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DECEMBER 15, 1920

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will and power of democracy to make SENATOR HARDING IN NNUAL MESSAGE and enforce just and equal laws; and,

PANAMA UPPORTED by his “third leg," second, by standing for right and jus- ENATOR HARDING by his trip to as he called his cane, President tice toward other nations, particularly Panama has performed a real serWilson, receiving committees of the weak.

vice to America. Of course he went to he House and Senate under the chair- The specific legislative recommenda- Panama as a Senator of the United nanship of Senator Lodge, was notified tions which he made for legislation he States upon recreation bent. But the n Monday, December 6, that Congress offered as a means for showing the overshadowing responsibility of his comad convened. Instead of responding “recuperative force of a great govern- ing office gave to his trip an aspect of y a visit to the Capitol in person, as ment of the people."

National importance. While he observed nas been his general custom, the Presi- Among these recommendations are a all the niceties of his present official ent, still physically weakened by his budget system, free from the Constitu- position, he was in truth really an erious illness, sent his Message on tional objection which led him to veto ambassador of the coming AdministraTuesday to be read, as the Messages the Budget Billat the last session of Con- tion to the sensitive little Republic f most other Presidents have been. gress ; rigid economy made necessary through whose territory passes the great

There is a pathetic interest in this by the fact that seven and a half billions Panama Canal. communication, inasmuch as it comes of war indebtedness matures within the Apparently Senator Harding found from one who within a few months next two and a half years and that the the authorities of this Republic diswas greeted throughout western Europe hundreds of millions of dollars paid to turbed over the fear that their soveras the spokesman of a new age and who the railways is a drain upon the eignty would ultimately be destroyed has since not only suffered physically . treasury ; revision of the tax laws by the encroachments of the United from illness but has seen his Adminis. particularly in the matter of simplifica- States. Reports from Panama indicate ration rejected and his party defeated tion ; measures for the relief and reha- that Senator Harding, without in any it the polls.

bilitation of the victims of the war; way transgressing the bounds of conOn the very day on which his Mes. laws for the control of storage of vention, did much to allay this fear sage was delivered came the news that food, and even for the labeling of and to help establish a more cordial che Norwegian Storthing's Committee storage food with price marks; a loan feeling in Panama towards America. iad awarded to him—the third Ameri- to Armenia to be expended by a com- One of the problems which will concan recipient, Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. mission to see that the money should front Mr. Harding's Administration is Root being the other two-the Nobel not go for revolutionary purposes; and the strengthening of the defenses of the Peace Prize.

the granting of independence to the Panama Canal. Absolutely necessary Quoting the sentence of Lincoln's, Philippines.

for the defense of the Canal is the - Let us have faith that right makes The President did not mention the possession and fortification by Amerinight, and in that faith let us do our League of Nations in his Message or can forces of Taboga Island, which lies luty as we understand it,” President express any condemnation of those who off the Pacific entrance of the Canal Wilson gave his tribute to the faith have opposed him.

some fifteen miles. Panama has hat won the war, and pronounced it to As in many other instances, the Presi- far refused to cede or lease this island De

“ the mission upon which democracy dent's statements of general principles to the United States. As a tangible came into the world.” He defined are likely to be accepted or rejected as result of Senator Harding's visit the lemocracy in the following sentence: they are applied to particular cases. It next Administration may find it easier Democracy is an assertion of the

is not certain exactly what the Presi. to secure the desired rights to this right of the individual to live and to dent had in mind in some of these gen- island in a manner acceptable to the be treated justly as against any at- eral statements, but his ability to phrase just pride of the Panama Government tempt on the part of any combination

his statements in persuasive language is and without creating ill feeling to react of individuals to make laws which will

evident in this Message, as in many overburden him or which will destroy

upon our whole relationship with Latin his equality among his fellows in the other of his utterances.

America. matter of right or privilege, and I It is doubtful whether Congress will think we all realize that the day has

agree with all his recommendations, SENATOR HARDING'S come when democracy is being put

VALEDICTORY though none of them, except perhaps its final test. upon

his recommendation of Philippine in- or the first time in American hisDeclaring that the Old World was dependence, partake of a partisan.char- tery the United States Senate, on suffering from a wanton rejection of

acter. On the subject of Philippine Monday, December 6, greeted one of the principles of democracy, leaving it independence the recommendation of its own members as President-elect. cu certain whether he referred to Bolsh

the President was made doubtless with- What circumstances and what tendenerism or to some other aspect of Euro- out expectation that his advice would cies in American thought have kept pean development, the President stated be followed, for that is a policy espe- the Senate from becoming a training that there were two ways by which the cially advocated by the Democratic ground for Presidents form a broad United States could lead in the attempt party, and after its defeat it does not subject for speculation and for study. . to make the spirit of democracy pre- seem likely that its policy on this sub- The precedent has now been broken. Tail: first, by giving an example of the ject will be followed by its opponents, Senator Harding, on his return from

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his trip to the Panama Canal Zone, short session of Congress that marks be passed at this short session. That

. went to the Capitol on the reassem- the close of a defeated party's Adminis- however, will not excuse Congress from bling of the Senate for the short ses- tration accomplishes little except the any failure to study the matter in comsion which ends on the 4th of next passage of the necessary appropriation, mittee so that when the Sixty-seventh March Those who have visited the bills for the ensuing fiscal year. There Congress is summoned in extra session Senate galleries know the quiet and is reason, however, for hoping that next spring the preparatory work of dignified informality in which Senators other measures of significance will now tax reform will have been completed. move into the Senate chamber from be debated, put into shape, and passed. the cloak-rooms and stroll out again. In the first place, on the opening

THE “OPEN DOOR” Senator Harding on this occasion ap- day the House Immigration Compeared as informally as other Senators mittee ordered an immediately favor- B.

AINBRIDGE COLBY, the present Sec gathering for the roll-call. He was able report on the bill introduced by retary of State, thus defines a greeted by applause from both the Representative Albert Johnson pro- principle animating the Government: galleries and from his fellow-Senators, hibiting immigration into the United It is of the utmost importance to the and, contrary to the usual procedure, States for a period of two years, the future peace of the world that alien those participating were not called to measure to become effective sixty days

territory, transferred as a result of the

war, should be held and adminorder by the presiding officer. after the enactment.

istered in such a way as to assure At the suggestion of Senator Lodge, Second, on the following day a reso

equal treatment to the commerce and the leader of the majority in the Senate, lution was reported to the Senate ask- to the citizens of all nations. Senator Harding, was asked to ad- ing for the revival of the War Finance On November 20 Mr. Colby replied dress the Senate. His speech was Corporation and the authorization of

to the note of August 9 from Earl very simple. It lacked both orator- action by the Federal Reserve Board, Curzon, British Foreign Secretary. ical display, on the one hand, and on both permitting the extension of liberal Lord Curzon hall discussed the equality the other all affectation of modesty. He credits to farmers. The present dis- of commercial treatment in Mesopo expressed his reluctance at leaving the tress existing among tbe farmers be- tamia. Sovereignty over Mesopotama Senate, and his personal preference for cause of their inability to market their

had been transferred by treaty from membership in it to any other office in products at prices equaling the cost of Turkey to the League of Nations, and the Republic. “I like the freedom,” he production and the inability of banks the League gave a mandate to Great said, “the association, the patriotic sense further to extend credit will cause Britain for its aclministration. Lori of responsibility which abides here." attention to be paid to this resolution,

Curzon maintained that the British He promised as President to be Third, there is the budget bill. It is

Government had refrained from el. mindful of the Senate's responsibilities, true that in the House of Representa- ploiting the oil resources of Mesopo but to be equally insistent about the tives the first act was a report concern- tamia ; instead it had conducted operaresponsibilities of the Executive. “Ouring the formation of the single Budget tions for purely military purposes under Governmental good fortune,” he ex- Committee authorized at the last session,

army supervision and at army expense. plained,“ does not lie in any surrender and this Committee will do much in

He declared that the resources were to at either end of the avenue, but in the co-ordinating the annual budget as sub

be secured to the people of the state to co-ordination and co-operation which mitted by the Secretary of the Treasury. be established there. becomes the two in a great and truly But when we consider the complicated Mr. Colby now inquires as to the representative popular government.” character of the budget submitted by

agreement entered into by the Powers He termed the alleged “Senatorial oli- Secretary Houston, the immediate ne

last April at San Remo (by which, of garchy" "a bit of highly imaginative cessity of having, not merely a Budget

the prospective oil output in Mesopo and harmless fiction.” He asked for the Committee, but a scientific budget sys- tamia, approximately half would go to co-operation of the members of the tem with its consequent clarification

Great Britain, a quarter to France, Senate on both sides of the house. and economy, is evident. Senator Smoot,

and a quarter to the future Arab state). Recognizing the right of the opposing an authority on finance, declares that

He asks how any “ equal treatment” party to be sometimes insistently a billion dollars can be taken out of

statement harmonizes with Lord Curwrong,” he expressed his hope for help- the Administration's estimates, and

zon's other statement that concessions fulness of the opposite side, which he Mr. Fordney, Chairman of the House under the former Turkish régime" still had found one of the sources of delight Ways and Means Committee, says that

remain in their pre-war position and in his past service in the Senate. he could“ go down the list of estimates

have yet to receive with the establishHe asked in particular that the and chop out a billion and a quarter, ment of the Arab state the equitable remaining three months of the present approximately, as unnecessary. consideration promised by his Majesty's Administration should be made by the In the next place, Congress may and Government"? Finally, he inquires House and the Senate “ fruitful rather should also repeal certain war legisla- concerning the statement that “any than wasteful months."

tion now obsolete. Many war-time laws, private company which may develop Among the signs of promise for better such as the Trading-with-the-Enemy the Mesopotamian oil fields shall be days ahead not the least is the partly Act, must continue in force until we are

under permanent British control." instinctive and partly deliberative in- formally at peace with Germany. But

He concludes as to these things: tent of Mr. Harding to foster in public Congress should provide that all possi

I have alluded to them in order to action the spirit of co-operation. ble restrictive legislation deemed nec

correct confusing inferences, liable to essary for the war be done away with, arise from certain departures, which I so that the Nation's trade and com

believe I discern in your Lordship's THE DUTY OF CONGRESS merce can be adjusted to actual peace

communication, from the underlying ENATOR HARDING's plea for a fruit- conditions.

principles of a mandate as evolved and

sought to be applied by the Allied and ful session of Congress was not at all Finally, there is the dreadful tax sit

Associated Powers to the territories a conventional request. Ordinarily the uation. Perhaps a tax measure cannot brought under their temporary do

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(A cartoon suggested by the murder of a schoolboy by Syndicalists. The crossed Vs in the pictures stand for Viva !)

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Turati, the Italian Socialist leader (quoting Dante to the radical extremists who are turning from the sun of Socialism to the specter

of Bolshevism and want), says: “Comradles, remember that he who leaves the old way for the new finds himself betrayed'

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the opinions of Mr. Lloyd Georg affirmed :

member of R SS

League unconditionally to join a

then retire the moment its fellow-men TIFLISO

bers delay to transform the League its bidding is not playing the gaine

Even “ La Nación,” one of the princ


pal papers of Argentina, declared the KERIVAN

position of the Argentine delegati ERZERUM

impossible, that it had become tBARAT ERZERUM

“champion of the German disaster
and had succeeded " in making us per

ticipants in that disaster."




Turkish treaty was signed at Sem
anticipating its destruction of the Tus

ish Empire, he undertook to rally the minion. ... This dominion will be to the note, the Germans tried another irreconcilables to his rebel standard. I wholly misconceived, not to say abused,

method of getting attention. This was opposition to the Government of Ct if there is even the slightest deviation from the spirit and the exclusive

to announce that they did not wish stantinople he established his own 6

purpose of trusteeship as strict as it is membership in a league where they ernment at Angora, in Asia Minor. 1 comprehensive.

would not be sympathetically received, proceeded to fight the troops sent of To the British contention that, as and that they were already aware of by the Government, and also the Britis

) we are not a member of the League,

the implacable opposition of certain of troops in the north of Asia Minor and therefore we cannot interfere, Mr.

the members ; at the same time they the Greek troops in the past. DixouColby contends that the United States, recognized that the League in order to fited by them, he attacked the Fruit as a participant in the war, cannot “be

be effective must be universal

-a peace

in the south with greater success e barred from the discussion of any of league pure and simple, not a league the Armenians in the east with 00 its consequences.' for the imposition of force.

plete success. He drove the Armenia's This excited still less interest. Hence, eastward out of Turkish Armenia

. whether instigated by Germany or not, chiefly the provinces of Erzerum, Bidik GERMANY AND THE LEAGUE

the coincidence is curious that the Ger- and Van. OF NATIONS

man conception of a peace league pure On the accompanying map, HE German Government has sent and simple, as against a league to en- shows these provinces, it may be note.

an official note to the Assembly of force the Versailles Treaty, should have that the most important Armenia the League of Nations, now in session been brought forward by a young dele- cities, whether of Turkey or Ruscia

. at Geneva. The Government declares gate from Argentina, Honorio Pueyr- bear the same names as the provinces

. that it no longer considers itself bound redon, spokesman of the delegation. The Armenians, fleeing into Russia to the clause of the Versailles Treaty His proposition was that all recognized Armenia (the provinces of Kars, Er by which it surrenders German col- governments should automatically be van, and Elizabethpol), were oppostala onies to the Allies. Its reason is that it considered members of the League. first by Russian Bolsheviki. It seemed has not been admitted to the League This the League rejected. Whereupon as if their condition was hopeless. We councils at any time, and consequently Señor Pueyrredon decided that he and starvation bad wiped out half de has taken no part in the allotment of would not attend any more meetings the former Armenian population

. the mandates for the colonies! If the and would leave Geneva. Doubtless he As their condition appealed to get German Government had a sense of thought that other delegations might eral sympathy, the Assembly invite humor, it might have noted that a follow his example. But none did. the Council of the League, which is al precedent condition of membership in Comment on this action is interest- in session at Geneva, to arrive at 21 the League, as laid down in the League ing. The German press threw off all understanding with the Powers with charter, prescribed that each state shall disguise. The " Deutsche Zeitung view to intrusting to a Power the ti give “effective guaranties of its sincere professed that other nations would soon

of taking necessary measures to 1? intention to observe its international follow “the example set by this honor- the Armenian slaughter. Assuring obligations.” Germany's record in this able and independent challenge to the that its proposal involved no repetitie respect is hardly impressive! Even if tyranny of Great Britain," and the

of the invitation to accept a mandat it were good, the Government might Berlin Tages-Zeitung" declared: for the administration of Armenia, the

tb have read that clause in the Versailles “The League now stands revealed in

Council thereupon offe:ed to Presidei Treaty by which Germany renounces all its nakedness. Millerand, Leygues, Wilson the opportunity of undertakir: in favor of the Allies all her rights and Lloyd George, Curzon, and the rest the special task proposed by the A-2 titles over her overseas possessions. can proclaim themselves an unholy alli

bly. The President accepted and The German colonies were not trans- ance for the prevention of the real re- plied: ferred to the League, but specifically to construction of the world."

I am without authorization to offer the Allies.

At the other extreme, the London

or employ the military forces of the As the Assembly paid no attention Chronicle," which g'enerally reflects United States. ... I am willing, hot.



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