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International

BOY SCOUTS AT THE GRAVE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT Boy Scouts made a pilgrimage on November 26 to the grave of Theodore Roosevelt and placed wreaths and flowers on the grave, in remembrance of the great American who was once Honorary President of the Boy Scouts of America

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Underwouu & Underwood

THE CITY HALL OF CORK, IRELAND, THE SCENE OF SINN FEIN AGITATION
The Cork City Hall was set on fire recently, reports state, during the turbulence resulting from the Sinn Fein agita-

tion and the consequent reprisals

M

PRESIDENT MOTTA, OF SWITZERLAND, OPENING

THE SESSIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY OF THE LEAGUE

OF NATIONS

The Assembly of the League is in session at Geneva, Switzerland, and was appropriately opened by the President

of that Republic

(C) Keystone View Co.

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BY KAZUTAMI UKITA

DEAN OF THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, WASEDA UNIVERSITY, JAPAN

(C) Keystone View Co.
FOR FIVE DAYS JAPANESE YOUNG WOMEN CARRYING POSTERS PARADED THE STREETS IN A
DEMONSTRATION ON BEHALF OF IMPROVING THE SALARIES PAID WOMEN WORKERS. " THE
TASK OF ... EXTENDING INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY HAS NOW BECOME A NATIONAL ISSUE IN THE

FORM OF PROLETARIAN AGITATIONS AGAINST ECONOMIC DOMINATION"

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one. Until

HE most wonderful thing in mod

ern history is the tendency to

bind the world into only a hundred years ago there had been many worlds—Europe was the world to the Europeans ; China, Korea, and Japan were worlds by themselves. Mr. Kipling could say: Oh, East is East and West is West, and

never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at

God's great Judgment Seat. And the Orientals had regarded the white races as if they were different creatures, and called them“ Ijin,”

geoisie of Europe wrung power from the hands of the aristocrats. Under th Tokugawa feudalism the people wer divided into three classes: the feola lords, the Samurai (warriors), and tl. heimin (common people). The first to classes were the flowers of Nippon, and through the advantages of leisure a education, they formed the brains of the country. The last class was composed of farmers, artisans, and merchants, al being ignorant of affairs beyond their trades. When the external pressur forced Japan's door open and made i urgent that she should reconstruct us tional order, it was the Samurai clas who assumed the task and responsibility

. The Japanese people will forever che ish the memory of the glorious deeds it the Samurai, who with their coure and foresight led the nation safel through the dangerous labyrinth. I them the credit is due of having established the constitutional form of gor. ernment upon the crumbled mas of

feudalism, of establishing a system of meaning " different men.” But to-day, “

universal education, and of successfully thanks to the progress of science, inter: staving off the imperialistic strains fne

abroad.
relation between these worlds has be-
come so close as to form a composite
whole of all mankind.

DRUNK WITH SUCCESS
The immediate effect of the change Intoxicated, however, with the wine
has been the internationalization and cos- of brilliant success, the Samurai begal
mopolitanization of many hermit nations to abuse the power and prestige
and races, involving necessary internal worthily acquired by forming a case
reconstructions. The modern history of or bureaucracy, monopolizing in the
Japan has been precisely the history of own hands nearly all high posts of the
adjusting her peculiar philosophy, moral state and looking down upon the res
code, social order, national principles as subjects. The bureaucracy has been
and ideals, etc., with those of the exter- permeated with the spirit of militarism,
nal world. In so doing Japan has been due to the fact that it is com past?
unconsciously assimilating the spirit of of warriors and that its prestige
the Occidental liberalism which has chiefly lay in military prowess against
been the guiding force as well as the China and Russia. Accordingly, the
true basis of modern European history. internal as well as the external policies

Japan has tried to absorb only within of Japan came to wear the increasingly the last sixty years all that has been deeper color of militarism. To be sure, achieved in Europe through centuries there has existed since the time of the of hard toil. The attempt would have

Restoration a liberal school among the been futile had it not been for her de- Samurai opposing the militaristie termination and ability to realize the school. Okubo, the greatest statesnan ambition. The task was indeed a tre- modern Nippon has produced, was the mendously difficult one. First of all, foremost champion of the early liberal the time-honored social structure of school. His unfortunate premature feudalism had to be destroyed, and in death by assassination was an irreroits place must be erected a new social cable loss to Japan. Prince Ito resemedifice of constitutional government.

bled Okubo in political ideals, and it Then the Occidental modes of produc- is to him that Japan owes whatever tion and distribution of economic goods liberal elements there are in ber Das had to be adopted in place of handicraft tional system. There are to-day not a and primitive barter. And then there few influential statesmen who belong to remained the problem- classic prob- the school of Ito and who believe that lem- of harmonizing the initiative and the future welfare of the Empire lies in freedom of individuals with the prog

the democratization of the country his ress and welfare of the community. disparaging the influence of the mili

The accomplishment of the first of tary chieftains, and the number of these these innovations corresponded much statesmen is decidedly on the increas, with the revolution by which the bour- Yet so powerful has been the foothold

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the Yamagata school (military bu. ucracy) that it still continues to rule

country unhindered in the least. In the meantime another powerful tor has been working, a factor which stituted the second task of modern pan. It was an industrial revolution.

good or ill man must depend ditly upon the conditions of material ods. The awakening, therefore, of

world's modern civilization started h a complete revolution of economic tus. Europe entered the era of in. strialism and materialism during the

eteenth century. Its influence of urse reached Japan, and there brought out an industrial revolution similar character to the one which took place entury earlier in England. Handift gave way to factory manufacture 1 mechanical power was substituted beast and man power.

The whole nomic order of the Empire was restructed upon the model of the uropean system.

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(C) Keystone View Co.

A DEMONSTRATION FOR UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT CAN BE
DISTINGUISHED IN THE BACKGROUND BY THEIR WHITE SHIRT FRONTS. JINRIKSHAS
LINE THE FOREGROUND, “MANHOOD SUFFRAGE IS NOW BEYOND A POSSIBLE DOUBT”

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E DAY OF THE NOUVEAUX RICHES Perhaps a more significant result of dustrial revolution than these has been 2 change in the relative position of the monopolized by the bureaucrats. The of Japanese capitalism in so far as it Lsses of Japanese people. Bushido, the increasing dependence of the state upon relates to diplomacy. But no one can oral code of the mediæval aristocracy, money forces the Government to bow safely assert that it will not follow the st emphatically taught the baseness down before the money trusts. The in- example of Occidental capitalism in

material regard. Hence the mer- terests of business men being naturally the future and attempt to exploit the ants were to the Samurai what the

directed along the line of social and foreign resources at the cost of military ws were to the peoples of medieval industrial development, the military efforts. urope. Merchants were accordingly bureaucrats find it increasingly difficult Fortunately, however, the third task nced at the bottom of the feudal caste,

to squeeze money from the people for of Japan, that of extending individual worthy of the Samurai society. Even military expansion. Thus before the

military expansion. Thus before the liberty, has now become a national issue, this day most of the public officials rising forces of economic power the in- in the form of proletarian agitations gard the material or pecuniary con- tegrity of Japanese officialism for the against the economic domination of the eration as mean, and look upon busi- first time began to shake.

capitalists, which means that Japan has $ men with contempt. But the ad- The net gains of the “revolution,' made a short cut in social evolution, nt of industrialism and materialism though not yet fully reaped, will, when omitting entirely that phase of the capiadually made it impossible for any completed, resemble those of the bour- talistic imperialism which played a large 2 to uphold his dignity without geoisie revolution in Europe. Among rôle in the modern history of Europe. terial means. Family prestige and others will be the gradual freeing of No sooner had the victory of the ok have become no longer sufficient the governmental authorities from the Japanese bourgeoisie over the arisearn a living. Through the irony of trammels of militarists; renovation of e it turned out to be the despised the representative system, rendering its =rchants who vindicated their supe- operation more truly constitutional and r ability of successfully swimming democratic; readjustment of the system the oncoming waves of economic and spirit of national education, which uggles. The triumph of the bour- has been more or less militaristic; and pisie and the defeat of the Samurai the transformation of the spirit and

aristocrats have become complete method of Japanese diplomacy. Already ce the Great War, during which the status of women has been greatly ne their pockets were immensely fat improved, the educational system rened, while the very existence of the vised, and the franchise extended, uni. per classes was threatened by the ex- versal manhood suffrage now being -mely high cost of living.

considered. The most significant consequence of At this moment Japan is in the e ascendency of the bourgeoisie has throes of the danger which Karl Marx en the severe blow dealt to the mili- must be given credit for having first y bureaucracy. Unlike former days, pointed out. Militarism and capitalism en the brightest youths of the Em- have a peculiar affinity with each other, -e vied with one another for a career If the rising capitalism marries milithe army or navy or in the Govern- tarism, it will result in the rejuvenation ent, now the ablest graduates of uni- of the decaying military factor, the recsities compete with one another to sult of which will not only incur trouble ter successful business careers. Both with the neighboring peoples, but will nises of the Diet are filled with the finally doom the fate of her own. So eatest number of business men far it is fair to declare that there has ainst former times when they were been no trace of dishonor in the record

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as

" PRINCE ITO RESEMBLED OKUBO IN POLITI-1) CAL IDEALS, AND IT IS TO HIM THAT JAPAN, OWES WHATEVER LIBERAL ELEMENTS THERE

ARE IN HER NATIONAL SYSTEM"

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CAMPUS OF WASEDA UNIVERSITY, WHERE DR. UKITA, AUTHOR OF THIS ARTICLE, LEADER IN THE JAPANESE LIBERAL MOVEMENT,

IS DEAN OF THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

even

tocracy become apparent, than the up- toward wholesome directions. When liberalism grows only in a favore rise of the labor class began to dis- these oppressed people shall have ac- soil and environment. It is totally bore parage

the influence of capitalism. quired freedom and opportunity to de- less to endeavor to foster tender sproti Inspired by the world-wide movement of velop and enjoy their lives and have of freedom in an environment hosti: the working classes, the Japanese labor- succeeded in the acquisition of rights to their growth. Just as it is true

, a ers have awakened to the right and jus- to partake in the formation of national shown in this discussion, that the lilez tice of individuals and begun to demand and international policies of the Em- movement of modern Japan owes i the recognition of their humanity and

nd pire, the victory of Japanese liber ism source and direction—and the some share in the control of the indus- will be complete.

forms of expression—to the modern trial system. They have wisely perceived

liberal movement of Europe and the acquisition of political rights as an

THE FAILURE OF BUDDHISM America, it is also true that Jaana effective weapon, and their own We cannot, however, overlook the militarism had its source of stimoli in lightenment as the first prerequisite of a part which spiritual elements have to the prevalence of similar principles successful campaign. Through their play in the final success of liberalism. abroad. This being the case

, it r? untiring efforts the prompt establish- The spiritual life of the Japanese has be the fate of Occidental liberalis ment of manhood suffrage is now be- been in a state of sad confusion during which is going to determine the future yond a possible doubt. Through their the past decade or so, consequent on of Japanese liberalism. Herein lis costly agitation they have almost ac- the failure of Buddhism to take the the need of the world-wide union and quired (a bill is now being enacted) the lead in the ideal of the nation, on the co-operation of all the liberals of the right to organize labor unions, which sway of materialism, and on the yet world-union and co-operation for the will serve as a means to raise the stand- slight hold which the Christian influ- purpose of vindicating their principes ard of their living and intelligence. A ence has over the people. Herein lies and ideals by openly waging batta decidedly happy marriage has been ef- the vital phase, for the strengthening against the common enemies, both & fected between liberal thinkers of the of which the whole weight of the influ- home and abroad, and by putting country and the laboring classes. While ence of the liberal leaders of Nippon earnest efforts in realizing the good in it stimulates and enlightens the igno- must be thrown.

life which their principles profess to rant masses, it guides their movements It is almost needless to say that true bring about.

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THAT is the matter with my here of bad homes, but of a majority of spanked spanks his children constantly

homes, average homes, good homes. to be sure that they be not spoiled, as he This is the question which, In an appallingly large number of was; or the man who was often spanked in some form, I have to answer many cases the parents allow themselves to and never indulged swears vehemently times each year. I am in charge of the I

take their children for granted as a that his boy is going to have a mal small-boy department of a private day part of the scenery, and to look upon childhood, and discipline be hanged school in one of our large cities. I have their function of bringing up the chil- Still others have no plan at all; spank never yet found myself forced to say to dren as rather an incidental thing. Even when they are tired and cross, and isa parent, “Your boy is abnormal or when they are really devoted to the dulge when they are in good spirits

. subnormal.” But very often I have to task of bringing up their children, they Therefore often when the parent sara point out very serious defects in his go at it in an amateurish, unthinking

66 What is the matter with my bor? present state of mental efficiency. fashion. They for the most part follow the true answer would be, “He has not the plan that was followed with them, been brought up properly,” or “He las

, spanking frequently or spanking rarely, never learned to obey,' Most of the difficulties that children according to the number of spankings itiative has been crushed out of him by have in school are due to some neglect received by themselves in their own your iron discipline,

“You gire on the part of the parents, guardians, childhood. Or they revolt from their

.

him too much without making him work or teachers who have had a hand in own upbringing in an equally irrational for it, so that he thinks the worlal was their upbringing. I am not speaking fashion : the

who never

made for him,” or “You can't expect an

All his in

man

was

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