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ver, upon assurances of the moral and iplomatic support of the principal Powers

... to use my good offices nd to proffer my personal mediation, arough a representative whom I may esignate, to end the hostilities now eing waged against the Armenian eople. Chere is nothing novel in the action President Wilson in agreeing to be nediator between Armenia and Tur· Mediation between warring nations not a new principle. It is a commonce of international relations, and is - dependent upon the existence of 7 world organization. President osevelt acted as mediator in bring

Japan and Russia together at the rtsmouth Conference. The only bear

the League of Nations has on this rco-Armenian mediation is that it s from the League that the request me to President Wilson. Mustapha, however, has lost no time

Wide World Photos making plain that he would not wel


IN THE RECENT ELECTIONS making in his favor of the Turkish

in their opinion, the victory amounted she did all along the line separating eaty. He emphasized this by conclud

to a ratification of those hostile acts. that part of Asia Minor inhabited by 3, as reported, an alliance with

" A new and unfavorable situation Greece from the part inhabited by nine at Moscow, which assures finan

was thus created, and with regard to Turks, a boundary assigned by the 1 and military help in restoring pre- it the Powers reserved to themselves Turkish Treaty. Even were this not so, r Turkish territory, in return for “complete liberty."

can Constantine do much in Asia Minor ich the Bolsheviki are to obtain

As this general warning did not seem if the farmers of Thessaly, who voted ilities for their propaganda in Tur

to alarm the Greeks greatly, the Powers for him and against Venizelos in the 9, Lenine and Mustapha pledging followed it by specifically announcingtwo November election, really voted so bey emselves to continue hostilities against things : first, that in the event of Con

cause they wanted the

army demobilized > Allies.

stantine's return they would withdraw and their sons brought back to get out

financial support from Greece, and, the crops ? CONSTANTINE A LUXURY

second, would reconsider territorial ad- And now Greece has had a December { A NECESSITY? justment.

election. As the November election THE Greek King Constantine was

As to the first, after the disastrous called for a decision between the issues - guilty of " hostile acts” during the

war with Turkey (1897) the Greeks of the “crowned Republic ” or the r, to quote from the recent note were saved by the so-called


very much crowned monarchy, so the ued by the British, French, and teeing Powers,” who in 1898 imposed a December election decided the particuJian Governments. Hence they were

Law of Control. Under it they estab- lar question as to whether Constantine painfully surprised” by his victory

lished at Athens, in direct relation to himself should return. By a mighty the Greek election in November ;

the Greek Minister of Finance, a finan- majority, Powers or no Powers, the cial commission of delegates represent

Greeks voted "Yes." For Constantine ing the Powers. To this commission this is apparently an immense triumph. were assigned, for payment on the inter- Personally popular and now a fairly est of the external debt, the revenues able general, he puts himself at the from salt, petroleum, and other monop

head of the Greeks, who resent foreign olies, the tobacco and other duties. The interference. present declaration means not only the But he must walk warily to avoid withdrawal of future foreign loans trespassing on the rights of the Guarfrom Greece, but also the withdrawal anteeing Powers, without whom there by the Powers of any authorization to

would have been no Greece. Can he Greece to issue new currency.

ever walk as acceptably as Venizelos As to territorial adjustment, Constan- did during the past few years? If not, tine-doubtless with the wish to curry

the Greeks may find their King, after favor with Great Britain declares, as all, a luxury and not a necessity. reported : “Greece is no traitor. We shall conquer Smyrna and be prepared ADMIRAL VON SCHEER'S to fight the Turks.” But Smyrna is con- GLORIOUS VICTORY quered already. Venizelos saw to that. HEN the battle of Jutland, in And he provided that Greece should which the High Sea Fleet of

not only be prepared to fight the Turks, Germany became engaged with the USTAPHA KEMAL, LEADER OF THE TURKISH

but that she should conquer them, as Grand Fleet of Great Britain, was







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ended, German war-vessels were back Corporation Counsel while Mr. Whit- convention of the Episcopal Church in their base behind their defenses and

ney was at the head of New York both of which Mr. Stetson was inte British war-vessels retained their privi- City's legal department. When Mr. ably to be seen, were conscious of ! lege of moving at will through the high Stetson left the Corporation Counsel's power in other directions. He seas. If we were to believe not only the office, his ability had attracted the at- graduated from Williams with the ca Germans but also some other narrators tention of another lawyer, Francis M. of 1867, along with Hamilton Wri of that event, we would accept this bat- Bangs, doubtless the leading man in Mabie, Henry Loomis Nelson, G tle as a great German victory. Admiral his profession in the metropolis until ernor Dole, of Hawaii, and Star von Scheer made a report concerning it the rise of James C. Carter and Joseph Hall, late of Clark University. I which has only recently been pub- H. Choate. The firm of Bangs and iams College has had no more real lished. As this report was made to the Stetson, succeeded by that of Stetson, efactor than Mr. Stetson, who gave Kaiser, it naturally does not understate Jennings, and Russell, became one of

Jennings, and Russell, became one of it unostentatiously not only great s the facts that seem favorable to Ger- the most generally known among law- of money but, what was far more yo many.

yers throughout the country because of cious, his time and counsel as true Even if we grant as verified all the the acumen and skill brought to cor- In the Episcopal Conventions claims that the Germans make in their poration work. Much important rail- Stetson's influence was equally evide: own favor, even if it is conceded that way litigation and industrial organiza- he it was who framed the canon a the British losses were much greater tion in America has been managed in marriage and divorce; for many ya than the German losses (Admiral von the office of the Stetson firm. Mr. he had been senior warden of 1 Scheer's report puts his own losses at Stetson himself was organizer of the

Church of the Incarnation of N. 60,000 tons and the British losses at United States Steel Corporation, and York City. A director in many els 169,000 tons), even if all the criticism from its inception was its general coun- tional and philanthropical societies

, E that has been made of the British sel. He was also general counsel for power was made doubly effectire strategy in the battle were to be ac- the Northern Pacific, the Erie, and the cause of the modesty of manner 12 cepted as justified, the facts remain Southern Railway Companies, the In- which it was exercised. that Great Britain retained control of ternational Mercantile Marine Comthe sea and that Germany failed to pany, and other large organizations. weaken that control in any particular. In the famous Tilden-Hayes contro

THE GREEKS AGAIN If there is any consolation for the versy Mr. Stetson served as counsel for supporters of a football team which is Mr. Tilden-he had been Governor

BEARING GIFTS beaten by a decisive score to count up Tilden's secretary at Albany. During

UST recently a harmless-lo the yards gained in rushing and in the interval between his terms as Presi

paragraph from Washington be punting and to discover thereby that dent Grover Cleveland became Mr.

been going the rounds of the pri the team with the smaller score gained Stetson's law partner. Perhaps more

of the country. Various organization: a greater number of yards, if there is than

other Mr. Stetson was the

including the American Constitutical any consolation to be found by the power behind the throne in the Cleve

League and the Maryland Lease supporters of a defeated Presidential land Administrations, especially the candidate in the moral victory secured

for State Defense, and incidenta second. When it was a question whether

the National Association Opposed a by those who cast their ballot for their the Government could maintain gold Woman Suffrage and the National de convictions though the ballots on the payments, he upheld the President in

sociation Opposed to Prohibition, other side outnumbered them, there remaining true to the Tilden traditions

remaining true to the Tilden traditions joined in a drive for a Federal ameu. may be consolation for the Germans in of anti-inflation and hard money.

ment to restore the rights of the pria the facts concerning the battle of Jut- Mr. Stetson's was a lifelong devotion land. But those who count victory on

ple” by taking away from legislature to the Tilden-Whitney-Cleveland Dethe football field by the score of the

the power hereafter to ratify Federal mocracy; he exhibited the rugged inde

amendments. Hereafter, they content game and who count victories in elec- pendence which distinguished it. For a State should be recorded for a Ful tions by the majority of the votes will instance, in the attempt to elect Mr. continue to believe that moral victories

éral amendment only after there is a Sheehan to the Senate in 1911 Mr. in war such as the Germans won at the Stetson declared :

favorable popular vote in the form ofa

referendum. battle of Jutland are not the kind of Though I may be one of those Demo- What could be more plausible

, dem victories which armies and navies are

crats who have . . . occasionally voted

ocratic, and alluring? Already certad designed to win.

the Republican ticket, I am also one
of those who have voted the Demo-

liberal organs of opinion
cratic ticket whenever permitted and

attracted by it. Witness the editoria A POWER BEHIND

allowed by the organization to do so view of the New York - Tribune." This THE THRONE

with self-respect.. I repudiate is the substance of it: There is a steal
absolutely the suggestion that a Demo-
crat, convinced that his party or his

drift towards more direct democrati
country will be injured by the adoption

action. If the people are to rule, mis name was not often in


head- of a certain course, is in honor bound should their rule filter through a legio lines. He sought no public office. He to vote for the adoption of that course lature ? was not what is known as a National

because of caucus and convention con-
trol. The strength and hope of the

If there is one thing in which til character.” Bui he was a real force in

party is in the adoption of principles

wisdom of the fathers in the Constitumaking Amcrica as we know it.

and candidates who will represent and

tion really shines, it is in the method He was a great lawyer and he had a command the willing spirit of the which they laid down for the adoption genius for making friends. This com

entire party and not in the coerced

of amendments. The Federal Constitu bination attracted the attention of the

statement of any of its members.

tion virtually provides for a referendum late William C. Whitney, who caused Mr. Stetson to be appointed Assistant

Those who have attended a Com- already by assembly and senatorial dis mencement at Williams College or a tricts in every State. Except in thum



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seem to be

FRANC this seventy-fifth year. His

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ses in which a les fature acts upon a the free use of the referendum would grace to the Americanism of those reederal amendment without an inter- some day become the urgent demand of sponsible for it. ning election of the legislators, the the apostles of reaction in this country America has had many similar viottle is fought on every vital issue can find justification for their fears in lations of its fundamental principles at efore the amendment comes to passage the present movement. The referendum the hands of Irish sympathizers within

the legislature at all. Thus the re- has its uses, but it should be employed the last few years. The official welcome nt Suffrage and Prohibition Amend. sparingly. It may be employed to good

sparingly. It may be employed to good which De Valera, the so-called Presients were determined in public opin- advantage as a club behind the door, dent of the Irish Republic, has received n in many hundreds of assembly and when in critical times representative at the hands of many American mayors natorial districts in every State in government fails the electorate. But as affords perhaps the most striking and e Union before these questions were a regular method of action upon statu- offensive example of a hyphenated nally determined in the legislatures of tory measures or Constitutional amend- Americanism as repugnant to American ne commonwealths.

ments, in advance of action by the traditions as anything which pro-GerAnd this method of piecemeal refer- legislature, it at first stirs the mind of

mans promoted in the days before we adum, here a little and there a little, the electorate to function impulsively, entered the war. De Valera, claiming ntil in a majority of these small and and if the process is continued too that he is waging war upon Great eighborly units a decision is reached, often the popular mind registers nega- Britain, has been using America as a a far safer and more sanely demo- tively on nearly everything, because it


base for his attacks upon a Power ratic method of obtaining the popular becomes wearied and does not under friendly to the United States. While ill upon vital issues than the proposed stand. This is the story of the referen- his misguided adherents have been lan of a single State-wide referendum dum in its flower, for example, in the dying on Irish soil, De Valera bas vioefore the legislature acts.

State of Oregon. Either result, the im- lated the hospitality of our shores by Nobody is afraid of the will of the pulsive or the negative, satisfies reac- uttering, at a safe distance of three people in America, provided it is the tion better than the calm, deliberate thousand miles from the scene of diseliberate will, arrived at after reflec- form of referendum now in the Federal order he is endeavoring to create, flamion and accurate information. The Constitution. Beware of the Greeks boyant pronunciamentos of a highly nethod of referendum by assembly and bearing gifts of freedom to the electo

bearing gifts of freedom to the electo- objectionable character. enatorial districts which the fathers rate !

We hope that the next Federal Adf the Constitution laid down has the

ministration will have the courage to creat merit of giving time for the

prevent Irish sympathizers from bepopular mind to adjust itself to true UNAMERICAN AMERI- traying the good name and faith of nformation and sound principle. It


America. ives time for the sifting out of mere ropagandism for or against an issue. N December 4, Mrs. MacSwiney,

FEAR t gives time for deliberate decision.

widow of Terence MacSwiney, Every thoughtful person is afraid

Uthe Lord Mayor of Cork, who JHE actor was speaking. “I had f the will of the people when it is an died from suicide by starvation in an a great fear the other night. I mpulsive and unreflective will. The English prison, arrived in the port of went on the stage and began proposed method of a single State-wide New York. She came on a British thinking of my line beyond the imme

a eferendum on Federal amendments has liner, and received during the voyage diate line, and for the life of me I could xactly this peril at the heart of it. It all the courtesy and consideration which not remember it. I thought softening cives no-opportunity for the sifting ont the officers of a steamship would natu- of the brain must be my approaching -f propaganda in small units like the rally extend to any passenger suffering doom. I had been working hard ; it assembly and senatorial districts, and from a personal grief which was at the was a long run we were having, and or the give and take of neighborly same time a matter of international my rôle was one of the most exacting -rguments extending over a considera- moment. She was met in the harbor by of my career. I am not so young as I le period of time. It gives only oppor- a police boat owned by New York City, was, and I saw, as in a terrible vision, unity for prejudice and impulse and carrying a large welcoming committee my family forced to earn their own misinformation and sentimentality and and flying the flags of America and of living through my sudden incompe-11 the baser factors which operate the so-called Irish Republic.

tence. No stage fright ever equaled my pon public opinion to do their damag- It is with no lack of sympathy for terror. Such a fear had never ng work.

the personal tragedy in Mrs. Mac- over me before. Why should it seize It is probable that some of these Swiney's life that The Outlook points me now ?" rganizations which are backing this out the gross impropriety involved in The Young-Old Philosopher was innnovation against the wisdom of the so employing a public vessel of an terested. “Your experience is a uniathers of the Constitution are hoping American municipality.


one, my dear sir,” he said. “We or an easy way back out of the suf- The impropriety consists in the fact all, at one time or another, know these rage and prohibition impasse in which that those who hoisted the Sinn Fein flag moments of anguish in whatever art we hey find themselves. But the practice did so not as Americans but as Irish- strive to express our poor selves. The 3 far more to be feared as a means of

It was no mere generous sympa

writer who wonders if he will ever be he general employment of the impul- thy with a foreign and down-trodden able to think of a plot beyond the Sve mass mind in America at a period people which prompted the act. It was story he is just finishing is in a similar n the history of the world when, above the deed of men who placed the advan- case with you. The painter who sees ll others, caution and reflection and tage of a foreign faction above those only blank canvases staring him in the dequate information are sheet anchors National interests confided to them for face in all the future years—how poign

protection and preservation. It was an ant, how sharp, is his anguish! The Those who have long contended that act of dissentious partisanship and a dis- minister often lies awake nights won




f democracy.


dering if his thoughts for sermons will not yet; and your exhausted brain cells last him his allotted span. We all rebel at the quick claim made upon suffer through these foolish, these need- them. You collapse. You think you're less fears.

going mad-or are due for a complete “ But the reason is very simple. You nervous breakdown at least. did not learn your part by committing Every one of us makes the mistake to memory the lines four speeches of worrying about a to-morrow which, ahead or even only one speech ahead. when it comes, is no more filled with You put it in your mind one speech at terror than to-day. Our training has a time. You played blocks with the been for this hour—the human mind manuscript. Then, in some moment cannot encompass that which doesn't when you are nervously tired, your exist. You might as well bother over active brain (because you are an artist) next spring's daffodils as to weep over races ahead, for all its weariness, and to-morrow morning's weather. tries to leap hurdles it was never meant “Oh, the hurdles we needlessly to encounter until it came to them. jump! There were those dark pessiYou suddenly wish to know something mists who prophesied that the recent that doesn't concern you in the least- World War would go on for thirty

years. Heaven knows it

was lumi enough, and had we been informed i the beginning of its duration perlap: few of us could have stood the strain But mercifully such facts are withheld from us, and the old wonder and beaut are coming back to life. The more goes her serene way though the guns a conflict roar, and peace, twenty hurdle beyond, waits for weary mankind.

“My ideas day after to-morrow wz not be those of this morning, so why waste my energy in a sad appraisal di a self that will be changed perhaps within the space of twenty-four hour

“One thing at a time—and happi ness. Glimpses ahead-terror! Tali your





all parts of the Empire-Greek, Arme-
nian, Anatolian, Syrian-still swarm
over Galata Bridge. But all this is out-

In reality it would be difficult to find
a capital of Europe where the war has
wrought so complete a change as in
that of the Ottoman Empire.


you enter






CATION It is the shadow of authority which remains to the Turk in his old capital; the real power rests in the Inter-Allied Commission, whose control is very real and is felt everywhere. When Galata from the old Galata Bridge, it is a British Tommy who is directing the traffic; if you sail up the Bosphorus, it is under French, Italian, and British guns. The real Turkish capital is Angora, where at last a national spirit has developed. Mustapha Kemal Pasha and hundred Turks were killed outright

. his party have accomplished what the

many wounded were taken to the Young Turks tried and failed to do waterside and dropped into the water twelve years ago, namely, to weld to- alive, and other atrocities perpetratel

gether the Turkish nation. Mustapha That the troops were given provocativa UTWARDLY Constantinople

Constantinople Kemal Pasha is not a brigand, as he cannot be questioned. Many of them seems much the same as before was pictured when the movement was had themselves been expelled from the war. The Sultan still

new, but, on the contrary, a patriot who their homes in Smyrna and the surthe Mosque on Fridays with the same is attempting to save his country from rounding country by these Turks, their display of troops, followed by the awed utter disruption.

places laid waste, and their mothers gaze

of the Mussulman and the curious The effort came into being as a pro- and wives ravished; and, moreover, the glances of the favored foreigners al- test against the Greek occupation of shooting was started not by the Greeks lowed to attend ; the howling dervishes Smyrna and its peaceful countryside, but by the Turks, who, concealed and the whirling dervishes still work with crops just ready to harvest, whose

the housetops, sniped the officers as themselves into frenzy of hypnotic through rail communication with Bag- the troops marched through the city trances to bring themselves into accord dad offered an opportunity for the with their guns unslung. with Allah ; the muezzins still call the shipment of its products to the East, as But the punishment was so horril faithful to prayer seven times daily. its water facilities did to the West. and the results so disastrous, with the from the multiple beautiful minarets; Whatever we may believe regarding crops trodden down and ruined. with Parliament still is held and laws are the destiny of the Greeks or the Turks the Bagdad Railway, their sole link with enacted and the Government has just as the guardians of the eastern Medi

the East, so destroyed that montb completed appointments for diplomatic terranean, there can be no doubt that would be required to re-establish posts after the resumption of relations the method of Greek occupation of through communication, besides the with Entente countries; throngs from Smyrna was a horrible mistake. Eight shocking loss of life, that the Kena

goes to

Wide World Photos


ty had little difficulty in getting fol-
ers to resist the breakup of their
pire. Many former Cabinet Minis-
fled from Constantinople to An-
a and joined the movement, and
n the recognized Turkish Govern-
at in Constantinople favored concil-
ry measures toward the Angora
vernment; and it was rumored that

Turks would refuse to sign the
th warrant of their Empire—the
ace Treaty.
t was then that the International
mmission stepped in, pressure was
ught to bear, a new Ministry favor-
e to the Entente came into power,
mal was repudiated, and Tewfik
a Pasha was sent to Paris at the
od of a commission to sign the
the cause which brought them into ent states. Arabia has broken


being is concerned. The dismember- and that Armenia in some form will But the question remains : Does the ment of their Empire is in process. The have an independent existence can nstantinople Government or that at western coast of Anatolia, including bardly be questioned. The Greeks are gora represent the Turkish nation Smyrna, the third most important port even now, as I write from Athens, day? In Constantinople I found of their empire, and Thrace, with its threatening to proceed to Angora itself. gment on that question among for- rich tobacco fields, estimated to be ca- And at the same time the Kemalist mers about evenly divided, and there pable, under improved methods of agri- movement itself is by no means dead. re not lacking Turks, old leaders culture, of raising sufficient revenue to Turks of all parties, with the exception w out of office, who, while taking no support the Government at Athens, have of the minority which clings to the ive part in the movement, were pri- gone to Greece. Syria, with Cilicia, is present Government, realize that their ely willing to admit to me that the already occupied by the French, and only hope as a nation lies in that movey hope for their nation lay in the Mesopotamia, with its rich oil fields, by ment. “Support the present Govern

. malist party.

the British. Azerbaijan and Georgia, ment," say the Entente, “and you shall That party has already lost, so far as in the Caucasus, have become independ- remain in Constantinople. Repudiate

our agreement, and the control at present operative in all but name will become complete.” A people numbering seven millions cannot be disposed of so easily.


A FIELD OF INTRIGUE The ideal solution as one sees it here in the East would have been for America to accept a mandate for the entire Ottoman Empire, administer justice to all of the many races impartially, introduce educational facilities as she has in the Philippines, and when the people had become sufficiently enlightened to decide their own fate, then, and not until then, to allow them so to do by plebiscites.

But America refuses to view this as the ideal solution, and the region about the Mediterranean remains, as it has been through the centuries, the field of intrigue for the Western Powers. No fair-minded outsider can wonder that the chief interest of France is the protection of the Ottoman debt, of Italy the acquiring of commercial advantages, of Britain the securing of the rich oil fields for driving her ships and the protection of the route to India.

Russia, that great potential power in this region, has yet to be reckoned with. It is not to be doubted that some time she will make another try for Constantinople, and when she does will she find in possession of this controlling position the Turk, the Greek, or one of the Western Powers at present exercising international control there?

(C) Underwood & Underwood


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