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term of " lounge-lizard” is no friend of stare at a Colonel ” slicing its dis- ordinate exercise and activity. One is mine. He has laid an undeserved curse gusting way into a corn-field where only supposed only to eat and sleep in his upon a great and worthy company of an avaricious caddy can find it sur. apartment. The soul is no longer to be those who very properly prefer healing reptitiously under cover of dusk. But invited. Why should it be when Broadrelaxation to this vulgar virility of one will hunt long and doubtfully for way calls? And yet even a stroll along modern days.
that ancient shrine, the open fireplace, Broadway at its tawdriest is preferable I would rather stare into what Ana- among New York apartments. The to the thump of the sticky medicine tole France calls “the 'melancholy same are designed with architectural ball or the inanity of pulley weights mesmerism of the embers” than to heads bowed to the evil custom of in- and dumb-bells.
II-A RESPONSE IN PERSPIRATION
BY HAROLD TROWBRIDGE PULSIFER
F any of my friends discover that I count for most of the other trophies camp I crawled into my cot too tired have emitted a plea for perspiration- in my collection.
even to dream. We wound up the producing athletics, they will right- In college I pursued the goal for month with a forced march (at least it fully ask, “What has athletics done to which Mr. Fuessle contends with avid- was very forced to me) of fifteen miles deserve such a fate?” At that, I may ity. There are only two athletic events in five hours, carrying full equipment, be as great an authority on athletics as in which I participated. One was a fenc- over a hard State road, and under a Mr. Fuessle is on the “Easy Chair. ing match with a member of the college broiling sun. I dropped in my tracks Perhaps in each instance both of us are team, which ended by my breaking my when the camping ground was reached, preaching what we have practiced least. opponent's foil and in a subcutaneous and I think that I suffered no loneli.
So that I may not be suspected of laceration of my anatomy in a location ness in my fatigue. overpowering modesty, let me give a which made it easier to stand than to The next day I climbed aboard a brief account of my athletic career. It sit for a number of days. I really think scale and discovered that during the began approximately, I should say,
there must have been something wrong month I had gained some eight pounds about my twelfth year. In that mo- in my stance, or else such a tragedy had in weight and was the possessor of a mentous period I first entered an ath- not occurred. The other athletic event body which was a thing of joy in itself
. letic contest, a cross-country run open in which I took part I shared with I am not speaking of it in terms of to all the boys of the school which I hundreds of my fellow-collegians. It æsthetics, but as a vehicle in which I attended, and which led us for several involved the difficult task of rising could move freely, unthinkingly, and miles through the wild country of the suddenly when called upon, extending with the same pleasurable emotion Highlands of the Hudson. In this con- the right arm above the head, moving it which you may observe in a young test I won second place. I might add gently to and fro and at the same time puppy pursuing a rubber shoe. that I came in one hour behind the singing,
singing, “Then stan dan dwave your It was a body such as nature designed winner, and that all the rest of the ban-ner zon high. On on to vic-tor-ree. for man, but which he, in the pursuit of boys lost their way in the woods. I was always particularly glad to per- easy chairs and Ford cars, has chosen to Shortly after this triumph I was run
form this athletic ceremony whenever sacrifice for an end which is only half of ner-up
for the school tennis champion- a Harvard back crossed a Yale goal life. No, I shall not soon forget the ship. By drawing a “bye" and by the line with the ball held snugly under his quarrelsome and reluctant thing I took grace of three defaults I attained this arm. New Haven papers please copy. to Plattsburg in May, nor the creature enviable position. I think I did beat one All of which may seem more like a of fire and energy which went away with boy, but he had a sprained wrist. The digression than an introduction, but it me when I broke camp the latter part of finals of the tournament were played in is not. It serves to explain how it hap- June. It was exercise, hard exercise
, a drizzling rain; the score, if I remember pens that it was not until college had exhausting exercise, which turned the correctly, was seven busted rackets to sunk several years below the horizon of trick and which gave me a body which five. The other details of the match I my life that I ever thoroughly learned I could forget or remember at will. have forgotten. Perhaps some of those the surprising advantages which lie in Only in such a body can the mind enjoy whose rackets we borrowed may remem- athletics or in hard physical exercise. the alertness and vigor required for a ber them—the details and the rackets. Save for one experience, I would have true appreciation of the gods of litera
In some cubby-hole in my desk at chosen to support Mr. Fuessle's side in- ture or the seductive riches of genius home there are a number of prize rib- this discussion, but that one experience which Mr. Fuessle maintains should bons for track, field, and gymnasium taught me a lesson which I hope I shall lure all men from golf course, track, events which I acquired at another never forget.
and ball-field. Parenthetically, I may school, to which I later transferred In 1916, you will remember, the observe that I am sure that the vigor my athletic enterprise and reputation. Plattsburg camps were blossoming into
of mind which Mr. Fuessle possesses to There are boxing, wrestling, shot-put- full flower. It was my good fortune to day came in great part from the fact ting, broad-jumping, and high-jumping spend two months of that summer be that once upon a time he could set the ribbons, and ribbons for an assorted side Lake Champlain, exercising my dis- pace for Lightbody in part of a twovariety of dashes in this moth-eaten used civilian muscles under the eagle mile race. group. The boxing ribbon I believe I
eyes of a group of two-fisted officers of Recreation is a thing of contrast. acquired because there were only two the Regular Army. Those of my friends The man who carries away from the contestants in the class which I entered who were fortunate enough to pass the athletics of school and college a true and the bout was called off. We tossed physical examinations for the officers' understanding of the value of harsh a coin for the prize, and I was awarded training camps of 1917 tell me that physical effort and the habit of being second place. I have a hazy recollec- the early Plattsburg training camps athletic possesses a heritage which be tion of having won the wrestling rib- were very mild affairs so far as physi- should be slow to discard. Perhaps it is bon because my opponent's jersey tore cal work was concerned, but they were towards this heritage that those who are in my grasp, and he fell to the floor, at least strenuous enough to point enslaved to restlessness are struggling landing flat on his back. I greatly the moral of my present contention. to find a way. It is not less exercise that suspect that similar stories would ac- Night after night of my first month in they need, but more sanity and balance.
“ONE POPULAR FALLACY NEEDS DISPELLING. IN REMOVING COAL, MINERS ARE NOT IN CONSTANT DANGER OF THE
THE MAMMOTH CAVES WELL KNOWN TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC"
URING the summer of 1908 a the hills or mountains caving in on State Workman's Compensation Acts classmate and I spent our three them. The same arching power of also provide insurance for all men em
ths' vacation loading coal in stone is at work in the mines as in the ployed in or about the mines. Most a small Indiana shaft mine. The mine mammoth caves well known to the States are compelling the erection of was equipped with none of the im- traveling public. It is true that when bath-houses near the entrance to the provements in mining or ventilating the last of the supporting pillars have mines, with lockers for the miners' machinery that are in general use at been robbed from a large area the street clothes. These bath-houses have the present time; yet, in spite of this forces of thrust and counter-thrust hot and cold showers in readiness at and the fact that we worked constantly sometimes seek readjustment; but in all times and provide a means for in a very low vein of coal with scarcely the region with which I am familiar . drying the working clothes for the any roof removed for headroom, we that invariably occurs through pressure next day's shift. finished the summer with our muscles from the sides, causing the floor slowly The temperature and humidity within hardened and our digestive organs to buckle upward, and not by any the nines remain more nearly constant handling the coarsest of foods with caving in of the roof. Where the roof throughout the year than in any
other great success. We lacked the .coat of is of slate, weathering may cause it to field of labor. tan, it is true, that is so much prized fall in large enough quantities to en- Electric cutting machines are used to by returning students in the fall
, but danger life or block passageways, but, do the more tedious part of the mining; we had earned twice the amount that needless to say, good mine foremen do that is, the cutting over or under a could have been possible had we worked not permit this to happen. Portland stratum of coal of a channel just suffias farm hands.
cement, applied by force with a cement ciently wide to permit the action of Within the last two years a very
gun, seals the roof against the weather- the explosive to shear off the ledge. considerable portion of my time has ing processes, or frequent shoring with The miner then has only to loosen the been spent among the bituminous coal heavy timbers forms an absolute safe- coal with his pick and load it in the low fields of West Virginia and Kentucky. guard.
cars, that are hauled to the main entry During that time it has been my oppor
In all States where coal is mined in by a mule, where they are picked up by tunity to view coal-mining operations large quantities statutes provide for an electric locomotive. from various angles and always at close the safety of the miners in such mat- Skilled engineers lay out the work range.
ters as protection from falling slate; for the mine foremen, attend to drain
the supply of a circulation of fresh air age of seepage water, and keep an acI
to working spaces; use of explosives; curate record of all the areas that are s to working conditions within the safety device lamps in gaseous mines; being worked. The plant superintendthat needs dispelling. In removing coal, and a limitation to the size of areas' consultation in his office, and by referminers are not in constant danger of mined without double means of exit. ence to varicolored pins on a large
(C) Keystone View Co.
" ELECTRIC CUTTING MACHINES ARE USED TO DO THE MORE TEDIOUS PART OF THE MINING"
are kept well painted and in good repair. Parks equipped with playground apparatus are a part of every live mining center.
Often well-kept ball diamonds, with grand stand and bleachers, are in evidence. Club-houses. amusement halls, moving-picture thea ters, churches, and well-built store and office buildings lend all the appearance of a typically American thriving village. Where the area of coal holdings means a long life to the operation, permanent masonry structures are being erected, even including the miners homes
. Steam heat is in the more important buildings, and complete plumbing equip ment is the general practice. General
landscape work is being indulged in by 4
the companies and the individualminers are given a start on beautifying their own premises.
Here the fact of human variability is met, and offers a serious problem for the plant superintendent with ideas of making his plant a model town. One miner desires an attractive yard and a garden plot for vegetables. Another
one cannot be induced by any amount mine map on the wall discuss with nicknames slurring their descent. They of precedent to take an interest in either. them the progress that is being made soon bridge the gap between their par- One demands a bathroom accommodain all parts of the mine and take up ents and the newness and inhospitality tion for his family. Another group may any difficulties that are being encoun- of the country. This Americanization so abuse plumbing equipment that the tered.
process is going on, even where the plant superintendent is discouraged As far, then, as the immediate work- schools are poor, in those mining locali against further installations. It has ing surroundings of the miner are con- ties where there is not a constant been found, however, that perseverance, cerned, we need not commiserate him. change of laborers. All of the mining accompanied by the right sort of wel
. companies realize the desirability of fare work and the arousing of general II
having the foreign workers arrive at interest in a clean, well-kept city, may HE nationalities mingling in the some feeling of loyalty to American accomplish remarkable results.
mining camps vary considerably institutions, but few of them are devot- Sewage disposal has as yet not reamong the different companies; so much ing any great amount of attention to a ceived the proper amount of attention. so that percentages would be of little persistent educational campaign. Hogs, goats, and cattle have unre interest. Often in this section native To reach a large portion of the stricted range; and flies seldom weet
; white miners are in the predominance, mining camps in this section one must the resistance of a screen except around with local and Alabama Negroes a close travel for hours from the junction point the office stores. second. Italians and Greeks are found on the main-line railway in a dilapi. One must stop here and realize, horrthroughout the district.
dated coach of the coal-oil lamp vin- ever, the tremendous amount of work In some of the camps there are very tage up a winding, valley, entering for that is required to bring a mining comfew miners who have been in the one a few miles into innumerable tributa-munity, and the need for one, into er. location for more than several years ; in ries, only to back out and start on istence. Most often the mere fact of others, a large percentage have been another false lead, until one is convinced getting the railway constructed up
the with a mine since it was first opened, the engineer has lost his way among winding valley over a steep grade, tun. most of them being native to the sur- the hills.
neling or cutting the roadbed out of rounding territory. It is only in such It is often a matter of from four to rock most of the way, entails considercommunities as the latter that religion six hours' travel from his work for a able engineering skill and enterprise. obtains any foothold. Where there are miner to reach a town of ten thousand Then comes the clearing of the site for a variety of foreigners each religious population. In this respect the miners the houses and town center. Seldom is group wants its own church, and as are not so fortunately situated as the level ground available ; invariably there even the architectural form of the build
workers in manufacturing centers. Coal is a mountain stream which comes ing must be designed to suit their needs, operators are realizing this, and are down through the heart of the camp, the plant superintendent is not apt to making rapid progress in correcting and during the spring freshets it may encourage greatly that side of the com- conditions that a few years ago made leave its banks and carry away or un. munity life when he has to deal with labor turnover a serious problem. dermine a number of cottages. The cost labor that he knows to be transient in Coal mining is coming more and of deepening and straightening its its habits.
more under the control of large com- channel and protecting its banks with The inability to speak the English panies with centralized management riprap or stone abutments runs into language is one of the greatest handi- and generous capitalization. As a re- thousands of dollars. Then there are the caps the foreigner has to being re- sult, overhead expense in the way of water supply and electric lights and ceived with friendliness by the Ameri- improving living conditions in the power. All of these are mere incidentals
. can workingmen. Children of foreigners mining communities is not so alarming to the main expense of opening up the who are educated in
our American as it formerly was to the small operator. mine shaft or drift, the installation of schools, speaking English from the Streets are well graded and drained; mining machinery, head houses, repair first, grow up with their schoolmates substantial cottages of three, four, and shops, tipples, etc., and the operation of and are accepted without taunts or five rooms are being constructed, and the main entry sometimes for a year of
more before the mine is in readiness for the removal of coal in sufficient quantities to show a profit on the production cost.
It is small wonder, therefore, that in many cases the problem of sanitation has not been among the initial items to receive attention.
Photograph by Lewis W. Hine
ONE OF THE CARS" · THAT ARE HAULED TO THE MAIN ENTRY BY A MULE"
American villages. In government it is well worth the attention of all students of civics and sociology. In those plants most removed from the larger towns and the main lines of the railways the plant superintendent, or the general manager of the mining operation, if the latter has his office at the mine, becomes an unlimited sovereign. The welfare of every individual living within the mining community is controlled by the equity of his judgments. The miners, failing to secure justice here, have no other recourse but to leave the camp and seek another job. Should a miner become sick or be compelled to work on part time for any one of various reasons, this one man decides the
cently of ten members of a detective very quickly brings down the income amount of credit the miner's family agency and the mayor of a town, and to a decidedly inadequate amount. must exist upon. The operating com- following that guerrilla warfare between During the days of good pay and panies either own or lease the land on miners upon one side of a valley and steady production the miners were not which all the miners' cottages are built. non-union miners at the mine drift en- encouraged toward thrift. This is true Though living in a small town, the trance.
of union mines as well non-union, and miners have no voice in the government Coal operators seem to have accepted the blame for the lack of education of that town. Their status is that of that slogan of the I. W. W.—“There along these lines lies as much with the any farm tenant in the county. Their can be no common meeting-ground be- union leaders as with the coal operators. police protection consists of a county tween capital and labor.” The mutu- Company stores are prone to push sheriff and deputies, one half or all of ally suspicious attitude could be well
the sale of silk shirts, fifteen-dollar the salaries of whom are paid by the voiced in the words : “You are attempt- shoes, and suits from sixty dollars up, mining companies. By remaining in one ing to force something down my throat, to the exclusion of the heavier clothing locality a sufficient length of time to but I will make you swallow your own of a more reasonable price. Store manaearn the right of ballot the miners are medicine.”
gers may state, with some justification, numerous enough, in relation to the re- Any one who has worked among the that they are only responding to a demainder of the voting population, to miners can reailily understand this mand which, if they did not supply, correct this condition. It can easily be bellicose trend of thought upon their miners would satisfy in the cities. As understood that among those few inhab- part. They love to quarrel among them- a large portion of the trading done by itants of the mining counties who are not selves. They are, as a class, primitive in the miners and families is by means of in some way connected with the mining their instincts, and very little beyond company “scrip,” it is doubtful that a operations there can scarcely be found the primitive man in their mental de policy on the part of the store manaone who questions the fairness of having velopment. (" Whose the blame but gers of encouraging sensible purchases the mining companies pay the salaries capital's ?" say the labor leaders.) That could fail to produce desirable results. of the sheriffs.
the same childishly petulant attitude This applies quite as pertinently to The right of laboring men to or- should be held by the coal operators, foodstuff as to clothing. We cannot well ganize themselves for the purpose of however, is, to my mind, unworthy of debate with the miner, however, the bettering their working conditions has the mental caliber of the men engaged reasonableness of his installing a playerbeen recognized and legally sanctioned. in the business.
piano in his home, even though it Numerous coal operators, however, re- The miners are not satisfied with a needless luxury. The instruserve the right to prohibit paid organ- working conditions. What about the ment, according to his taste, lends a izers from entering the company's prop. high wages ? Are they justified in being bit of color to a home life that is apt to erty, and they have it within their dissatisfied, after all the improvements be otherwise exceedingly drab. power, the government of the commu- in mining and living conditions enu- To return to our fundamentals, it is nity being vested as above mentioned, merated in this article ?
true that, with any amount of
unproto permit only those employees whom The answer is, yes, providing they are ductive days on the part of the miner they choose to occupy the company- not assured of steady employment. It and with his present state of education owned cottages. A large number of de- can easily be seen that the present rate regarding thrift, his wage may keep tectives are likewise employed within of pay per ton of coal mined may net him indebted to the mining company the non-union mines in an attempt to the miner a substantial pay envelope instead of permitting him to deposit frustrate any movement for unioniza- when the mine management is func- savings. tion, and in the union mines to learn of tioning properly, coal cars are arriving
IV strike agitation.
in sufficient quantity, and coal orders there a remedy for unsteady emAnd so we have, in this very sec- are awaiting their turn, but that a onetion of which I write, the murder re- half or one-quarter production schedule There are two. The first, of course,
(C) Keystone View Co.
"EVEN THE MINE-RUN COAL MAY BE STORED WITH SAFETY. COAI OPERATIVES AND EDITORIAL WRITERS IN COAL MAGAZINES ARE MUCH GIVEN TO SCOUTING THE IDEA AS
tion of union miners that the Goveru. ment operate an experimental coal mine, both in the anthracite and bituminous coal fields, in order that it arrive at facts in the cost of coal production.
That such a proceeding could have any value as to comparative costs the Government would need to lease unde veloped coal lands, now well removed from railways; start at the beginning, and go through the travail of getting the branch line of the railway constructed to the coal field; organize the construction crews that prepare the way for the mining operation, and build up gradually the personnel of an operating company and system of mine management. When this had been as complished, after some four or five years, what would we have? The cost of coal as procluced under one certain system; one quality of coal; one thickness of seam ; one type of roof; one set of mine and drinking water conditions to be met; one rate of leasing, with or without limited royalties; and ad infinitum to the list of things which could be peculiar to the one experimental mine. In addition there would be the variable human equation exist
ing throughout the operation from the is an increase in the number of cars must naturally be distributed over the
head executive down to the coal loaders. available for coal transportation. Rail- life of the operation, and, so regarded,
Such theories as this, advanced by ways hope to meet this condition in would amount to a very negligible sum. the union leaders, convince the thinking time, both by increasing their equip- The immediate cost of rehandling is
public that they are not going into ment and by increasing the despatch being done by jobbers at from ten to
matters very deeply. with which cars are unloaded and freed twenty cents a ton, at this date. It has for reshipment. There is a point in the been well established by technical in
V increase of equipment, however, beyond · vestigations that even the mine-run coal which they are not justified in going may be stored with safety. If more THAT part is the general populace without overburdening the public, which expensive methods are deemed inexpethey serve, with the overhead charge dient, the simple one of embedding pipe and Kentucky playing in this game reacting through increased tariffs. Nor within the coal at various intervals, and between the operators and miners? can we expect, if reports be true, any keeping occasional readings of the tem- Let me cite an instance of an ad. great relief from this remedy within perature through the pipe, will preclude diess made before a body of representthe next several years, even though any actual loss from spontaneous com- ative business men in a community progress of reconstruction exceeds our bustion. If the temperature approaches centering in the mining regions of three most sanguine hopes.
the danger-point, a small portion of the States. The speaker was the head of a The second remedy, and the one coal only need be rehandled in order State institution for feeble-minded in which coal operators must come to acto cool it and permit the gases to escape.
West Virginia. In the course of his cept sooner or later, is the construction In face of the fact that coal storage talk, explaining the functions of his of coal pockets and the employment of
at the mines would remove the one re- department, he made statements in subrehandling machinery at the mines or maining ground of grievance held by stance as follows: railway junction points. Coal operators the miners that is recognizable as of
At a recent session of the State and editorial writers in coal magazines any great import by the general public, Legislature I had a bill introduced for are much given to scouting the idea as it seems a short-sighted policy that con- the prevention of marriages between impractical. Lest the public investigate tinues to ignore its feasibility, yet per- certain classes of feeble-minded. The too closely they cite the main
sists in a costly plan of espionage upon bill failed in passing. Since then, against soft-coal storage as the danger the miner in the hope of preventing having given the matter further conof spontaneous combretion. labor unrest.
sideration, I have decided that I shall Soft coal is being stored throughout It can readily be seen that such not again propose a law of such a the country at the present time by job- storage pockets at or near the mines
nature. Among the morons, or milder bers, manufacturing concerns, and pub- would do away with much of the reason
cases of mentally deranged, there are lic utilities. Where any attention is
many of perfect physical developfor high prices being paid for spot ment. We will need to draw from this paid to preventive measures sponta- coal, and that in time of National
class for labor of certain sorts in the neous combustion is largely a thing of emergency the Government would most future. In fact, we need them now.
probably be inclined to commandeer Bituminous coal is liable to sponta- such supplies at a price that would And the assembled group of men acceptneous combustion, particularly so during allow only a reasonable profit above ed the pronouncement without a ques . the first several weeks after it has been the cost of mining. These facts may
tion. The officers of the coal and gas commined, but there is no problen con have something to do with the opinion panies, with their engineering, purchasnected with its storage that cannot be of coal company executives concerning ing, administrative, and selling departsurmounted. The cost of pockets or the impracticability of the idea.
ments, make the backbone of business storage bins and rehandling machinery It has been suggested by a conven- in the land of the Virginian and Nor