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The Game of Black Diamonds

N this issue of The Outlook the coal situation is discussed by Mr. Wetzel and the editors of The Outlook. Can you explain the methods of handling the production of hard and soft coal in this country? Are any of these methods illegal?

If the Government should come to ownership of the coal mines, do you think the coal business would be handled any better than it is now being handled by private concerns? Would the price of coal be as high as or higher than it is now? Do you think that much or any of the propaganda against Government ownership is circulated in the interest of inordinate private gain? Are you able to substantiate your opinions by facts and sound reasoning?

The Outlook, in its editorial on the coal question, urges "that the methods of handling the fuel that saves us from suffering and wards off illness should be brought out into the open." Who has the authority to bring them out into the open? Why are they not revealed to the public? What good would it do if they were publicly known?

What industrial questions are involved in the coal problem? Have you any suggestions as to how such questions should be answered?

Could a group of private families buy their coal direct from the owners of coal mines if these families together purchased in car lots? If not, should laws be made to encourage this practice?

If it is true that the coal industry in its three branches-mining, transportation, and distribution-is practically carried on by the same interests, is this wrong, and if so, why?

What valuable suggestion do you see in Mr. Wetzel's article for employers and employees? Can you add any suggestions?

What solution have you to offer for our coal problem? Outline your argument. What is the meaning of: Commiserate, riprap, espionage, sabotage, morons.

The following books offer a wealth of suggestion in reference to many of our pressing problems of to-day: "Problems of Today" by Moorfield Storey (Houghton Mifflin); "Unemployment," by J. E. Johnson (H. W. Wilson Company); "The New Industrial Unrest," by R. S. Baker (Doubleday, Page); "Organized Labor in American History," by F. T. Carlton (Appleton).

"Cold-Blooded Murder"

What is your explanation of why "the state of Ireland weekly goes from bad to worse"?

The Outlook tells us that "the first and foremost thing in the apprehension of fairminded people is to restore law and order

1 These questions and comments are designed not only for the use of current events classes and clubs, debating societies, teachers of history and English, and the like, but also for discussion in the home and for suggestions to any reader who desires to study current affairs as well as to read about them. -THE EDITORS.

quickly and thoroughly." But how is this
to be done in Ireland?

Do you think it undignified and unwise
for a Government to retaliate?

Has Ireland played a noble part in
world affairs?

Do you
find that it is difficult for both
Irishmen and Englishmen to talk about
the Irish problem without bias of party,
creed, or class?

Is it difficult for you to do so?

How can the Irish question be made to serve the cause of international good will? "The American Commission on Ireland" is now hearing witnesses at Washington. Do

you think that our Government should allow this "Commission" to continue the hearing? Will such a course as this "Commission" is pursuing help to bring about peace and end hate?

Who are the real friends of Ireland in this country?


Do think that those who are talking about making England grant complete independence to Ireland may as well realize that England will not grant this, and that they will have to fight for it if they ever get it?

Have you yet read "Ireland and England," by E. R. Turner (Century)? You should by all means read "A Straight Deal; or, The Ancient Grudge," by Owen Wister (Macmillan); read also "An Irishman Looks at His World," by G. A. Birmingham (Doran).

A Useful Citizen

Governor Fort was a good mixer. Do
think that he was able to effect his re-
form partly because he knew how to shake
hands? Is sociability a characteristic worth
striving for by all men and women, even if
they are not in politics?

Governor Fort never talked down to his
listeners. What does such a characteristic
imply? Do teachers talk down to pupils?
Should they? What effect has such a
practice upon teachers? Upon pupils?

Governor Fort once said that he had
made an enemy of every political boss in
the State of New Jersey. Is it always wise
and right to make enemies of political
bosses? What was Roosevelt's attitude to-
wards Senator Platt while Roosevelt was
Governor and Platt was boss of New York
State? The story of this relationship can
be found in Roosevelt's autobiography

Governor Fort was a poor man's son, yet
he won distinction. Does every person in
America have an equal chance for success?
Explain the phrase in the Declaration of
Independence, "All men are
are created
equal." Does equality of creation imply
equality in ability?

You may be helped in your efforts to
answer these questions by reading the
recently published books by Hermann
Hagedorn (Harcourt, Brace & Howe) and
W. H. Hobbs (Putnams) entitled "Leon-
ard Wood;" and the volumes by Vernon
Kellogg (Appleton) and Rose Wilder Lane
(Century Co.) entitled "Herbert Hoover;"
also "The Autobiography of Andrew Car-
negie" (Houghton Mifflin) and "The Amer-
icanization of Edward Bok" (Scribners).

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ПHE wholesale destruction of trees by fire and wasteful lumbering has made it fficult in certain sections to supply the emand for evergreens at Christmas-time. ndeed, a considerable industry has grown at of this demand; and from northern ints in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michan hundreds of thousands of Christmas ees are shipped every winter to cities cated at a distance from the source of ipply. This ever-increasing demand has ade such inroads on our supply that a istinct menace has resulted from the cusm of the Christmas tree. Where the pply is taken from the spruce swamps mote from the public highway it is not "pecially noticeable, but our good citizens ve the habit of getting the tree wherever is most convenient to get it-which is ually along the road.

We cannot understand the mental process 7 means of which intelligent men and omen can justify themselves in the act of

tting down a beautiful conifer along a ablic highway to be used but a few hours h Christmas Eve. Thousands of beautiful pruce and balsam as well as cedar and ne are taken in this way each year by e good citizens of our land. Evergreens ong the road, that could be a perennial urce of enjoyment and protection, cerinly should not be taken for such a trivial urpose.

We have witnessed the destruction of adless thousands of these trees. We have en large and beautiful spruce cut down get a six-foot Christmas tree from the p because of the attractive cluster of ones. The banks of a small lake on the dge of a northern Wisconsin city have been ompletely stripped of a native stand of vergreens to satisfy this barbarous cusom. A committee of good churchmen one me went out on a Federal road and got a agnificent tree to decorate their church ith for an hour. Tourists and natives for century will be deprived of the enjoyent of seeing this tree at the bend in the oad.

On the banks of the Flambeau River ast north of a thriving Wisconsin city, in tract belonging to the city parks, stood a eautiful spruce in a grove of white birch. This tree, conspicuous in winter and sumher for its symmetrical mass of green, was source of enjoyment for all who passed hat way. But a prominent citizen of my ity took his small son and a hatchet he river path one day and returned with he top of that spruce tree to decorate with insel for a night.


The boys from the best homes of our ities are permitted to go out along the road and bring in trees in any quantity where only one is used. A dozen trees round a yard at once is not an unusual sight at Christmas-time in a northern Wisconsin city..

There are hundreds of thousands of instances of this wantonness on the part of houghtless citizens. Are we willing that Our beautiful trees shall be destroyed in this manner? Is it possible that the American citizen can wish to see the evergreens wholly removed from along our Northern roads? Can intelligent men and women who live in these parts justify themselves in taking part in such destruction or permitting their children to do so?

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The industrial opportunities now ripe in Seattle are beyond precedent. Seattle wants you if there is an opening in your line. Write freely and frankly. You'll receive an equally frank reply. Send for the booklet, "Seattle, the Seaport of Success."

ABRAHAM LINCOLN said: Property is the fruit of labor; property is desirable; is a positive good in the world. That some should be rich shows that others may become rich, and hence is just encouragement to industry and enterprise. Let not him who is houseless pull down the house of another, but let him work diligently and build one for himself, thus by example assuring that his own shall be safe from violence when built.

eattle for the American Plan


THE FOLLOWING is the gist of a recent declaration unanimously passed by the trustees of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce and Commercial Club and approved by a 991⁄2 per cent. vote of the members in referendum:

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce and Commercial Club stands
for the American plan, which means absolute fairness to all classes
of workers whether union or non-union. It unalterably opposes the
"closed shop," which shuts the door of industry against the Ameri-
can working man who is not a member of a labor organization.
* It opposes the use of force or intimidation by any one
endeavoring to. persuade workmen either to join or to resign from
a labor organization.
It holds that both employe and
employer are privileged to terminate their relations whenever either
chooses to do so unless there be contracts between them.

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It does not countenance limitation of the amount of work which may be accomplished in a given time or the manner in which payment shall be made, whether by hourly rate, piecework, contract or otherwise. It believes that every workman should have an opportunity to earn a wage proportionate to his ability and productive capacity. This declaration was endorsed by every business, commercial and employers' association in Seattle. In other words, SEATTLE IS A FAIR TOWN-FAIR TO LABOR, FAIR TO CAPITAL AND FAIR TO THE PUBLIC.

Seattle's new labor policy is based upon a perfectly frank understanding between employer and employe. In no American city is the labor situation more satisfactory or brighter with promise.

Seattle has an adequate labor supply of the highest class. She has a command of basic raw materials as has no other city on earth-her own great essential products and all the wealth of the Orient, Siberia and Alaska. She is the entrepot to Alaska, America's undeveloped treasure land, and by the immutable laws of distance, now and for all time the chief American port in Oriental trade.

Contiguous to Seattle is one-sixth of the Nation's water power, and practically the only coal in the Pacific States-a never-failing supply for all purposes.

She has a 20 per cent. margin in manufacturing costs due to her incomparable climate and the ability to work in comfort every day in the year.

Seattle is not only America's chief Pacific port but by all odds the chief railroad center of the Pacific Coast. She reaches every market in the civilized world.

The Seattle Spirit knows no obstacle it cannot overcome. Seattle is the healthiest city in the world and has the finest harbor on the Western hemisphere.


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Believing that the advance of business is a subject of vital interest and importance, The Outlook will present under the above heading frequent dis cussions of subjects of industrial and commercial interest. This department will include paragraphs of timely interest and articles of educational value dealing with the industrial upbuilding of the Nation Comment and suggestions are invited.


TRUNK LINES FOR MOTOR TRAFFIC BY COLONEL JESSE G. VINCENT Vice-President of Engineering, Packard Motor Car Company

FRIEND of mine drove his car down the Boston Post Road into New York, and within ten miles saw twenty-seven wrecked cars and trucks at the side of the right of way. Most of them had fallen into ditches or run into trees in efforts to escape collision on the crowded road.

This is almost typical of the condition of the roads which carry the heavy motor traffic around all our big cities. It shows the tremendous extent to which our highways are already overloaded by automobile traffic, which is growing steadily in volume, and which must continue to grow with even greater rapidity.

The passenger automobile's contribution to efficiency in production, according to figures compiled by the National Automo bile Chamber of Commerce, is equivalent to an increase in more than a half of the working time of every man owning one.

We find signs that the passenger car may offer relief from the congestion in the great industrial centers which has inflicted upon us the horrors of slum life. Already large numbers of moderately paid workers are finding homes in the country at an increasing distance from the factories where they are employed, making the trips to and from work in their own cars, and thus not only saving in rent but giving their fami lies health, quiet, and a far better chance

The first real use of trucks came during the winter of 1917 and 1918, when the combined effect of an extremely hard win ter and the tremendous demand for transportation for war ammunition and supplies broke down the railway service east of the Mississippi. During this period more than 1,200,000,000 tons of freight were moved by truck.

This service established the motor truck firmly as an economical carrier, and its use is being more and more extended for short-haul transportation. This has been emphasized by the present critical condi tion of the railway service, and will be still more accentuated by the recent heavy advance in freight rates. The trucks are now carrying between 700,000,000 and 800,000,000 tons of freight a year, at a minimum estimate, and there are hundreds of millions more tons that the railways: carrying with no profit, or even at an actual loss, that could be more economi cally handled by motor transport.


All the processes which these things involve have been checked and will continue to be checked by the practical break-down of our highway system. The few roads now capable of handling automobiles are already so dangerously overcrowded that

hey furnish an effective restriction' upon he saving and progress which would come rom the increased use both of passenger ars and of trucks.

There have been many evidences of atempts to pass highway legislation which as in some cases not only unfair, but even bsurd. Much of this resulted from an indequate study, while a great deal of it was ue to the attitude that roads possessed ertain rights without regard to their abily to stand standard traffic.

-When the passenger car became a standrd means of transportation, the value of nproved roads was generally appreciated nd the movement to construct these beme widespread. The passenger car, howver, did not present any very difficult roblems concerning the type of highway Construction because it caused almost no amage to any comparatively hard and nooth road surface. As a result, most ads were built only to meet the needs of assenger cars and horse-drawn vehicles.

The increased use of heavy commercial ars, however, caused extremely rapid derioration of the best highways. Some of hese roads have even been partially rebuilt ut of the same construction as the first. En consequence, they are soon destroyed gain.

In the past year serious efforts have een made to improve the highway situaon, but have accomplished little. Although 635,000,000 has been appropriated for ad construction in this country, the diffialties with railway transportation of rushed stone, cement, binders, and other ecessary materials have made it possible

let contracts on only about a quarter of is work, and there has been construction ork done on only about sixteen per cent f the amount planned.

In the second place, there has not been sufficiently fundamental analysis of the roblem of building trunk roads to handle e great traffic already existing and the ill greater traffic of the immediate future the neighborhood of our great cities. Lost of the roads are still far too narrowsixteen-foot width being common. This eans that, with almost unbroken streams traffic passing each way, it becomes most impossible to pass another vehicle oing in the same direction, and thus the atire traffic will be held to the pace of the owest truck.

It is probable that the highway of the iture must follow the lines of developent of the great railways and provide vo, and possibly four, parallel roadbeds handle different kinds of traffic going 1 opposite directions. What the solution ill be has not yet been determined, and should immediately engage the attention f the best engineers in the country. It is omplicated by the problems of finance, of idening the right of way, and of availaility of materials.

The importance of improved highways economical operation of both passenger ars and trucks cannot be over-emphasized. food roads have the effect of decreasing he cost of transportation of both kinds, nd they also make possible considerably igher speeds. Fuel consumption is maerially reduced, tire mileage is increased, nd depreciation of the car is cut to mininum by protecting it from shocks reeived in negotiating poor roads.

It is evident that the legislators are nder obligation to provide improved highays suitable for use by the heaviest ehicles.

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of Prosperity DR. C. T. CURRELLY, Curator of the


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With Grenfell on the Labrador

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Royal Ontario Museum, has brought with him from England a gift to the Cana dian people which they value highly, not so much for its intrinsic worth, although it is a queenly gift, as for the gracious kindliness that prompted the act.

The gift consists of two gowns one wom by Queen Mary at her coronation in June, 1911, the other worn at the Durbar in India in December of the same year and also on the entry into the City of London following the coronation.

The gowns are of white satin, princess effect, with front and back panels richly embroidered in gold. The embroidery shows the rose of England, the shamrock of Ireland, the thistle of Scotland, the lotus of India, and the star of India.

At the foot of the skirts is a sort of ruche, waved to signify the sea that en circles the Empire, and an embroidered cable of oak leaves and acorns typifies the union of the Empire.

The ermine-lined train was not included in the gift, but, even without it, this is the most valuable and interesting gift erer presented to the Museum.

The gown worn at the Durbar was dir played for a few days in an Indian m seum, following the Durbar.

The embroidery on both gowns done by the Ladies' Work Society of London.

The subject of dress and textiles is gaining a great deal of attention in museums to-day, because of both its industrial and historical value. JEAN MCINTYRE.

Brooklyn, New York.


Dear Mr. Abbott:

Why do you allow your headline writer to mislead the public by heading the admirable article of Miss Ida M. Tarbell in the October 13 issue as follows: "IDAM TARBELL Thinks the League's the Thing to Catch the Conscience'"? Is there anything in her article to lead any one to the conclusion that Miss Tarbell is


A Cash Offer for Cartoons and Photographs porting the League in order to re

Cash payment, from $1 to $5, will promptly be made to our readers who send us a cartoon or photograph accepted by The Outlook.

We want to see the best cartoons published in your local papers, and the most interesting and newsy pictures you may own. Read carefully the coupons below for conditions governing payment. Then fill in the coupon, paste it on the back of the cartoon or print, and mail to us.

THE EDITORS OF THE OUTLOOK, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

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"catch" unwary voter's con science? It seems to me that The Outlook owes its Democratic readers, and espe cially Miss Tarbell, an apology for this unintentional but misleading error. T.W.L

Dear Sir:

There was no intention, in putting in the title "Ida M. Tarbell Thinks the Leagues the Thing to Catch the Conscience, implying that Miss Tarbell wanted to catch "the unsuspecting and unwary voter's conscience" in an opprobrious way. We sup posed that the title would be at once recog nized as the quotation from Shakespeare's "Hamlet," where it is used in a perfectly legitimate sense of arousing the conscience of one who seems unaware of a tremenERNEST H. ABBOTT.

dous moral issue.

Dear Mr. Abbott:

Your explanation is complete-the joke's on me for not recognizing the quotation.


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