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soon became the chief product. In the early part of the seventeenth century

OCEAN French and English adventurers (alias


ATLATIE pirates) obtained a foothold on the

FORTUGA mainland of Haiti, and towards the end of the century were confirmed in their possession by the Treaty of Rys

Gonaives wick.

SAMANA When the French Revolution came,

Sanchez nearly a century later, this colony had

Mirebalaiso attained a high degree of prosperity.


SANTO DOMINGO Its population was composed of whites,


SANTO DOMINGO free mulattoes, and Negro slaves. The


AZUAOS mulattoes demanded civil rights, which

Jacmel the National Convention of France conferred upon

them in 1791. As a consequence of this a civil war between


SEA whites and mulattoes and slaves broke WALRATH, N.Y. out, resulting in the most revolting cruelty on both sides. In addition to its other troubles a British force invaded the colony. By a treaty with Spain in 1795 France acquired title to

tion. He was dragged from an upstairs Rear-Admiral Caperton endeavored the entire island, although the British room, and his body cut in pieces and pa- to establish a good relationship between remained until driven out by Toussaint

raded aboụt the town of Port-au-Prince. the Haitians and the United States. l'Ouverture in 1798.

From this moment the history of He made no promises to the various Toussaint l'Ouverture was in control

Haiti is the history of the American Haitian factions save that order would of Haiti by 1801. When the French occupation. That is told in the official be maintained and foreigners and Haiunder Bonaparte sent General Leclerc despatches contained in the Barnett re- tians protected. with 25,000 troops to reduce the colony port, which has been alluded to in


The Haitian Congress was in session to submission and restore slavery, previous issues of The Outlook.

at this time, but since there was no viously abolished in 1793, the colonists

At this time the Marines landed at President, under the Haitian Constituoffered a ferocious resistance. L'Ouver

Port-au-Prince. The occupation was tion, the Congress possessed only electture was not defeated, but was treacher- effected with slight bloodshed and with ive powers. The leading revolutionary cously seized and sent to France, where the remarkable discipline and self-con- at this time was General Bobo, who åshe died in prison in 1803. Under Des

trol which has always been the boast of pired to the Presidency of Haiti. On salines the blacks renewed the struggle

our Marine Corps. The action of one August 5 Admiral Caperton reported : and finally forced the French to evac- company is cited as an example of the

The Haitian Congress to-day issued uate the island in 1803. manner in which this occupation was

a bulletin that on Sunday it would effected. The report says: From the accession of Dessalines

elect a President, but at my request it to power the history of Haiti bas

For more than an hour and a half,

has postponed the election. The time been that -of a succession of revoluwbile the light faded to darkness, this

election is inopportune. I tions, massacres, and bloody overthrows.

have been informed that Dartigue

company was endangered by occaAfter the assassination of Dessalines sional shots from 'snipers, but did not

nave, now President of the Senate, is came the romantic tyrant Henri Chris- fire a single shot, though they dis

the candidate likely to be elected. He,

I have heard from many sources, is a tophe, who built the gigantic palace in

armed a large number of Haitian the north of Haiti, the remains of which

man of personal honor, patriotism, and soldiers and took possession of the Arrondissement.

ability. He has never been connected still loom high above a tropical jungle.

with any revolution and is anxious for Christophe committed suicide. His suc- At this time no ile facto government

Haitian regeneration. He realizes that cessor was driven from the island by existed. As Rear-Admiral Caperton

Haiti must agree to any terms derevolution. The political division of cabled the Navy Department, "all

manded by the United States, and he the island came in 1844, when the government functions are at present

professes to believe that any terms laid Republic of Santo Domingo broke away

down by us will be for Haitian benefit. carried on by a committee of citizens

He states that he will use all his influand formed a separate government. practically under my direction.” This act was followed by almost con

ence with the Haitian Congress to have Rear-Admiral Caperton's report of Haiti


to such terms. Shouli tinuous revolution in the Republic of

August 2, 1915, described conditions as he be elected, he must be sustained by Haiti until 1849. The Emperor Faustin follows:

the protection of the United States. I held the reins of that country for

Professional soldiers called Cacos nine years, until he was deposed and

On August 9, 1915, the Acting Secexiled. A president followed, who was

are largely responsible for the existence

retary of the Navy cabled to RearEn turn forced to flee to Jamaica. The

of the large number of Haitian revolu

Admiral Caperton:

tionists. I'he Cacos are organized in next president was shot; the next

bands under irresponsible and lawless Whenever the Haitians wish, you Uhree were driven into exile. And so chiefs who side with the party offering may permit the election of a Presithe tragedy continued until order was the greatest inducement, and only dent to take place. The election of in a measure restored by the election nominally recognize the Government. Dartiguenave is preferred by United of Nord Alexis in 1902. But his ad- All Haitians fear the Cacos, and they States. You will assure the Haitians ministration also failed, and finally practically control politics. There are that the United States has no other nded in his expulsion from the island. now in Port-au-Prince about 1,500 motive than the establishing of a firm From his expulsion Haiti's affairs be

Cacos retaining organization and be- and lasting government by the Haitian

lieved to have hidden arms and ammucame increasingly entangled with for

people and wishes to assist them now

nition, but ostensibly disarmed. The and at all times in the future to maineign nations. This tragic chapter cul

majority of the populace are submis- lain both their political independence minated in the assassination of President

sive and well disposed and will wel- and territorial integrity unimpaired. Guillaume Sam in 1915, after he had come disbanding Cacos and stopping That the Haitian Government will sought protection in the French Lega- revolutions.

grant no territorial concessions to any


for an

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(C) Underwood & Underwood

CELEBRATING THE VICTORY OF AN AMERICAN FISHING BOAT The Esperanto, which won the international race with the Delawana in Nova Scotian waters recently (see The Outlook, November 10), was commanded by Captain Marty Welch, of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Some of Captain Welch's fellow-townsmen gave him and his

crew an enthusiastic welcome when the Esperanto came back. A feature of the greeting is seen above

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foreign governments will be insisted trated through six lines of outposts,

that existed in Haiti before its occuupon by the United States.

and at midnight attacked the camp and pancy by Admiral Caperton nor real

killed Charlemagne and nine other ize the extent of the regenerating The attitude which the Department bandits. It is believed Charlemagne's labors of the United States Marines took at this time, it will be seen, was personal guard consisted of not less during the months they have been on very much more sweeping than anythan two hundred and fifty men.

duty there. thing which the United States has pre

The Marines have literally taught The story is more fully told in Harry

the Haitians how to live decently. viously attempted in its relations with

A. Franck's “Roaming Through the

Before their coming sanitation, save the black republics. Under Mr. Roose

West Indies," published by the Cen- in the crudest and most unsatisfactory velt we supervised the customs of

tury Company, a volume which should forms, was unknown, fevers and epiSanto Domingo, but the Dominican

be read by any one interested in the demics were as plentiful as revoluGovernment remained virtually intact.! status of West Indian affairs. Mr. tions, a press-gang was in vogue,

and In accordance with American deFranck's volume is by no

the country was the victim of continusires, Dartiguenave was elected on whitewash of the activities of our forces.

ous uprisings engineered by political August 12, 1915. The accession of He gives them credit for courage and

scoundrels, each of whom ravaged the Dartiguenave was followed by manifes

customs money-drawer as each in turn devotion to duty, but he also cites intations of hostility in other parts of

came into short-lived power. stances wherein they acted with lack of Haiti than Fort-au-Prince, and the judgment and in a manner seriously to

The entry of the United States Ma

rines ended this sorry story. With the Marines proceeded to occupy other complicate the relations between Haiti wonderful facility and adaptability for parts of that troubled Republic. The

and the United States. It is in Mr. which the Marines are noted, these United States assumed charge of HaiFranck's volume that the story is told

advance agents of American civilizacian custom-houses, and its officers were that our Marines once evicted the

tion so changed Haiti that after they ordered to see that the funds collected Haitian Senators from their Senate

had been there four months, when I were used for the organizing and main. chamber with the direction, “Come on,

went on my annual visitation to the caining of a constabulary and for the

island, I hardly knew it to be the same you niggers, get out of here.” Evidently

spot. It had been improved beyond naintenance of public works and relief. if this story is true the Haitian Senate

my wildest hopes. Sanitary systems At the end of August there were more

failed to impress our Marines as did the had been installed, the towns had been han two thousand officers and men of

Roman Senate the Barbarians from the cleaned up, former idlers and revoluhe Marine Corps stationed in Haiti. north! Mr. Franck also says that our


were working happily for A treaty between the United States

officers in Haiti have been drawn much living wages, and a new spirit was . ind Haiti was signed September 16, too largely from the southern part of the

animating the people. 1915, which recognized the Haitian

United States, and that these officers The problem before America is to Government but provided for the con

were ill adapted by education and inuance of the American occupation early environment to understand and to

conserve the good work which the

Marines have accomplished, to estabind the establishment of a Haitian

gen- control with a minimum of friction the lish a native Haitian Government, and larmerie under American control.

citizens of a black republic jealous of at the same time protect the islanders The reports of our commanders in laiti from this date on deal largely tionally possessed.

the freedom which they have tradi- from their own misdeeds and from the vith the efforts to suppress banditry in

selfish demands of foreign Powers. Nor

One of the instances cited both in Iaiti, and to exterminate the leaders of

may we forget that we should guard the Barnett report and in Mr. Franck's against our own selfishness as well as he professional soldiery which has long volume wherein our forces displayed a lumbered in its tattered ranks a large lack of judgment and understanding

the selfishness of others.

It is possible that under the next proportion of the Haitian population.

in the re-establishment of the Administration a full investigation of t was in the suppression of this ban

corvée system, the system of compul. the Haitian situation will disclose the litry that the bulk of the natives of Haiti

sory labor recognized by the Haitian yho have fallen before American rifles

need for a change of emphasis in our laws as a legitimate method of main- Haitian policy. We believe that under ied. The record of this suppression is taining and constructing roads. At the a commander such as General Wood eplete with stories of daring and cour

time of the American occupation Hai- the pacification of Haiti could have ge which add luster to American mili

tian roads had fallen into complete dis- been carried on with less friction than ary history, although the American

repair, and in an effort to stimulate has existed in the last six years—while orces suffered lightly in the successive

reconstruction the corvée was re-estab- the United States was enunciating as a attles and skirmishes with the Cacos.

lished-a fact which drove many HaiOne incident of this campaign which

cardinal principle of international actians to banditry, an act which in- tion the demand for the self-determinaccurred as late as October, 1919, may creased the forces of the Cacos by many e cited here:

tion of small peoples. Certainly our hundreds of men. The lack of wisdom occupation has been a direct violation On the night of 31 October, 1919, of this act was tardily recognized, but in of this doctrine. Perhaps both the Captain Hanneken, Gendarmerie

a certain portion of Haiti the orders United States and Haiti will be hapd'Haiti, Lieutenant Button, Gendar- to abolish it were not even then carried pier under_an Administration which merie d'Haiti, with faces blackened, and

promptly into effect. It was this section believes, as Republican Administrations twenty gendarmes, all in old dirty of Haiti in which those outrages OCcivilian clothes, and one automatic rifle,

have always believed, that there are curred under an American officer of took up a position at the point where it

nations and peoples incapable at present had been learned Charlemagne [a the Gendarmerie d'Haiti which served

of complete self-determination. It is bandit chief] intended establishing his

to call attention to the whole problem better to face existing facts frankly and headquarters during the attack on of our relationship with this black re

to proceed accordingly than to enuGrande Riviere. . public.

meratė general principles based upon Captain Hanneken had observed It would be unfair to the American impracticable ideals and then to prosome seven hundred men advancing forces to end this


with ceed to violate those principles as the to an attack on Grande Riviere. He

description of our failures. In the Bar- occasion seems to demand. knew the attack on-Grande Riviere

nett report is contained a quotation , The recognition of actual conditions would take place. He decided to advance with his own force and try and

from a speech made by the Right Rev. is in no way incompatible with the penetrate Charlemagne's lines and

Charles B. Colmore, Bishop of Porto highest ideals. In fact, idealism which

Rico and Haiti, who says: capture or kill him.

does not recognize reality is the best At tremendous risk and with many Americans can hardly visualize the ally of gross materialism and internanarrow escapes he and his men pene- awful squalor, suffering, and chaos tional selfishness.








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RAGUE presents the spectacle of all, they have wise statesmen directing all that is oldest and newest in the affairs of the country—that re

civilization. Architecturally markable triumvirate of patriots, Mathe most mediæval town in Europe, saryk, Benes, and Kramar, who worked with its powder gate of the fifteenth unceasingly through the war for the century, its astronomical clock where independence of their country, besides the Apostles still appear at the solar many others whose names hour, and, crowning all, its magnificent familiar in Western countries. Dr. royal castle with its eight hundred Masaryk is now at the head of the and ten rooms, formerly occupied by State as President of the Republic, Dr. royalty one week during the year, it is Benes is in charge of the Foreign symbolio of the past-gone, we hope, for

Office, while Dr. Kramar, owing pri

marily to differences in policy as to Governmentally, as the capital of the treatment of Germans in the country, new Czechoslovak state, Prague is the and particularly as to the use of the seat of the directing force of one of the German language in schools, has retired most advanced, perhaps the most progressive Constitution in Europe, with its absolute political equality between the sexes (a woman may become President of the Republic), its strict limitation of landhoīdings, its proportional representation. It is a remarkable juxtaposition of the old and new, making for all that is best in our modern life. There is reverence for the old, faith in the new,

to which I would add the third fundamental quality of this people, willingness and ability to work.

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(C) Press Illustrating Service




In the often-quoted words of the Czechoslovak President: “ States survive by the qualities which brought them into being. Our state was founded on legitimate warfare and upon work, and upon work will it continue.'

Every one is working; there are no idlers, and, as a result, in spite of lack of raw materials, lack of industrial machines (looted by Germany and Austria during the war), and lack of rolling stock (from the same cause)—in spite of these handicaps, Czechoslovakia was from the Government after splendid ser- United States. Indeed, the thousandthe only late belligerent state whose vice as the first Premier.

kronen note printed in the United exports were in excess of imports when

States is the most artistic issue the I was there in July.

Czechoslovaks possess, in spite of the Hopefulness is, I would say, the pre

The problems to be met are great but fact that the artist gave the symbolic dominating characteristic of the people by no means insurmountable. While figure of Justice six fingers. But the to-day. One sees it in the bright glance, almost every country in the world has Government was confronted by the fact the upright carriage, the springing step, inflated its currency, Czechoslovakia that there was no gold reserve on the voice ; it is omnipresent. Coming has had the courage to deflate hers. to base the currency, and the nation to Czechoslovakia directly from France Shortly after the founding of the Re- was called on to give to the country its as I did, it was particularly noticeable public in October, 1918, all the former gold possessions to be melted up by the and in striking contrast after the pre- Austro-Hungarian currency was called Government. vailing depression of Paris.

in by the Government and for every An American who was there at the time And why should these people not re

two kronen of the old money one told me that the amount of gold artijoice and have faith in their future? krone of the new Czechoslovak cur- cles brought in, from plate to bracelet

: After three hundred years of oppres- rency was given, with the result that, was remarkable-another instance of sion they are again their own masters ; while the Czechoslovak krone is de- the intense patriotism of the Czecha their land is rich in all that makes for preciated in value and forms one And upon that gold reserve and note material prosperity-coal, iron, forests, cause of the economic distress, it is for their share of the gold of the old fertile soil for sugar-beet cultivation, nothing as compared with the depre- Austro-Hungarian Empire

, still held from which they supplied forty-two per ciation in neighboring states.

in the vaults at Vienna, rests the cur cent of Europe's need before the war.

The gold reserve on which that cur- rency of the new Republic. They have well-developed industries rency rests has a unique history. Part To remedy the depreciation of the (glass, porcelain, and textiles), and, above of the money was printed in the currency by increase of exports




jovernment has encouraged the farml's to plant sugar beets for sale abroad, und it is another indication of the deFoted patriotism of this people that in - country seriously in need of foodtuffs hundreds of thousands of heczares were planted to sugar beets for xport instead.



Wide World Photos

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The land question is perhaps the reatest internal problem. When the Republic was founded, nearly one-third f the land was in the hands of two undred and three owners. These large states—so large, indeed, that in some ases they were called kingdoms, as, for xample, the Swartzenberg Kingdom in le south-were in the hands of Gerian-Austrians, Magyars, and a small emnant of Czech nobility who had ecome estranged from their nation. The results were depopulation of the untry, overcrowding of industrial

wns, land hunger, and emigration to oreign countries in vast numbers. The Land Act of April, 1919, seems Western minds extremely radical, but le demand for dividing up the great states had become well-nigh universal. This was proved by the fact that the et providing that everything in excess mined by a bill shortly to be acted upon said to me: “ It is worth two or three i one hundred and fifty hectares of by the National Assembly.


of a man's life to be able to assist rable land and two hundred and fifty

in such a work, and it is worth twentyectares of general land should be


five or fifty years of the world's life to ized by the state was passed unani- This is only one of the great social allow this experiment to be made, the mously in a National Assembly repre- reforms contemplated, but the Govern- first steps of which are being so couranting all political parties. The state, ment, under the wise leadership of geously taken by the new Republic."

. ” nder the law, becomes trustee of the President Masaryk, is content to pro- To quote President Masaryk once ized land, which in time will be sold ceed slowly, to take each forward step

To We have achieved our indeprivate persons or corporations. The as the people are prepared for it. The pendent Republic because we had a ewly instituted Land Offices have President is firmly convinced that vio- burning faith in our national ideals, harge of the transactions, which have lence is never beneficial. “I think,” he because in our hearts we acknowledged ready started. The act is not confis- said to me," that all parties should take and bonored something sacred, because atory. With certain necessary excep

for their watchword far-reaching social we had faith in our fellow-men and the ons, such as, for example, the estates reforms without bloodshed.”

people. In the same way

we shall hich belonged to Hohenzollern or One has the feeling in Prague of maintain our Republic and democracy apsburg and to those guilty of of- being present at the birth of a nation. if we keep faith in our ideals, if we -nses against the Czechoslovak nation, As a fellow-countryman of ours who is recognize that which is sacred in our e seized land will be paid for, the working for their Government for a lives, and if we have faith in one annount of compensation to be deter- pittance of what he could earn at home other.”



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