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International

BOY SCOUTS AT THE GRAVE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT Boy Scouts made a pilgrimage on November 26 to the grave of Theodore Roosevelt and placed wreaths and flowers on the grave, in remembrance of the great American who was once Honorary President of the Boy Scouts of America

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THE CITY HALL OF CORK, IRELAND, THE SCENE OF SINN FEIN AGITATION The Cork City Hall was set on fire recently, reports state, during the turbulence resulting from the Sinn Fein agitation and the consequent reprisals

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(C) Keystone View Co.

BY KAZUTAMI UKITA

DEAN OF THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, WASEDA UNIVERSITY, JAPAN

FOR FIVE DAYS JAPANESE YOUNG WOMEN CARRYING POSTERS PARADED THE STREETS IN A
DEMONSTRATION ON BEHALF OF IMPROVING THE SALARIES PAID WOMEN WORKERS.
"THE
TASK OF...
EXTENDING INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY HAS NOW BECOME A NATIONAL ISSUE IN THE
FORM OF PROLETARIAN AGITATIONS AGAINST ECONOMIC DOMINATION"

T

HE most wonderful thing in modern history is the tendency to bind the world into one. Until only a hundred years ago there had been many worlds-Europe was the world to the Europeans; China, Korea, and Japan were worlds by themselves. Mr. Kipling could say:

Oh, East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's great Judgment Seat. And the Orientals had regarded the white races as if they were different creatures, and called them "Ijin,"

OKUBO TOSHIMICHI, "THE GREATEST STATESMAN MODERN NIPPON HAS PRODUCED, WAS THE FOREMOST CHAMPION OF THE EARLY LIBERAL SCHOOL"

meaning "different men." But to-day, thanks to the progress of science, interrelation between these worlds has become so close as to form a composite whole of all mankind.

The immediate effect of the change has been the internationalization and cosmopolitanization of many hermit nations and races, involving necessary internal reconstructions. The modern history of Japan has been precisely the history of adjusting her peculiar philosophy, moral code, social order, national principles and ideals, etc., with those of the external world. In so doing Japan has been unconsciously assimilating the spirit of the Occidental liberalism which has been the guiding force as well as the true basis of modern European history.

Japan has tried to absorb only within the last sixty years all that has been achieved in Europe through centuries of hard toil. The attempt would have been futile had it not been for her determination and ability to realize the ambition. The task was indeed a tremendously difficult one. First of all, the time-honored social structure of feudalism had to be destroyed, and in its place must be erected a new social edifice of constitutional government. Then the Occidental modes of production and distribution of economic goods had to be adopted in place of handicraft and primitive barter. And then there remained the problem-classic problem of harmonizing the initiative and freedom of individuals with the progress and welfare of the community.

The accomplishment of the first of these innovations corresponded much with the revolution by which the bour

geoisie of Europe wrung power from th hands of the aristocrats. Under th Tokugawa feudalism the people wer divided into three classes: the fend lords, the Samurai (warriors), and th heimin (common people). The first t classes were the flowers of Nippon, and through the advantages of leisure an education, they formed the brains of th country. The last class was composer of farmers, artisans, and merchants, al being ignorant of affairs beyond the trades. When the external pressur forced Japan's door open and made i urgent that she should reconstruct m tional order, it was the Samurai clas who assumed the task and responsibility The Japanese people will forever cher ish the memory of the glorious deeds of the Samurai, who with their courag and foresight led the nation safe through the dangerous labyrinth. T them the credit is due of having estab lished the constitutional form of gor ernment upon the crumbled mass of feudalism, of establishing a system of universal education, and of successfully staving off the imperialistic strains from abroad.

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DRUNK WITH SUCCESS

Intoxicated, however, with the wine of brilliant success, the Samurai began to abuse the power and prestige s worthily acquired by forming a cas or bureaucracy, monopolizing in the own hands nearly all high posts of the state and looking down upon the rest as subjects. The bureaucracy has been permeated with the spirit of militarism, due to the fact that it is composed of warriors and that its prestige chiefly lay in military prowess against China and Russia. Accordingly, the internal as well as the external policies of Japan came to wear the increasingly deeper color of militarism. To be sure, there has existed since the time of the Restoration a liberal school the among Samurai opposing the militaristic school. Okubo, the greatest statesman modern Nippon has produced, foremost champion of the early liberal school. His unfortunate premature death by assassination was an irrevo cable loss to Japan. Prince Ito resem bled Okubo in political ideals, and it is to him that Japan owes whatever liberal elements there are in her n tional system. There are to-day not few influential statesmen who belong to the school of Ito and who believe that the future welfare of the Empire lies in the democratization of the country by disparaging the influence of the mili tary chieftains, and the number of these statesmen is decidedly on the increas Yet so powerful has been the foothold

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was the

the Yamagata school (military bu
ucracy) that it still continues to rule
country unhindered in the least.
In the meantime another powerful
tor has been working, a factor which
stituted the second task of modern
pan. It was an industrial revolution.
r good or ill man must depend di-
tly upon the conditions of material
ds. The awakening, therefore, of
world's modern civilization started.
h a complete revolution of economic
tus. Europe entered the era of in-
strialism and materialism during the
eteenth century. Its influence of
rse reached Japan, and there brought
out an industrial revolution similar
character to the one which took place
entury earlier in England. Handi-
ft gave way to factory manufacture
I mechanical power was substituted
beast and man power. The whole
nomic order of the Empire was re-
structed upon the model of the
ropean system.

E DAY OF THE NOUVEAUX RICHES

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Perhaps a more significant result of dustrial revolution than these has been e change in the relative position of the sses of Japanese people. Bushido, the ral code of the medieval aristocracy, ost emphatically taught the baseness material regard. Hence the merants were to the Samurai what the ws were to the peoples of mediæ val rope. Merchants were accordingly ced at the bottom of the feudal caste, worthy of the Samurai society. Even this day most of the public officials ard the material or pecuniary coneration as mean, and look upon busi8 men with contempt. But the adnt of industrialism and materialism adually made it impossible for any eto uphold his dignity without terial means. Family prestige and ak have become no longer sufficient earn a living. Through the irony of e it turned out to be the despised rchants who vindicated their superability of successfully swimming the oncoming waves of economic uggles. The triumph of the bourpisie and the defeat of the Samurai aristocrats have become complete ce the Great War, during which ne their pockets were immensely fated, while the very existence of the mer classes was threatened by the exmely high cost of living.

The most significant consequence of e ascendency of the bourgeoisie has en the severe blow dealt to the miliy bureaucracy. Unlike former days, en the brightest youths of the Eme vied with one another for a career the army or navy or in the Governent, now the ablest graduates of unisities compete with one another to ter successful business careers. Both uses of the Diet are filled with the eatest number of business men as ainst former times when they were

(C) Keystone View Co.

A DEMONSTRATION FOR UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT CAN BE
DISTINGUISHED IN THE BACKGROUND BY THEIR WHITE SHIRT FRONTS. JINRIKSHAS
LINE THE FOREGROUND. "MANHOOD SUFFRAGE IS NOW BEYOND A POSSIBLE DOUBT "

monopolized by the bureaucrats. The
increasing dependence of the state upon
money forces the Government to bow
down before the money trusts. The in-
terests of business men being naturally
directed along the line of social and
industrial development, the military
bureaucrats find it increasingly difficult
to squeeze money from the people for
military expansion. Thus before the
rising forces of economic power the in-
tegrity of Japanese officialism for the
first time began to shake.

The net gains of the "revolution,"
though not yet fully reaped, will, when
completed, resemble those of the bour-
geoisie revolution in Europe. Among
others will be the gradual freeing of
the governmental authorities from the
trammels of militarists; renovation of
the representative system, rendering its
operation more truly constitutional and
democratic; readjustment of the system
and spirit of national education, which
has been more or less militaristic; and
the transformation of the spirit and
method of Japanese diplomacy. Already
the status of women has been greatly
improved, the educational system re-
vised, and the franchise extended, uni-
versal manhood suffrage now being
considered.

At this moment Japan is in the throes of the danger which Karl Marx must be given credit for having first pointed out. Militarism and capitalism have a peculiar affinity with each other. If the rising capitalism marries militarism, it will result in the rejuvenation of the decaying military factor, the result of which will not only incur trouble with the neighboring peoples, but will finally doom the fate of her own. So far it is fair to declare that there has been no trace of dishonor in the record

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of Japanese capitalism in so far as it relates to diplomacy. But no one can safely assert that it will not follow the example of Occidental capitalism in the future and attempt to exploit the foreign resources at the cost of military efforts.

Fortunately, however, the third task of Japan, that of extending individual liberty, has now become a national issue, in the form of proletarian agitations against the economic domination of the capitalists, which means that Japan has made a short cut in social evolution, omitting entirely that phase of the capitalistic imperialism which played a large rôle in the modern history of Europe.

No sooner had the victory of the Japanese bourgeoisie over the aris

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"PRINCE ITO RESEMBLED OKUBO IN POLITI CAL IDEALS, AND IT IS TO HIM THAT JAPAN, OWES WHATEVER LIBERAL ELEMENTS THERE ARE IN HER NATIONAL SYSTEM"

!

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TT

CAMPUS OF WASEDA UNIVERSITY, WHERE DR. UKITA, AUTHOR OF THIS ARTICLE, LEADER IN THE JAPANESE LIBERAL MOVEMENT,

tocracy become apparent, than the uprise of the labor class began to disparage the influence of capitalism. Inspired by the world-wide movement of the working classes, the Japanese laborers have awakened to the right and justice of individuals and begun to demand the recognition of their humanity and some share in the control of the industrial system. They have wisely perceived the acquisition of political rights as an effective weapon, and their own lightenment as the first prerequisite of a successful campaign. Through their untiring efforts the prompt establishment of manhood suffrage is now beyond a possible doubt. Through their costly agitation they have almost acquired (a bill is now being enacted) the right to organize labor unions, which will serve as a means to raise the standard of their living and intelligence. A decidedly happy marriage has been effected between liberal thinkers of the country and the laboring classes. While it stimulates and enlightens the ignorant masses, it guides their movements

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liberalism grows only in a favora soil and environment. It is totally hope less to endeavor to foster tender spros of freedom in an environment hosti to their growth. Just as it is true,s shown in this discussion, that the liber movement of modern Japan owes i source and direction-and even th forms of expression-to the modern liberal movement of Europe and America, it is also true that Japanese militarism had its source of stimul in the prevalence of similar principle abroad. This being the case, it be the fate of Occidental liberalis which is going to determine the future of Japanese liberalism. Herein lies the need of the world-wide union and co-operation of all the liberals of the world-union and co-operation for t purpose of vindicating their princip and ideals by openly waging battle against the common enemies, both home and abroad, and by putting earnest efforts in realizing the good in life which their principles profess to bring about.

HAT is the matter with my boy?"

This is the question which, in some form, I have to answer many times each year. I am in charge of the small-boy department of a private day school in one of our large cities. I have never yet found myself forced to say to a parent, "Your boy is abnormal or subnormal." But very often I have to point out very serious defects in his present state of mental efficiency.

THE AMATEUR PARENT

Most of the difficulties that children have in school are due to some neglect on the part of the parents, guardians, or teachers who have had a hand in their upbringing. I am not speaking

BY HUBERT V. CORYELL here of bad homes, but of a majority of homes, average homes, good homes.

In an appallingly large number of cases the parents allow themselves to take their children for granted as a part of the scenery, and to look upon their function of bringing up the children as rather an incidental thing. Even when they are really devoted to the task of bringing up their children, they go at it in an amateurish, unthinking fashion. They for the most part follow the plan that was followed with them, spanking frequently or spanking rarely, according to the number of spankings received by themselves in their own childhood. Or they revolt from their own upbringing in an equally irrational fashion: the man who never was

spanked spanks his children constantly to be sure that they be not spoiled, as be was; or the man who was often spanked and never indulged swears vehemently that his boy is going to have a real childhood, and discipline be hanged! Still others have no plan at all; spank when they are tired and cross, and in dulge when they are in good spirits.

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Therefore often when the parent says "What is the matter with my boy?" the true answer would be, "He has not been brought up properly,' or "He has never learned to obey," or "All his initiative has been crushed out of him by your iron discipline," or "You give him too much without making him work for it, so that he thinks the world was made for him," or "You can't expect an

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