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THE CHECKER CHAMPION WINNING GAMES BLINDFOLDED
TERILY, the story of Rheims is the story of a resurrection, and the part that this little American Memorial Hospital has taken in it is very, very large. Immediately after the armistice the little band of hospital workers maintained on the front by our Women's Overseas Hospitals came back over the battle-line, establishing, in co-operation with the American Fund for French Wounded, relief stations for returning prisoners and the scattered inhabitants, who at once began flocking back to their shattered towns.
Following along the line, they came to the once rich and beautiful city of Rheims, now only heaps of rubbish and gaping walls. Here the celebrated champagne cellars had afforded not only a headquarters for the French troops but also shelter for a number of the inhabitants, and these, after the armistice, had come out to the light of day worn, half starved, and nerve-shattered, to find homes and possessions gone, families scattered or wiped out, and misery and confusion everywhere.
Dirty, weary, and footsore, they sought their home sites and patiently set about clearing the débris in the hope of finding at least a cellar fit for shelter. You can imagine what happened the unexploded shells and ammunition that were encountered and
ALL READY AND THE DOORS OPENED!
and later added to and known as the Hôpital Noël Caque.
It would be difficult to imagine this city without the American Memorial Hospital, and, realizing this, the Amer ican Fund for French Wounded has raised a fund to be devoted to the erection of a permanent hospital in Rheims as a memorial to our men who died in France. It will be a very small hospital, out of all propor tion to our wealth and greatness as a nation, and to our love and gratitude to those men; but it will be of far more use than a monument, and the city is very grateful. The pity of it is that the fund is not large enough to acquire the land on which to place the hospital. Each hospital bed is to be maintained in perpetuity by an endow ment made by a friend or relative of some young American who gave his life in France. How many mothers would be glad to contribute the land by making a thank-offering, according to their means, for the safe return of their sons! If you can imagine a popu lation of nearly 80,000, nine-tenths of whom are living in cellars, corners of shattered buildings, or temporary huts not much larger than those used in our streets for workmen's tools and shelters, you may have some idea of the Rheims of to-day and the staggering proposition this city faces with courage and even cheerfulness.
On June 1, 1920, the doors of the temporary quarters of the American Memorial Hospital at Rheims had been open one year. During that period 922
patients had been cared for in its wards and 12,920 in its clinics; 225 little ons and daughters of France had been born within its walls; and there had been only 20 deaths.
The gift of a layette is made to every new mother in the hospital, and t is pleasant to see these mothers departing for their homes with a good healthy baby and a neat little bundle containing all the wee things so necessary for the baby's health and comfort. For a French mother to be unable to rray her baby daintily is to her a daily recurring disaster. Since June 1, 100 more babies have been born in the hospital, making in all 325 births. If you want to see team-work," ought to spend a week at this hospi
ful outline can still be seen for miles. A corrugated galvanized roof, put on immediately after the armistice, has done much to hold its walls together. Unfortunately, some of its windows have had to be filled solidly with bricks so that services may be held in a chapel. Every scrap of broken carving has been tenderly preserved and is being put together with wonderful care and pre
al. Dr. Marie Louise Le Fort, an American of French parentage, is the Directrice. High and low greet her with gratitude and affection. She is conulted on all matters pertaining to the ity's health-and goodness knows how many others! She knows the people nd the language perfectly. Dr. Alice M. Flood, also of New York, is the house hysician and does all the medical work n the hospital and clinics, besides adainistering all finances. Dr. Ethel M. Grant, of Reading, near Boston, is the entist. For eight months she was the -nly dentist in Rheims. Mrs. Marie Dawson, of Washington, D. C., keeps ll records, receives all visitors, and ttends with admirable courtesy and fficiency to all executive office details. Although badly battered, the Catheral's towers and walls withstood all the errible bombardments, and its beauti
cision. St. Remy, another noted and older edifice, pitifully shattered, is receiving the same minute attention, as are all the other beautiful and historic buildings. The people waste no time in self-pity or recrimination. All classes patiently settle down to hard labor, deprivation, and untold discomforts without a murmur. France has been hurt, France is suffering, and the individual is submerged.
And they take such care of our graves! Near here are an old couple who devote every Sunday to this work. Although the man travels on a cork leg, as the result of his service in the Franco-Prussian War, these old people walk miles to the large American cemetery at Ville-en-Tardenois, or at Fismes, carrying flowers to lay on the graves (as they express it) "of the sons of fathers and mothers so far away." Countless others-men, women, and children-are doing likewise.
If we could do nothing else, I wish we could devise some some way of creating a fund large enough to assure the life of this "temporary" hospital until the permanent one is an established fact.
co-operative, it developed initiative and independence to a marked degree. Each one was encouraged to do the thing that he wanted most to do and the rest helped him in so far as they could.
In after years the members of this family became leaders in the comm nities in which they lived. They we known to be men and women of excel lent judgment and with an interest in the general welfare of the community which is only a very large family. Such men and women are the backbone of a successful democracy.
It is admitted that a democracy de velops and trains the individual while an autocracy dwarfs and represses the possibilities within. The parent who is autocratic, who says do this and do th because I say so, without appealing to the reason and judgment of the child can never create the ideal home, th one in which good citizens are mad The democratic home where the im dividual welfare and the general wel fare are given due consideration, wher conduct is the result of the appeal to reason, is as much the right of the child as a voice in his own government is the right of an adult. What is voting, any way, but an appeal to our judgme and our interest in the general welfare Responsibility is a powerful educator and the earlier this training is begun the better.
UCH is heard these days about Haiti and the necessity for a sweeping investigation of the sensational charges recently made by Major-General Barnett, former head of the Marine Corps. In fact, a Nava Board of Inquiry has lately been engaged in Haiti on such an investigation. The field for such an investigation is also ripe in Santo Domingo. The island, which is the home of the Haitians, is also the home of the Dominican Republic, monly known as Santo Domingo. The Spaniards in the early days of their settlement of Santo Domingo, which was the first permanent Christian settlement in the New World, referred to it in affectionate terms as La Cuna de America (the cradle of America). Our present military occupation extends to Santo Domingo, and somewhat similar charges have arisen in that country with reference to the unlawful, unwar ranted, and brutal treatment of the natives. The authority for that state ment is Archbishop Nouel, head of the
Church and at one time President of the Republic. His position and station in Santo Domingo correspond and are exactly analogous to those of Cardinal Mercier, of Belgium, who complained with pathetic but heroic vehemence against the conduct and action of the Germans. Cardinal Mercier's plea was heard around the world, but little or nothing is known about a similar plea made by the chief prelate of Santo Domingo.
Haiti occupies the western third of the island, with a dense population. A French patois is the spoken language. Santo Domingo has for its territory the eastern two-thirds of the island, with a sparse population, language Spanish. The land area is about twenty-five thousand square miles, practically equal to that of Ireland, and it would seem that there is much in common in the disturbed conditions prevailing in those two widely separated centers of unrest.
The American occupation of Haiti is officially justified by a treaty negotiated with that country in 1915, after Haiti was occupied by our military forces. Santo Domingo has been occupied forcibly since 1916. That small country, standing well within its rights, refused either to sanction or to grant a similar treaty along the lines laid down. by the United States authorities, and for that refusal it has paid the penalty by being denied its sovereignty-sovereignty gained as the outcome of two. successful revolutions, the first from Haiti in 1844, and subsequently reestablished when the Spanish authority was driven from the island some twenty years later. Thus Santo Domingo Santo Domingo gained her independence by resort to arms-in exactly the same manner that we obtained our independence from England during the reign of King George III. It is therefore permissible to argue that Haiti is estopped from denying the right of our occupation and the control that goes with it; but Santo Domingo certainly never surrendered her rights in the premises. Recently the State Department gave out a statement that "ninety per cent of the people of Santo Domingo favor the American occupation; only a few politicians are kicking at it." Such an official expression is palpably misleading, or, to be charitable, is to be excused on the ground of diplomatic license for extending the truth. Certainly no unfettered Dominican or well-posted foreigner in the island's affairs would indorse it. Blood is thicker than water the world over, and Dominicans cannot be blamed for entertaining exactly the same ideals about liberty and patriotism that Patrick Henry expounded to our forefathers. The great difficulty in this development is the lack of real interest on the part of the American people as to what should constitute our foreign policy toward people of the smaller nations of Central America and
THE HARBOR OF SANTO DOMINGO, THE CHIEF PORT OF THE ISLAND, TO WHICH THE CITY GAVE ITS NAME AND WHICH HAS BEEN CALLED "THE CRADLE OF AMERICA "
in the Caribbean. That policy should be a consistent one, at no time dependent upon a change of Administration at Washington. England, the greatest of colonizers and protectors of weak nations, doesn't alter her foreign policy and treatment of the small nations under her influence if the Conservatives happen to succeed the Liberals in power. Another phase to be considered is the regrettable tendency of our Government upon certain occasions to lose sight of the fact that missions such as we are now undertaking in Haiti and Santo Domingo constitute sacred trusts for which our officials must give an account of their stewardship, and their conduct while laboring among such wards should be most circumspecteven more so than if they were engaged at home. Fortunately, Secretary Root, when in charge of the State Department and directing our participation in the fiscal affairs of Santo Domingo in 1905 and the second occupation of Cuba, 1906-7, stressed this very phase in the timely and altruistic instructions which he gave to the various officials in charge of those important undertakings.
During recent years the administration of the Philippines officered and directed by Americans has been practically obliterated. The Filipinos, who never gained their independence from Spain, have been placed by us virtually in complete charge and direction of their country's affairs. On the other hand, we have gone into Santo Domingo and Haiti-both of which countries had gained their independence, one from Spain and the other from France-and have removed or suppressed the native control of affairs. Is that consistent with our own understanding of the Monroe Doctrine? That instrument notifies the world to keep hands off the notifies the world to keep hands off the
small nations of Latin America, and yet we have violated not only the spirit but the very vigor of that international guaranty which was supposed to protect the people who have now become its victims. It is quite true that there is work for Uncle Sam to do in the Caribbean and Central American states, but the methods employed at all times should be above and beyond justifiable criticism. What those countries need is a helping hand, but they do not crave the mailed fist. If our attitude is right, then we are entitled to and will receive their lasting gratitude. In other words, there is room and an opening for "mutual co-operation," which President Wilson declared to Latin America would be his constant aim.
It is true that there have been revolutions in Santo Domingo, some more severe than others, but revolutions with Dominicans were accepted by the people as a national pastime-just as bullfights prevail in Spain. As a general rule there were few casualties in fights growing out of these revolutions; the contending forces were not armed with modern means of warfare, and between the so-called engagements the rival factions often would fraternize. These revolutions did retard the growth and development of the country-that is freely admitted; but wasn't it their country, and doesn't it so remain to-day?
The United States is on record as recognizing in the most positive manner the sovereignty of Santo Domingo. This was done when it negotiated and ratified a treaty with the Dominican Republic in 1907, for treaty-making is the highest attribute of a people in their dealings internationally with another nation. In order to be consistent, and particularly in the very common knowledge of conditions which prevailed elsewhere, it is not out of