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YOULD what happened to Blaine partisans—might easily at the last mo- Mr. Blaine himself, a year or more
in 1884 have happened to Har- ment lose a victory that was almost after the election, told my father that ding in 1920 ? The Harding land
about three weeks before the election, e was so overwhelming that it is The blow thus unwittingly dealt while he was at his home in Augusta, y enough to say now that no un- to Mr. Harding—which, had the Maine, he received an invitation from ard last-minute fluke could possibly election been close, might have been the Republican National Committee to e thrown the victory to Cox.
fatal-came from a journal that was attend a great banquet to be given in But elections are never decided until extremely friendly to him. While the his honor in New York City during the
ballots are cast. It therefore be- incident and its lesson are still fresh week immediately preceding the elecved the most cocksure Republican in mind it may interest readers of tion. His acceptance was published in Aer or newspaper, even two weeks The Outlook to recall a really fatal
all the newspapers, Ore the last election, to be careful of wound that was received by another Mr. Blaine further said that shortly ry action and to weigh every utter- American statesman and Presidential afterwards he received a letter from a e. If the chances between the two candidate “in the house of his friends." certain newspaper correspondent in didates had been very much more
I refer to the Rev. Dr. Samuel Burch- New York, who was unknown pern during October than we now know ard's famous phrase, “ Rum, Romanism,
ard's famous phrase, “ Rum, Romanism, sonally to him but who represented en to have been, “Harvey's Weekly,"
and Rebellion," which, on the very himself as being an ardent Republican. withstanding its ardent advocacy of eve of the election of 1884, snatched He implored Mr. Blaine not to come to rding, might easily have turned the the Presidency from the hands of James New York, but to remain in Augusta, Les in Cox's favor because of a most G. Blaine. The writer happens to know as the fight was already won. This unreditable cartoon in its issue of Oc- from first-hand knowledge a good deal
known newspaper man wrote him a er 23, in which the sensibilities of of the inside history of that fatal phrase. second and a third time, expressing his Roman Catholic brethren were
fears that “ something” might be said DRIFT OF IRISH TOWARD BLAINE ply wounded by a shocking carica
or done during the proposed visit to of their cherished doctrine of the About three weeks before the 1884 New York that might lose the election. maculate Conception of the Virgin election, the writer spent a Sunday at Of course that correspondent did not ry.
the summer home of Mr. John Wana- dream of Dr. Burchard's fatal remark. Colonel Harvey's post-election state- maker, the great Philadelphia merchant. Possibly he may have been afraid of at that he knew nothing of 'hat tact- Among the guests was the Rev. Dr. R. the cry of Wall Street influence tasteless, and irreverrat cartoon M. Thompson, a distinguished Irish that would be raised, and which aci] he saw it in print has been ac- Presbyterian, who (I think) was a Pro tually was raised, in connection with ted at par by all fair-minded men, fessor of Political Economy in the Uni- the famous “ Millionaires' Banquet”
they applauded his fine expression versity of Pennsylvania. Hetold me that that was given to Mr. Blaine during regret for its appearance in his he was in correspondence with leading that visit to New York.
mal; for every true American re- Irishmen all over the United States; ets his neighbor's convictions, even that the Irish vote for Blaine would as
BLAINE WAS SUPERSTITIOUS en he does not share them.
tonish the country; that he was in per- Mr. Blaine told my father that he t is therefore to be hoped that the sonal touch with scores of Irish “Blaine had a vein of superstition in his nature; gnation excited by_that cartoon Clubs” in different parts of the coun- that the thrice-repeated warning from
among thoughtful Protestants in try, composed of Irishmen who up to his unknown newspaper friend actually Republican party will teach poli- that time had always voted the Demo- “got on his nerves," making him think ing and editors a lesson that will not cratic ticket. Dr. Thompson's state- of Remember the ides of March ;" orgotten in future campaigns. In ment only confirmed the widespread and that he seriously thought of recallhotly contested election an appar- rumors of a drift toward Blaine on the ing his acceptance of that invitation. y triling incident—some error in part of Irishmen, who were attracted But he did go to New York, where, tical strategy or some thoughtless by his magnetic qualities and by his by a mere accident (as will be shown rance by a candidate or one of his liberal attitude toward the Irish. further on in this article) he listened
finally concluded that any repudiat
How often must Mr. Blaine har recalled those " saddest words of tone or pen," " It might have been"! IL had only obeyed the strong imple bern of his superstitious presentimens and had canceled the trip to New Ye or if the spokesman first chosen by the group of parsons had not been taka ill; or even if Mr. Blaine, carrying or his first thought, had promptly, viga ously, and publicly repudiated Burchard's thoughtless appeal to tarian and sectional prejudices, whil repudiation would have been printa next morning in every newspare throughout the land, he would undod edly have attained his long-cherishe ambition of being President of the United States. On just such chane decisions and happenings do gran events sometimes turn.
What happened is common knowedge.
A Democratic reporter took don every word of Dr. Burchard's speech and within a few hours after that meet ing tens of thousands of post-cank playing up the phrase in big type “RUM, ROMANISM, AND REBELLION, were printed by the Democratic Com mittee in New York. Those postal
were mailed on that Friday night t to Dr. Burchard's speech containing THE LURE OF ALLITERATION every Roman Catholic priest in Ne that famous and fatal phrase, “Rum, Dr. Burchard's speech was almost an
York State, and on the Sunday before Romanism, and Rebellion.”
impromptu one, and his famous phrase the election Dr. Burchard's charge wa The authority for the third feature simply put into aptand alliterative form rebuked from numerous Roman Catho of this story is the late Dr. Burchard charge that had often been made in lic pulpits throughout the State. himself, whom I afterwards came to previous elections by Republican news- As a natural and inevitable result know very well, and greatly to esteem, papers and on the hustings without Dr. Thompson's Irish “Blaine Clubs while I was the minister of the “Old serious results ; for until 1884 the did not materialize to any great extent First” Presbyterian Church of New vast majority of Roman Catholics had on election day. Thousands of In York City.
been Democrats. The trouble with the votes were lost for Mr. Blaine, a When it became known that Mr. gentle and guileless old man was that Grover Cleveland carried the State by Blaine was to spend a few days in New he knew next to nothing of “politics," about 1,200 majority, and New York York during the week before the elec- and he was entirely ignorant of the vote in the Electoral College tion, a large committee was formed, com- widespread drift toward Blaine among turned the scale. Thus an eleventhposed of Protestant clergymen of Re- the Irish Roman Catholics.
hour change of only about 600 votes publican sympathies, who asked Mr. Mr. Blaine's post-election remarks to from Blaine to Cleveland elected the Blaine for the privilege of meeting my father are the authority for the latter. him and of presenting a brief address fourth episode.
Dear old Dr. Burchard's phrase did to him. The clergymen's request was The meeting with those Protestant the business, and the kindly old man granted.
parsons was held on the Friday after- was cursed and vilified by Republicans A certain clergyman, not Dr. Bur- noon before the election. Dr. Burchard's throughout the country. People who chard, was chosen to be their spokes- speech was a short one, and was deliv- knew nothing of his guileless character man; but the day before the meeting ered in a voice that hardly carried to even went so far as to accuse him of he was taken ill. A futile effort was the edges of the audience present. having been bribed to beat Mr. Blaine made in two or three directions to get Mr. Blaine told my father that Dr. A sarcastic invitation was telegraphal a suitable substitute, and it was only an Burchard's phrase went through him to him to attend a Democratic banquet hour or two before the meeting that like a knife, and that he sensed its in Kentucky, at which it was proposal Dr. Burchard was asked to be their danger at once. He debated with him- to congratulate him on his fine work spokesman. This fact is worth mention- self whether he would vigorously repu
for the Democratic party! ing, because of the silly charge after- diate it and earnestly deprecate such a wards made, by people who did not sectarian and sectional appeal. But, as
A BABE IN POLITICS know Dr. Burchard's guileless charac- the brief phrase had been only a pass- The last episode in my story is full ter and his sincere devotion to the Re- ing remark and had not been
amplified, of curious interest. It is connected with publican candidate, that the speech and as it had been uttered in such a a meeting of Chi Alpha--a coterie of containing that fatal phrase was a cun- low voice that possibly it had not at- Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed pa ningly put-up job!
tracted notice, Mr. Blaine said that he tors and theological professors in Ne
JAMES G. BLAINE
York City, of which the writer was a member. The meeting took place on che Saturday night before the election of 1888. Dr. Burchard was a member of that coterie and was present.
It was Chi Alpha's custom at the meeting immediately preceding a Presdential election to lay aside its usual programme of theological discussions, and for every member, whether he was 1 Republican or a Democrat, to speak of the issues and prospects of the election according to his convictions.
When it came the turn of the late Dr. Henry M. Field to speak his mind, he told us, among other things, that he had just come from Baltimore, where he was present at a large dinner given to distinguished people of both parties. Among those present was a very pretty young woman who was a Roman Catholic and the daughter of a Confederate officer. Lifting her glass of champagne toward Dr. Field, she gave him this saucy toast : “ Here's to Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion !”
I was aghast at what, at first thought, struck me as being a most unkind and tactless reference to Dr. Burchard's famous blunder, and I looked around to where the latter sat, expecting to find him blushing with embarrassment. But Dr. Field knew more than I did as to how Dr. Burchard had finally come to look upon his faux pas of 1884. From others and from Dr. Burchard himself I soon learned the story of his subsequent change of attitude in regard to Mr. Cleveland, whose election he had mouths of babes and sucklings Thou ties it had never been possible in the so unwittingly and innocently brought hast perfected praise."
South to discuss frankly and intelliabout.
He confessed to us that he had been gently the various economic and politiDuring Mr. Cleveland's first Admin- a mere babe in politics ;” that in his
cal questions that had nothing to do istration the Pan-Presbyterian Council address to Mr. Blaine he had only ex- with the differences between the North met in Washington and Dr. Burchard pressed what had often been said pub
pressed what had often been said pub- and South. For that reason the South was a delegate. The Council went in a licly, in previous elections, without had continued to be solidly Democratic body to the White House, to pay their damage to the Republican cause; and because the Republican party was the respects to the President. Mrs. Cleve- that at the time he knew nothing of party of the North—a most unwholeland stood at the side of her husband the peculiar danger of any such re- some state of affairs. to receive the delegates as they filed mark in the election of 1884. He then Dr. Burchard then said that Mr. past. When Dr. Burchard was pre- went on, in a detached and delightfully Cleveland's Administration had laid sented by name, Mrs. Cleveland, with naïve way, to philosophize over the re- the bogey of “Southern domination," that winsomeness which has always so sults of his chance phrase.
and he predicted that the way would endeared her to everyone who met He reminded us of the fear that used eventually open for a frank and intelher, was so gracious in the welcome to be entertained in the North before ligent discussion in the South of the she extended to the gentle old man to
1884 that if the Democrats ever came broader questions of economic and politwhom Mr. Cleveland was in a special into power “the South would be in ical policy, which he believed would in sense indebted for his unexpected elec- the saddle," and that it would then rip time run new and non-sectional lines of tion that Dr. Burchard's stiff Repub- up all the legislation growing out of party cleavage. licanism began at that moment to the Civil War. He then showed us (as And he concluded his remarks by thaw.
by that time had proved to be the saying that, for the reasons given, he How far that change in his po case) how groundless had been those had finally come to look upon himself litical leaning ever went I do not fears; and he spoke in justly high as the humble, even though foolish, inknow. But the writer will let Dr. terms of the wise and conservative strument in the hands of Providence for Burchard tell his own story of how he Administration of Mr. Cleveland. ushering in a more National era in finally came to look upon the part he
American politics, which would in time played in Mr. Cleveland's election. BURCHARD PREDICTED COLLAPSE OF
displace the sectionalism of the decades The following is the substance of what
immediately following the Civil War. Dr. Burchard said to Chi Alpha at He next referred to the effect of that His truly wise remarks along that that Saturday-night meeting just be- Administration upon the general politi- line made a deep impression upon all fore the election of 1888.
cal development of the country. Be- the members of Chi Alpha. After Taking his text from Dr. Field's fore Mr. Cleveland's election it had thirty years Dr. Burchard's prophecy humorous reference to his epoch-making always been the “Solid North ” against has at last been fulfilled, for it is now
" phrase, Dr. Burchard then quoted those the "Solid South.” As an inevitable evident that the “ Solid South words of Holy Scripture, "Out of the result of that sectional division of par- been broken up for good.
intricate tangle of genealogy and relation
ships. The reader who perseveres, howT is said that this generation of novel natured, but who simply does not conceive ever, will be rewarded by as fine and readers devours everything but rethat “what they do.” and “what they say
penetrating a study of temperament and embers nothing. There is a vast crowd -“ they” meaning “ society”—can be dis
heredity as is often written—not “high
brow mediocre stories that sink quickly regarded. Between them hesitates the young
or philosophical, but dramatic, to oblivion. The competition among New Yorker, Archer ; he is bound by com
tense, and vivid. As with at least one riters seems to be for a merry life and a mitments to the girl of restricted nature,
other English novel of this season, the lort one for their literary progeny. All but longs for the woman of deeper and
British divorce law, for the broadening of e more credit, then, to those who do not stronger character. In the end the bonds
which there is now a strong agitation, suganufacture stories just to get a laugh or of convention and pledged honor prevail
, gests the situations. It is an amusing and thrill, but exercise their art as the older but the struggle is a passionate one and
curious turn that its provision which reamatists and poets did—to deal nobly leaves Archer disappointed and disillu
leaves Archer disappointed and disillu- quires an applicant for divorce to prove sionized.
that he or she has begged the recreant and seriously with the raw material of nature: passion, character and The play of social forces and individual spouse to return and condone, almost
blocks one divorce, while in another case onduct, motive and action, not forgetting striving is subtle and strong. Mrs. Wharle spice of humor and the stress of ton's new novel is in workmanship equal
it brings a repentant husband back from tuation. to her very best previous work. Indeed,
South America, much to the disgust of Three recent novels may be here pointed one is strongly inclined to declare this the his wife, who, despite her formal demand it with appreciation and thankfulness as best piece of American fiction of the pres
for restoration, had hoped never to see tamples that belong to literature, that ent season. Its qualities are not superficial ;
him again. its situation is led up to with admirable
Mr. Ernest Poole's “Blind” is by its -pay careful reading because they bear le marks of careful thinking and careful skill, so that the intensity of interest grad- plan debarred from a centralized situation
and unity of construction. It is truly “ a riting. They are not the only ones of the ually tightens and strengthens. In its reeason to merit this praise, but they are strained art as well as its clear-sightedness' story of these times,” but in the sense that ne and welcome specimens of a class by the book is finely wrought. In the give
the publishers indicate when they describe o means too numerous. and take of dialogue between the many
its narrator, Larry Hart, as one whó “ sits First in order and first in ability comes minor characters there is ample entertain
in the darkness that is his heritage from Irs. Edith Wharton's “ The Age of Inno
the Great War, who lives over again a ment. In its adequate dealing with a large ence.” The species of “innocence”
truly American career, covering forty years motif this is a book of far more than pre
of National growth and change, and peers ailing in New York's fashionable society ephemeral value. 1 a period now nearly half a century ago “Possession ” is the controlling passion adventurously into a future of tremendous ras the innocence of an artificial, conven- of Mr. Galsworthy's novel
. It controls, unborn forces, both good and evil.”' Larry onal, and dull society. It was a little
dominates, and dully obsesses the minds is naturally more or less of a reflex of Mi. efore the “Four Hundred” phrase inand action of most of the members of his
Poole's own experience as observer of ented by Ward McAllister obtained
social service and industrial wrongs, writer Forsyte family. Not alone possession of
vogue, ut there was already the idea of an exmoney and solidly invested property, but
of correspondence from Russia, Germany, lusiveness the lines of which were those of art works for their property value, of
and elsewhere abroad, ardent longer for f wealth, family connection, stiff social families as something appertaining to each
the coming of justice and fairness. Larry ntertainments, and patronage of the opera, Forsyte personage, of wives as personal
is blinded in the Great War, but the book's ather than those having relation to the belongings. The hardest-headed Forsyte
title is of moral rather than physical invorld of art, literature, brilliant talk, or of them all, Soames, the author tells us,
tent. Hope and faith in the future are shown ntellectual impulses. What was outside of “ collected” his second wife as he did pic
in his words : “In all the peoples of the his New York self-constituted circle was
earth there is a reserve of idealism, courtures. And Mr. Galsworthy, with a touch onsidered by it as dubious ; life and cul- of genius, shows us this same Forsyte at
age, devotion, and endurance, the presence abroad were practically unknown the very end of the story trying to conceal
of which we barely suspect, we who are so quantities. This time and the people and his disappointinent because this wife has tragically blind. A Russian engineer once etting for the story are described with borne him a daughter instead of the son
said: "We are beggars sitting on bags of ainstaking art, from Brown of Grace that he had longed for as the most im
gold. That is true of all humanity. And Church to the few great moguls whose portant of his personal possessions (he through the years that are coming the gold mile or frown made or unmade « social Înew she would have no other child'),
will appear to our opening eyes.' but
It must not be thought that the novel is as he looked at the child suddenly " the tanding.”. As a picture of the upper lasses in our metropolis as it stolidly sense of triumph and renewed possession
one of social propaganda alone. It has ficolidified itself in the decade or so after welled within him. By God, this, this tional vitality because of the variety and
realism of its shifting scenes, the good and he Civil War, the novel is curiously thing was his !" aptivating ; no
bad human qualities of its actors, its rapid one but Mrs. Wharton So, too, Soames felt toward his first ould have rendered the description so wife. He cared nothing for her after mar
movement, and its precision in description.
R. D. TOWNSEND. lelicately exact. There is irony behind riage except as an appendage to his pride t all, but not the bitterness of scorn or of possession. Revolted, she left him for :ontempt. It is an etching, not a cari
a man who did love her. Years after he rature. der led to institute the divorce proceed
THE NEW BOOKS Into this self-satisfied and self-centered ings which his pride had so far forbidden. group comes a Polish countess, an Ameri- It was solely that he might make another
Socialism in Thought and Action. By an girl who has made an unhappy márloveless marriage and add a son and heir
Harry W. Laidler, Ph.D. The Macmillan iage abroad. She is regarded with suspi
to his possessions. But, when he saw again Company, New York. Lion, and is received only when the one
this woman who despised him, there sprang Why does Socialism exist? Because of family whose social supremacy is almost up.
in him the sense of frustrated owner- economic and human waste and because of mperial takes her up. She is accustomed ship, and in a mad passion he tried in vain the inequality of wealth. Radical Socialists co 'free social interchange with writers, to regain possession. And so with otber aim at the breakdown of capitalism, at painters, and diplomats, to witty talk, to Forsytes; whether heavily or wildly, they class struggle, at collectivism. The very freedom from dulling conventionality. clung to what they had and built up a extreme radical effort in Russia has reContrasted with her is a charming young
family tradition of wealth, power, and sulted simply in a dictatorship by the prosociety girl who is loving and sweetselfish mastership.
letariat, a régime characterized by conser
These Forsytes are descended from or vative Socialists as devoid of any redeeming 1 The Age of Innocence. By Edith Wharton. survivors of those we met in Mr. Gals- feature. In the present volume the author D. Appleton & Co., New York.
worthy's “Man of Property." It is a shows what has taken place in Germany, In Chancery. By John Galsworthy. Charles
Austria, Hungary, Great Britain, France, Blind: A Story of These Times. By Ernest pages or so of this book are a regular Italy, and other countries, including our Poole. The Macmillan Company, New York. barbed-wire obstruction because of their own. He discusses the Socialist criticism of
serious drawback that the first dozen Scribner's Sons, New York.
HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY