able recognition of the value of this work by the people of Denver.



OTHING has so touched the imagination and stirred a feeling of patriotic reverence for the men who died to save the world from brutal German domination as the symbolic honors paid to the unknown soldierdead in England and France on Armistice Day's second anniversary.

In Paris President Millerand marched bareheaded, followed by Marshals Foch, Joffre, and Pétain, behind a gun carriage which conveyed the body of an unknown French poilu to its restingplace beneath the Arc de Triomphe while scores of thousands of Frenchmen paid silent tribute in honor of him whom M. Millerand apostrophized as "unknown soldier, nameless and triumphal representative of your heroic comrades."

Paris also celebrated on Armistice Day the conclusion of a half-century of the Third French Republic. The symbolic act here was the transfer of the heart of Gambetta to a special place of honor in the Panthéon. The meaning of the ceremony, said the French President, was that "the Republic has lived, the Republic has conquered, the Re

public lives on. Let the past give us confidence in the future."

England, in like manner, through King, Ministers, and people, honored the transfer of the body of a private chosen by chance and of unknown iden tity to a place of honor in Westminster Abbey. The procession paused at the great cenotaph erected at Whitehall by England for its soldier dead and laid the "Tommy's" body at its foot while the memorial was unveiled. Every mother of one of the unidentified thousands of British dead must have felt that it might be her son to whom the nation was paying solemn tribute as representative of all those unknown and of all who died for their country.

Sir Philip Gibbs, in a fine report of the London ceremony printed in the New York Times," caught the spirit of the ceremony when he said:



It was the steel helmet, the old "tin hat," lying there on the crimson of the flag, which revealed him instantly, not as a mythical warrior aloof from common humanity, a shadowy type of the national pride and martial glory, but as one of those fellows, dressed in the drab of khaki, stained by mud and grease, who went into the dirty ditches with this steel hat on his head and in his heart the unspoken things which made him one of us in courage and in fear, with some kind of faith, not clear, full of perplexities, often dim in the watchwords of those years of war.


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connection with the Pilgrim cele bration General Robert Georges Nivelle is visiting this country. He is sixty-three years old. His mother was English and he has a number of cousins in the British navy. No wonder, then, that he speaks English fluently and likes it; he is specially fond of declaiming English war ballads like "Hohenlinden," "The Battle of the Baltic," and "The Burial of Sir John Moore."

His face reminds one of the portraits of Cardinal Richelieu. His bearing impresses the observer with large re serves of physical and mental energy. He has a remarkable memory; it was once said of him: "He seems to have a close acquaintance with every man in the trenches." He is a rigid dis ciplinarian, but is popular withal.

When the war began, General Nivelle was Colonel of artillery and about to be retired. He was soon made General, however, commanding in turn a bri gade, a division, a corps, Following his gallant defense of Verdun in 1916, he succeeded Marshal Joffre (worn by two and one-quarter years of war) as Commander-in-Chief.

an army.

In the spring of 1917 General Nivelle

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