« PredošláPokračovať »
de ce majestic echtes Meuse. She Hosses representing Poland"; Fridtjof
launched his famous Chemin des Dames Such Englishmen as Lord Robert Cecil sion of any state because of such a offensive. It caused intense controversy and George Nicoll Barnes, such technicality. Under this ruling an ap because many held it to be merely a Frenchmen as Léon Bourgeois, René plication from Germany might still be succès d'estime—that is to say, credit- Viviani, and Gabriel Hanotaux ; Qui- received. able to French courage, but terrible in nones de Leon, the Spanish statesman; casualty losses and not reaching the Tommaso Tittoni, formerly Italian
FIUME FREE desired objective, pushing back of the Germans to
Italian Jugoslav ;
Governments have settled had been scandalously exagg erated by representing Norway, and Hjalmar first accounts read in the Chamber of Branting, representing Sweden;
Adriatic dispute. The result reflects Deputies, and such accounts had also well as Viscount Ishii from Japan, Sforza and Stefanovitch.
great credit on
on Foreign heen accentuated through stories told and from China Wellington Koo, late
The Italian gains are: by returning Deputies who had gone Minister to the United States. to the front to see operations with their In his address of welcome President
(1) The Italian city of Fiume is re
deemed from non-Italian control. A own eyes and had returned alarmists. Motta, of Switzerland, declared that The result of all was a pacifist and "the League is not an alliance of gov
year and a half ago in these columns popular pressure on Paul Painlevé,
the hope was expressed that the port Minister of War, to call off the offen
of Fiume, at least, might become inde sive. General Nivelle's friends claim
pendent. Now, by the treaty between
the two Governments, not only the port that the Minister did so, thus substitating what they term “political" for
but also the city becomes independent. military rule. M. Painlevé denies that
(2) Nor is the free city to be inclosel le stopped the offensive. The popular
by Slav territory. An Italian strip
corridor” is to connect it with understanding is, however, that the offensive was hampered at every turn
Italian Istria. No wonder that Count
to our house are in our pocket.” Nivelle had penetrated the first, if not
(3) As to Istria, Italy gains the
famous Monte Nevaso and the St. Peter the second, enemy line and the Germans were supposed to be ready to retire to
railway station on the frontier. the Meuse. The affair finally resulted
The Jugoslav gains are: in a military court decision favorable to
(1) The Istrian frontier has been reGeneral Nivelle. However, he was re
adjusted to give greater justice to Slav tired as Generalissimo, being succeeded
populations. by General Pétain, then Chief of Staff.
.(2) In Dalmatia, while Italy retains Pétain was succeeded as Chief of Staff
the Italian city of Zara, she abandons
Sebenico, as also by far the larger part by one who was later to become Generalissimo of all the Allied Armies-Foch.
of the territory in Dalmatia and most of the Dalmatian islands assured her
by the Treaty of London, on the condiernments; it is an association of peo
tions of which Italy entered the war. GENEVA'S NEW IMPORTANCE ples.” This evident effort to disarm
But the islands Italy retains are, from N November 15 the Assembly of American criticism was later reinforced
a strategical standpoint, the most valby Paul Hymans, of Belgium, who, on
uable she could have. veva. It was its first meeting. being elected President of the Assem
As the Jugoslav gain in Istria and Delegates from over forty nations bly, said to the delegates : “ We should
especially Dalmatia is large, it is antic met in the historic Salle de Réforma- state again that the League is not and
ipated that the agreement will be sapa tion, across the Lake of Geneva from must not be a superstate, which aims at
ported by the Wilson Administration, the Hôtel National, which the League absorbing national sovereignties or re
despite the President's proclamation has purchased as its permanent head- ducing them to bondage.” M. Hymans
of April, 1919, in which the implicaquarters. The city of Geneva surrounds also remarked: “We all join in good
tion was that Fiume should go to Jugothe end of the Lake of Geneva on three wishes to President Wilson, the spiritual
slavia because it was the only proper sides. The part of the city where the father of the League, and the duty is
port for her. Instead Jugoslavia now Rhône issues from the lake is the old very dear to us to pay him this tribute."
has the deep-water harbor of Sebenico. town, the seat of the municipal govern- The election of M. Ilymans was ap
besides those of Buccari, Segna, Noriment and the center of traffic. The left propriate, not only because of his own
grad, Traù, Spalato, Gravosa, Ragusel
. arm, looking southeast across the lake, is fitness, but as tending to heal the sore
Cattaro, and Antivari on the Croatian, kuown as Les Pâquis, on the extreme ness of Belgians at the selection of
Dalmatian, and Montenegrin coasts. border of wbich, close to the open coun- Geneva instead of Brussels as the seat try, stands the Hôtel National. The right of the League. arm, looking northwest across the lake, is Among the new states applying for
THE VICTORY OF THE called Les Eaux-Vives. In this quarter membership were Albania, Austria, and
REDS IN THE CRIMEA one finds the Salle de Réformation, a
HE rather barnlike affair. It contains the ber 14, and, according to the rule which
more Salle proper, often used as a large con- had been laid down, no application mated in our report last week. Indeel. cert hall, and the Calvinium, with me- could be considered subsequent to that it is of a crushing character, and apparmorials of John Calvin. date. It was finally decide that public ently puts an end to any present at
. Among the important delegates were: opinion would not stand for the exclu- tempt to destroy Bolshevist military
Bulgaria. But they applied after Octo Trevedereare complete than was inti
(C) Keystone View Co. PUTTING BACK THE BRITISH FLAG ON THE CAPITOL THEATER IN NEW YORK CITY
AFTER AN ATTACK BY SINN FEINERS
(upremacy in Russia. This once more buts before the Entente Powers the question whether they will be quiescent vhile the tyrannical Government headed y Lenine and Trotsky strengthens tself still further or whether they will ake some definite course to save Rus. ia from tyranny and outrage.
It was reported on November 15 hat the Russian Soviet forces occupied sebastopol on Sunday, November 14. Many thousands of refugees fled from sebastopol to Constantinople in French nd English ships. American destroyers ided in carrying away wounded nonCombatants. General Wrangel himself rent on board a French war-ship. Practically his army has been broken p and destroyed as a military force. 'he fighting which resulted in this deat was on an extensive scale. Some espatches assert that the Bolsheviki dmit that they lost thirty thousand beginning of 1919. Only the helpless edly stimulating their appreciation of hen but claim to have taken forty are cared for; children of parents who all good music. housand prisoners, and one despatch can support them are not admitted to eclares that their success was largely the kitchens. nie to the use of poison gas. While the “ We have been able to carry on this
A SINN FEIN OUTRAGE AND
A PHILOSOPHICAL POLICEMAN rimean Peninsula might seem to be an work initially by assistance from the Imost impregnable place because it is American Government, latterly by con
URING Armistice Week the Capitol Il but an island, as a matter of fact tributions from various sources without
Theater, the largest motion-picture ne Red forces had little difficulty in
house in New York City, displayed appeal to the general public. There is aching it over the frozen marshes of now, however, no other means for the
among its decorations all the flags of
our allies. Among them was, of course, he shallow part of the Sea of Azov. continued support of these children except the public charity of the Ameri
the British flag. On more than one occan people.”
casion fanatical Sinn Feiners attacked MERICAN HELP FOR CENTRAL
The address of the American Relief
the theater, endeavoring to tear down UROPEAN CHILDREN Administration is 42 Broadway, New
and destroy this banner. UnfortuR. HERBERT HOOVER says that York City.
nately, they did succeed in their aim the American Relief Administra
despite the efforts of the police. on fed some six million children
Newspaper reports of these attacks uring the winter of 1919. HISTORICAL CONCERTS
stated that the police suggested that the
HE series of historical concerts now the flag be taken down. We learn on
being given by the New York inquiry from Mr. Edward Bowes, manumber was reduced for the winter of Symphony Society, under Walter Dam- aging director of the theater, that this 920 to a maximum of about three and rosch, in New York City, is an attempt statement is contrary to fact. The manne-quarter millions. Now, with the
to show the general development of agers of the theater at last reluctantly ew harvest in, he says:
66 We find our
decided not to replace the destroyed Ives faced with the continued neces- phonic form.
flag again after the third attack because ty to feed approximately two and There have already been two con- of the very grave danger to the public me-quarter million children in Austria, certs. A Gluck overture and a Haydn involved in inviting riot along populous "zechoslovakia, Poland and the Baltic symphony ended the first. The sec- Broadway. Not only did the police give tates, and other parts of Central and ond was entirely devoted to Mozart's the theater the protection which it astern Europe. These are largely music; it comprised his two most famous asked, but it is interesting to know that aifs and the children of the destitute. symphonies (the G Minor and the many of the policemen sent by the DeI has been found that the cost of pro- "Jupiter" symphony), his overture to partment for this duty were themselves ding and distributing sufficient food, Figaro," his “Kleine Nachtmusik" of Irish birth. When Mr. Bowes said to uitably prepared, for a child per month (nocturnes or serenades), and two airs. one of these policemen, who spoke with a about $3.
This is the first time, apparently, that marked brogue, “It is pretty hard to ask “ The funds of the American Relief any symphony society has offered an an Irish policeman to crack Irish heads,” dministration for this work will be entire Mozart programme.
the policeman answered: “Sorr, ivery xhausted by January 1. It will re- Such a series of concerts as that now hid looks alike to me when it breaks nire twenty million dollars for us to in progress in New York, though the law.” irry over the children needing help not designed to serve as a substitute There are quite a few people in the atil the next harvest. The Relief for a real course of study in musical United States who should bear in mind dministration has kept the door open history, should and will reach many the philosophical principle involved in - every child in need of food in Cen. auditors who would not ordinarily be this brief statement. In the person of al and Eastern Europe since the considered students of music, undoubt- this Irish policeman New York's Finest
vol situation in certain countries this The
“done themselves proud.” We wish we posed of experienced jurists selected That England is as little inclina knew his name and could publish his for their knowledge of international as France to lay emphasis on the picture!
law and their judi cial temper to decide military features of the Covenant had such questions as may be submitted to already been made clear by Lord Grey's
it, and an international popular assemTHE ROAD AHEAD
letter published before our election bly in which delegates from the various campaign had even begun. E bave received a number of nations may meet to confer on interna- In answer, then, to the question, letters since the election asking tional questions, contrast their opinions, What next? we reply that we hope the
substantially the same question, and compare their respective interests, incoming Administration will at an though in different form: What foreign were features of the Paris plan bor early date be able to complete the polices policy do we expect from the Republi- rowed from the previous Hague plan. initiated under Mr. McKinley and car
Administration? This editorial But the Paris plan added an interna- ried forward under Mr. Roosevelt, the is written in reply to this question.
tional executive, consisting of nine creation of an International Supreme 1. The people have repudiated the members, who might in their discretion Court and an International Conference, policy of National isolation. Never again call into existence an international army but without any international military can any political leader aver that a if any international exigency required. or police organization to enforce the great European war does not concern This military feature the Republican decisions of the Court on the judgments us, and expect to secure the acquies- party condemned. This military feature of the Conference. For such a purely cence of the people. They have affirmed the American people have now rejected. voluntary and pacific association of the in their “solemn referendum ” that They are ready to enter into a purely
that They are ready to enter into a purely nations the American people are ready they believe in an association of navoluntary association of nations to de- with apparently practical unanimity
, tions, though they differ—and the dif- fine and develop international law and and there are abundant indications that ference is of great importance—as to
promote good fellowship. They are not it would meet with practically no op what its nature and functions should willing to enter into any kind of mili- sition in any of the civilized nations of be. Mr. Harding made his position per
tary alliance in which the nations put the world. fectly clear in his speech on August 28, their military forces at the call of a for- IV. There still remain questions, and, in our judgment, nothing which he eign Power or combination of Powers. immediate, pressing, important, which has subsequently said is inconsistent They will not consent that any foreign the new Administration will have to with this declaration. He said:
Powers shall summon America to war. meet.
III. It will be four months after the There are distinctly two types of
Shall we recognize Soviet Russia? international relationship. One is an
election before Mr. Harding can be in- Shall we do anything to protei offensive and defensive alliance of augurated. There is no reason why he the Armenians from massacre by the great Powers. ... The other type is should not employ this time in confer- Turks ? a society of free nations, or an association of free nations, or a league of
ring with Senators, Representatives, Is France in need of any further pr free nations animated by considera
and private citizens in working out a tection from a still military Germany tions of right and justice, instead of plan or plans for international co-opera- Can our coupsels do anything to ail might and self-interest, and not merely tion which do not involve any suspicion in substituting law and justice for proclaimed an agency in pursuit of
of a military alliance. He cannot with anarchy in Ireland ? peace, but so organized and so participated in as to make the actual attain
propriety enter into negotiations with John Bass, in his interesting book ment of peace a reasonable possibility. foreign governments; but there is no on "The Peace Tangle,” says that his Such an association I favor with all reason why his advisers and supporters observations in Central and Easter my heart, and I would make no fine dis
should not by correspondence with pri- Europe made during repeated journeys tinction as to whom credit is due. One
vate citizens in other countries prepare there since the armistice have led him need not care what it is called. Let it be an association, a society, or a league, or
way for an international association to the conclusion that “the executiou what not. Our concern is solely with wholly pacific.
of the treaties of peace in their present the substance, not the form thereof. The way for such correspondence is forms will lead not only to the perma
This view, thus stated by Mr. Har- opened for them. Few men in France nent economic decadence of Europe, ding, was affirmed in the Republican know French sentiment better than Sté- but to future wars.” Is America platform, in a clause known to have phane Lauzanne, the editor-in-chief of mitted to the enforcement of this been drawn by Mr. Root, who took a "Le Matin," of Paris. The “ North treaties? prominent part with European jurists American Review” for October con- In our judgment, No! The President in drafting a constitution for an Inter- tains an article from his pen in which, had, under the Constitution, neither national Supreme Court; it was re- with the comment, " These are noble legal nor moral right to commit the affirmed by Mr. Lodge in presenting words which we cannot but approve, American people to any responsibility the Presidential nomination to Mr. he quotes the following sentence from for making the "new map of Europe
. Harding; it was affirmed repeatedly one of Senator Harding's speeches : The Senate, first by its “round robin, by Republican newspapers and Re- “ It is better to be the free and disin- later by its prolonged discussion and publican campaign orators; and it terested agent of international justice its bi-partisan opposition to the League , confirmed and promised to carry for- and advancing civilization, with the and the people by the election of 1918, ward to completion a plan of inter- covenant of conscience, than be shackled did all they could do to give notice to national association presented at The by a written compact which surrenders the world that the President had no Hague by America in 1899 under Mr. our freedom of action and gives to a mandate to commit America to an McKinley and reaffirmed and carried military alliance the right to proclaim such share in European politics. And it forward at The Hague in 1907 under America's duty to the world." The is now not only the right, it is the duty Theodore Roosevelt. It has now been New York “ Herald ” following the of America to pursue such a coure approved by the American people. election published extracts from differ- action as in the best judgment of its II. An international court
ent Paris newspapers to the same effect. chosen leaders will promote the end
omic prosperity and the future peace f Europe. This is the only answer which can be given to the above quesions before the inauguration of the President-elect; for his action then nust depend upon the conditions which -ill then exist.
It is true that the new Administraon cannot ignore the hopes and exectations inspired by its predecessor. n the article already quoted, Stéphane auzanne says:
" To us French Amera is not only the greatest material rce of the universe, but she is also ne greatest moral force of the world.”
is as true of the Nation as of the dividual that “
a good name is better an great riches.” The new Adminisation must do nothing to impair merica's good name. It must so exerse its liberty of action that its good all not be evil spoken of. But we believe that America, unen
talk of over-emphasis upon athletics psychological appeal of a national war. ngled by any European alliances, can
and to decry the distraction of collegiate Within the confines of a hundred yards to Poland and Russia, Jugoslavia attention from more important tasks, of pounded turf the drama of victory d Italy, Greece and Turkey, and
but“ the big game” remains a reality and defeat, of courage and high strategy, ge them to seek for their territorial
which satisfies a normal and healthy the tragedy of misfortune and the trisputes a peaceful settlement, either
craving for a thing without which Amer- umph of achievement, are displayed as diplomatic negotiations or by sub- ican life would be the poorer.
vividly as when the six hundred horsetting them to a court of conciliation,
Why is it that “the big game” has men of the Light Brigade charged the arbitration tribunal, or an inter
come to loom so large ? There is involved guns at Balaklava, or when Leonidas tional court, and this America can
the natural human instinct for rivalry, with his Spartans held the pass at with far more hope of thus contrib
achievement, and acclaim. But other Thermopylæ. Did you ever see the ng to a peaceable and just settlement
sports in which the same instinct might smiling face of Charles Brickley as he these European controversies than if
be gratified hold no such position as coolly placed a drop kick between a goes as one member of a military the annual test on the gridiron. Even rival's goal posts in the face of a downance to tell the contesting and in
baseball, commonly regarded as the charging opposition? Did you ever med peoples that the Executive
National sport, is forced to take second see Sam White as with his quick hands, uncil has decided their boundaries place to football in the collegiate hall
driven by a quicker brain, he seized a them and they must accept its de
of fame. It is plain that “the big loose ball and dashed across the goal on or confront the united armies of
game” transcends the bounds of ordi- line for the winning touchdown ? Have alliance. nary collegiate rivalry because football
you ever seen a team, forced back by a finally, and perhaps this is most in itself is worthy of the place it occupies. heavier and better-trained rival, hold portant of all, the American people
A French officer has defined football desperately for four long downs on the e a right to expect that those whom
as the “struggle of a collective will one-yard line? If so, you will not be has intrusted with the direction of against another collective will.” The inclined to consider what we have said affairs, both National and inter
definition is apt so far as it goes, but
, as an over-statement of fact. ional, will undertake the solution
it tells only part of the story. Football The courage and manhood which the all her problems by an open and is a struggle of collective wills, but it is
of football demands—and do not k discussion, not only in Congress, the game above all others where, in the let any sporting writer delude you into also in the press and in unofficial
subordination of the individual to the a belief that football grit and spirit is emblies of the people.
mass, the individual is not lost in the patented by any one university-proved
Football is at once the finest itself when the Great War came, for THE BIG GAME
example of co-ordinated effort and of American football gave its best to the individual daring and skill.
service of the country. In the Western TOVEMBER brings to almost This might explain, perhaps, the conference last year, for instance, it is
every American college and uni- appeal of football to the player, but it said that there was not a single player
versity “the big game" of the is not the reason why football draws on any of the college squads who was c. It is not always a game which tens of thousands year by year to the not a veteran of the war. Such a record
forth columns of news in the sport- great athletic stadiums and coliseums is not a purely physical achievement ; pages with vaporings concerning a of the country. There exists a drama it is a record which springs from brain hical football championship. It is of conflict in the game which even to and spirit as well as brawn. always a contest in which the general those vastly ignorant of rules and There is a social value to the game lic is more than casually interested, methods possesses in a surpassing de- of football which it shares with other nevertheless to those who are di- gree the power to evoke enthusiasm intercollegiate sports, but which in the ly concerned it is a dramatic and and to grip the emotions.
case of football is intensified by the oric event. It is all very well to A football game has in miniature the attention which that game receives. No
better illustration of this can be found than in the story of one of the most worth-while games of the present sea
-the game between little Centre College, of Danville, Kentucky, and the great university on the banks of the Charles. It will be recalled that Centre College, numbering less than three hundred, sent its eleven to do battle in Cambridge. The reputation which preceded the Kentucky players drew a crowd to the Harvard Stadium which packed that great structure to its colonnade. The story of that game has been often told, but its aftermath has not received all the attention which it deserves. We find in the latest issue of the “Harvard Alumni Bulletin
a letter from a former Governor of Kentucky, Augustus E. Willson, himself a Har
, vard man.
His letter deserves more extended quotation than we can give it here :
applause that a team from Oxford or
friendly interest as a Kentuckian in the Centre College boys, and I wanted them to win distinction and honor. But I had no idea it could come in such a torrent. .
If the Harvard Faculty and the men and women of Boston and Cambridge could hear all that has been said in Kentucky about Harvard's hospitality and broad-mindedness, they would real. ize that Harvard has taken a new hold on the South. The Centre College boys themselves, when they came home, were outspoken and unreserved in their praise of the sportsmanlike conduct, the unexpected welcome, the generous cheers, and testified that no Southern hospitality could ever le greater than that which they had felt and known in Yankee land.
The effect which the Harvard-Centre game had upon its two participants i in no way peculiar to the relationship of those two institutions. When Har. vard journeyed last winter to the Pacific Coast, it found the same spirit of hospitality, good sportsmanship, and neighborliness which the Kentucky college found in Massachusetts. Every football game is a bond as well as a battle, an expression of co-operation as well as of competition. It would have been a sorry day for American athletis and American life if those who a few years ago saw in the brutalities of fontball the need of abolition instead of in form had triumphed in their misguided activity.
Kentucky has always felt very strongly the pleasures and duties of
THE BLACK HISTORY OF A BLACK REPUBLIC
OST of us received our first in- nent part in future discussions of our to dwell in the land of their fathers.
troduction to Haiti when we National policy towards the smaller I were assigned the task of de
As early as 1512 slaves from Africa nations of our hemisphere. With this were imported to take the place of claiming part of Wendell Phillips's in mind, it may be well to give a brief natives as laborers, and it is the de oration on Toussaint l'Ouverture from
summary of the history of Haiti. scendants of African slaves who, with a school platform, and it must be con- Though the outline of this history may a slight infusion of white and ludian fessed that for many of us
be given in a limited space, it will not blood, now occupy the land. The story quaintanceship has stopped with that do to apply Carlyle's phrase, “ Happy of the extermination of the natives is introduction.
the people whose annals are blank in graphically told in Captain Burues's Something more, however, is needed history books."
“ History of the Buccaneers of Amerthan a hazy memory of Phillips's cele- Haiti was discovered by Columbus ica.” The story is one of the most dibrated oration to give background to in 1492. The island, now divided into graceful chapters in the history of an understanding of the present situ- the Republics of Santo Domingo and Spanish conquest. ation in the Black Republic, a situation Haiti, was inhabited by some two mill- Under the Spanish, mines wereopeveal which vitally concerns the United States ion Indians. Under Spanish adminis- up and plantations developed. Sugar, and which is destined to play a promi- tration they were not long permitted introduced soon after the discorers,